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Full text of "Report"

51 V.Y~ SEVENTH 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 




Maryland Room 
'•uveraity of Maryland LiW*r» 
College Park IVM f ~ 



DP $01 QMQllfl 



***** 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



ixty-Seventh Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1933 




THE MAURICE LEESER COMPANY 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



i IBKAKV UNIVERSITY OF MARX ' 

55990 



STATE OF MARYLAND 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

DR. HENRY M. FITZHUGH, President Westminster 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLENTZ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY _ Baltimore 

TASKER G. LOWNDES Cumberland 

J. H. CAULK KEMP, Jr St. Michaels 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COCK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON. Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

J. D. BLACKWELL Director of Vocational Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON (3 E. 25th St.) 

Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

J. K. COSGROVE (3 E. 25th St.) Assistant Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK (7 E. Mulberry St.) Supervisor of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT, (517 N. Charles St.) Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS... Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE.. Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY ..Stenographer 

ERNA OPITZ BENSON ^3 E. 25th St.) Stenographer 

LOUISA STORATH SCHWING Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Senior Clerk 

MARGARET WOODWARD. Junior Clerk 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

LIDA LEE TALL... Maryland State Normal School Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Normal School Frostburg 

WILLIAM J. HOLLOWAY Maryland State Normal School Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES... Maryland Normal School v for Colored Students) Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

2004 Lexington Building, Baltimore Md. 

JOHN M. DENNIS State Treasurer, Chairman and Treasurer 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM... Principal, Allegany County 

MARGARET BARKLEY Secretary 

FRANCES BELL ' Stenograhper 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1933-1934 



County 



Address 



County 



Address 



ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 
Winifred Greene, S. T 
L. Grace Shatzer, S. T. 



ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 



BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony, H. T.i 
Emma H. Boettner, S. T.2 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.2 
M. Annie Grace, S. T. 2 
Nellie Gray, S. T. 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T.3 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisors 



CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 



CAROLINE— Denton 

Edward M. Noble, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 



CARROLL — Westminster 
M. S. H. Unger, Supt. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 



CECIL— Elkton 



Howard T. Ruhl, Supt. 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 



CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, S. T. 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, S. T. 



FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt, Supt. 
Hal Lee T. Ott, H. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 
A. Drucilla Worthington, S. T 



GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne, S. T.4 
Flossie R. Skidmore, S. T. 

HARFORD— Bel Air, 

C. Milton Wright Supt. 
Mary L. Grau, S. T.s 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
Herbert C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 

KENT — Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High Schoo 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Catherine R. Green, H. T. 
Mary Kemp, S. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S — Centre ville 
Franklin D. Day, Sunt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S— Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young, S. T 

SOMERSET — Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, S. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

T. G. Pullen, Jr., Supt. 
William R. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford, H. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
M. Jeweil Swain, S. T. 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 



3 203 Burke Ave., Towson S. T. — Supervising Teacher 

1 Sparrows Point 4 Grantsville H. T. — Helping Teacher 

2 200 W. Saratoga St., Baltimore 5 Havre de Grace 



CONTENTS 

Page 



Letter of Transmittal 5 

Cooperation with the State Economy Program; Changes in Assessable Basis; 

Reductions in 1933-34 County Budgets and Tax Rates 7 

The 1932 County School Census of White Children 5-18 Years 14 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals, 

Long Absence , 19 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Survival, Non-Promctions, Overageness .. 31 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City.. 47 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turn- 
over, Experience 51 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries, Men Teaching 60 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 67 

Size of Schools and Consolidation 80 

Supervision 85 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 88 

Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Failures, Withdrawals, Teachers.. 103 
Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turnovei, Ex- 
rerience for Teachers in Junior, Senior-Junior, Regular and Senior High 

Schools; Sex of Teachers 116 

Number and Size of High Schools 126 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries 129 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, Health, 

Capital Outlay 136 

Supervision...- - 146 

Colored Schools: 

The 1932 County School Census of Colored Children 5-18 Years .. _ 149 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 152 
Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Survival, Non-Promotions, Overageness .. 159 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 169 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turn- 
over, Experience, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 175 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Rcsenwald 

Fund, Value of School Property 187 

Size of School, Physical Education, Health and Cleanliness Contests, 

P. T. A.'s 193 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds; Supervision .. 199 

Bowie Normal School 202 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 205 

Evening Schools, Vocational Rehabilitation 213 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil ' 217 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 227 

Transportation of Pupils. 230 

Capital Outlay, Bond Issues, Value of School Property 235 

1933-34 County Budgets; Number of Teachers and Teachers' Salaries, Oct., 

1933, and Reductions from Oct., 1932; Assessments; Tax Rates 244 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other than 

County Funds— White Schools 253 

County School Administration; Legislation of 1933; Certification of Teachers 

and Changes in Regulations 257 

The Maryland State Normal Schools— Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury 263 

The State Teachers' Retirement System 276 

1933 Expenditures and 1934 Appropriations for State School Purposes; Finan- 
cial Statements; Statistical Tables - 279 

Index : 334 



June 15, 1934. 

Honorable Albert C. Ritchie, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

My dear Governor Ritchie: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of 
Maryland, the sixth-seventh " annual report, covering all operations 
of the State Department of Education and the support, condition, 
progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for the 
school year ending in June, 1933, and considerable data for the cur- 
rent school year 1933-34 is herewith presented to you. 

Under your leadership the Maryland schools have come through 
the depression without the serious curtailments of the program of 
minimum essentials common in a number of the States. Our session 
has not been curtailed. Salaries have been reduced for a two-year 
period by the 1933 legislation, although in most counties the modest 
minimum salary schedules adopted by the Legislature in 1922 had 
been in effect. The classes of many teachers have been increased 
because vacancies due to resignation have not been filled or because 
increased enrollments have been cared for without the appointment 
of the teachers who would be added under normal conditions. The 
majority of the teachers and school officials have whole-heartedly 
contributed through reduced salaries and heavier teaching loads to 
the need of governmental economy in county and State. 

Expenditures for books and materials of instruction and for re- 
pairs have been curtailed. This type of economy can go on for a 
short period without bringing deterioration in instruction and 
buildings, but if continued, to remedy the ill effects in the long run 
will cost far more than the amount saved. The Maryland counties 
have always been economical in the books and materials provided 
and in the amount expended for repairs. 

In addition to reductions in levies and rates resulting from lower 
levies for salaries and other school purposes, the legislative session of 
1933 under your leadership extended the provision of State support 
so that all of the Maryland counties were able to reduce county taxa- 
tion for schools by amounts varying from 12 to 27 cents. Increased 
State aid was provided through the distribution to the counties of that 
part of $1,500,000 which meant a net increase in State aid for the 
sole purpose of reducing county taxation for schools. The legislation 
reducing from 67 cents to 47 cents the county tax for school current 
expenses required before a county is eligible to receive the State 
Equalization Fund has made it possible for every county sharing in 
the Equalization Fund to reduce its school current expense tax rate 
by 20 cents to carry the minimum State program. In the first part of 



5 



the report an analysis of the reduction in county school levies and tax 
rates is given, showing for each county how much is due to increased 
State aid, how much to reduction in amounts appropriated for salaries 
of teachers and school officials, and how much is due to curtailed ex- 
penses for books, materials of instruction, repairs, transportation, and 
other items. 

The progress shown in this report was made possible by the en- 
thusiastic cooperation received from all county teachers, clerks, 
attendance officers, supervisors, and superintendents, who have in 
most cases been given the whole-hearted moral and financial support 
of their patrons, county boards of education and county commis- 
sioners. The improvement would not have occurred without your 
splendid interest and that of the Legislature in the Maryland ed- 
ucation program. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry M. Fitzhugh, President. 
Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 
J. M. T. Finney 
Tasker G. Lowndes 
J. H. Caulk Kemp, Jr. 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary Treasurer. 

State Board of Education 



6 



COOPERATION WITH THE STATE ECONOMY PROGRAM 

The State Department of Education and the county school sys- 
tems have cooperated in the tax reduction program initiated by 
Governor Ritchie and carried out by the 1933 Legislature. 

After the close of the State's fiscal year ending September 30, 1933, 
the State Department of Education and the State Normal Schools 
returned to the State Treasury over $386,000 from the appropriations 
for the State Public School Budget for the year 1932-33. Every dollar 
the counties and Baltimore City were legally entitled to receive from 
State funds was paid. The saving of $386,000 was possible because 
practically none of the expansion of the school program originally 
provided for in the 1932-33 State Public School Budget was carried 
out; vacancies, especially in high schools, were left unfilled whenever 
classes could be taken care of by the remainder of the staff; and 
savings were made on new contracts for transportation. These 
economies were reflected in the smaller amounts distributed for high 
school aid and for the Equalization Fund and made possible the re- 
turn of funds to the State Treasury noted below. 

State Appropriations for 1932-33 Reverted to the State Treasury 



High School Aid..... $59,584.00 

Colored Industrial Fund 3,750.00 

Part Payment of Salaries of Officials. 8,920.00 

State Board of Education 327.70 

Vocational Education 8,804.15 

Educational Measurements 1,178.92 

Publications and Printing 2,145.12 

Examination and Certification of Teachers 2,041.67 

Extension Teaching 2,702.00 

Equalization Fund 270,221.42 

Vocational Rehabilitation 994.87 

State Department of Education 8,023.51 

Towson Normal School 13,471.19 

Frostburg Normal School 1,776.72 

Salisbury Normal School 44.51 

Bowie Normal School. 2,065.19 



Total $386,051.27 



The budget of the State Department of Education has been de- 
creased for 1933-34 by the elimination of three positions; viz., State 
Supervisor of High Schools, reducing the number of high school 
supervisors from three to two; State Supervisor of Music; and one 
stenographer. 

THE 1933 ASSESSABLE BASIS AND HOW IT CHANGED 

The latest figures furnished by the State Tax Commission on the 
1933 total assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses, together with the amount and per cent of change from 1932, 
are shown in Table 1. At the left half of the table the counties are 
arranged in the order of the per cent of decrease from 1932 to 1933, 
and at the right of the table in the order of the per cent of increase 



8 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in taxable basis. The total 1933 county taxable basis of $918,995,000 
is $4,710,000 or one half of one per cent less than in 1932. (See Table 
1.) 

Fourteen counties show decreases in 1933 taxable basis while nine 
counties increased their bases. Garrett County, in which the de- 
crease amounted to over $2,289,000, showed the largest per cent of 
decrease, 11.3. The per cent of reduction in Howard, Worcester, 
Somerset, and Allegany Counties ranged between 4.2 and 3 per cent. 
Allegany's reduction amounted to $2,397,000. In Queen Anne's, 
Dorchester, Caroline, Washington, and Frederick, the variation in 
per cent of reduction was from 2.1 to 1.2 per cent. Four counties — - 
Wicomico, Harford, Prince George's, and Montgomery — had in- 
creases over the 1932 assessable basis totalling between 2.4 and 1.2 
per cent. (See Table 1.) 

TABLE 1 

1933 Total Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 
Change from 1932 to 1933 

(Figures from State Tax Commission as of January 29, 1934) 



County 


1933 Basis 
at Full Rate 
for County 
Purposes in 
Thousands 
1 


Amount of 
Decrease 
from 1932 

2 


Per Cent 
of 

De- 
crease 
3 


Garrettt 


$17,953 


$2,289,237 


11 


.3 


Howard 


17,935 


779,938 


4 


.2 


Worcester \ 


20,190 


742,578 


3 


.6 


Somersetf 


11,568 


394,406 


3 


.3 


Allegany 


76,459 


2,396,721 


3 


.0 


Queen Anne'sf 


16,033 


344,314 


2 


.1 


Dorchesterf ... 


21,508 


436,336 


2 


.0 


Caroline! — 


14,549 


280,170 


1 


.9 


Washington .... 


72,600 


969,627 


1 


.3 


Frederick 


63,139 


788,767 


1 


.2 


Carroll+ 


36,030 


168,231 




.5 


Charleef - 


9,802 


48,818 




.5 


St . Mary'st.... 


8.660 


31,801 




.4 


Anne Arundelf 


48,953 


61,192 




.1 


TOTAL 










CColumns 










1 and 2). 


$435,379 


$9,732,136 






TOTAL 










(Columns 










4 and 5)..._ 


483,616 


*5,022,605 






Grand Total 
and Net 
Decrease. 


$918,995 


$4,709,531 


.5 



County 



1933 Basis 
at Full Rate 
for County 
Purposes in 
Thousands 
4 



Amount of 
Increase 
from 1932 



Per Cent 
of 
In- 
crease 
6 



Wicomicof „ 

Harford 

Pr. Geo 

Montgomery 
Calvertf 

Baltimore .. 

Kentf 

Cecil 

Talbot 



TOTAL 

(Columns 
4 and 5).... 



$27,661 
52,981 
65,264 
87,185 
5,704 

171,129 
16,208 
36,924 
20,560 



> 641,608 
1,202,437 
932,197 
1,030,490 
39,049 

965,676 
54,676 

105,193 
51,279 



$483,616 



$5,022,605 



* Deduct increase from decrease . 

t Receives Equalization Fund in 1933-34 . 



1933-34 COUNTY TAX RATES FOR SCHOOLS AND ALL PURPOSES 

The county tax rates in the first four columns of Ta bl e 188, page 252, 
are obtained by dividing the most recent county levy for schools (Table 
183, page 245) by the 1933 taxable basis, (Table 187, page 251 .) The 



1933 Assessable Basis; 1933-34 County Tax Rates and Levies 9 



counties are arranged in Table 188 in the order of their tax rates for 
school current expenses, as listed in column one. Tax rates for 
school current expenses vary from 61 cents in Allegany to 34 cents in 
Harford County. A few Equalization-Fund counties have rates 
slightly under 47 cents. The county commissioners in each of these 
counties have agreed to make available the additional funds needed 
to bring its levy to the required 47 cents. 

For debt service for schools the county tax rates vary between less 
than one cent and 21 cents. The levy for capital outlay for schools in 
ten counties ranges between less than one cent and 2^ cents. 

For the twenty-three counties as a group, school current expenses, 
capital outlay, and debt service together require a tax rate of 58 cents 
on the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes. 
The range is from 38 cents in Harford County to 823^ cents in Alle- 
gany. 

The total tax rate for all county purposes averages $1.17. Caroline 
taxed itself least, with 73 cents, while Anne Arundel has the highest 
rate, averaging $1.81. (See last column of Table 188, page 252.) 

Reductions in Levies and Tax Rates frDm 1932-33 to 1933-34 

Data for 1933-34, for total county levy, for school current expense 
levy, for total county tax rate, and for school current expense tax 
rate, together with reductions from 1932-33 are given in Table 2. 
The decreases are obtained by subtracting the figures for 1932-33 
; reported last year from the figures for 1933-34. 
< The 1933-34 total county levies for all purposes, $10,729,000, are 
$3,878,000 lower than for the year preceding. School current expense 
e* levies in the twenty-three counties for 1933-34 total $4,179,000, a 
decrease of $1,741,000 under the year preceding. The average county 
tax rate of $1.17 is 42 cents lower than in 1932-33, while the average 
S: school current expense rate of 46 cents is 19 cents less than the year 
r; before. (See Table 2.) 

The reductions from 1932-33 to 1933-34 in total county tax rates 
range between 25 cents and 65 cents. (See column six of Table 2.) 
3 The corresponding reductions in school current expense tax rates 
i vary from 13 cents to 27 cents. (See column eight of Table 2.) The 
§ reductions in county levies for roads and for county purposes other 
. than roads and schools explain the differences between the figures 
^2 which appear in columns six and eight of Ta ble 2. 

How Decreases in County Levies for Schools Were Effected 
The reduction of $1,741,199 in county school current expense levies 
shown in column four, Ta ble 2, came about partly through an increase 
in State aid, partly through decreases in salaries of teachers and school 
officials, partly by not filling vacancies, and partly by reductions in 
amounts appropriated for books, materials of instruction, repairs, 
transportation, and other maintenance purposes. 



10 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 2 



Total 1933-34 County and School Current Expense Levies and Tax Rates, With 

Reductions from 1932-33 





Total County Levy 


School 


Current 


Total County 


School 


Current 








Expense Levy 


Tax 


Rate 


Expense TaxRate 


County 




Reduction 




Reduction 




rteduct n 




Reduct'n 




1933-34 


from 


1933-34 


from 


1933-34 


from 


1933-34 


from 






1932-33 




1932-33 




1932-33 




1932-33 


Total 


















Counties 


ae$10,729 339 


$3,877,923 


$4,179,202 


$1,741,199 


$1 .17 


$ .42 


$ .46 


$ .19 


Allegany 


1,102,319 


198,618 


468,616 


229,385 


1 .20 


.30 


.61 


.27 


A. A.t*. 


874,824 


306,147 


292,491 


80,892 


cl .81 


.57 


.60 


.17 


Balto .f -- 


2,339,310 


561,001 


611,598 


261,550 


1 .18 


.32 


.36 


.16 


Calv * 


87,248 


27,661 


28,500 


9,371 


1 .50 


.50 


.50 


.17 


Caro .*. 


al57,550 


67,332 


70,000 


29,000 


.73 


.57 


.48 


.19 


Carr * 


531,953 


114,398 


194,195 


66,476 


1 .00 


.60 


.54 


.18 


Cecil 


352,790 


114,694 


154,415 


55,895 


!95 


!25 


.42 


.15 


Charles* .. 


98,214 


24,936 


45,225 


13,328 


1 .00 


.25 


b.46 


.13 


Dorch .* .. 


252,026 


147,713 


100,410 


46 089 


1 .05 


.65 


47 


.20 


Fred .J 


646,980 


190,374 


29l',104 


97^038 


.90 


.30 


!46 


.15 


Garrett* 


198,747 


133,699 


84,018 


51,576 


1 .06 


.54 


.47 


.20 


Harf .f 


482,241 


120,332 


179,500 


60,700 


.95 


.25 


.34 


.12 


Howard.... 


204,852 


94,341 


65,557 


44,287 


1 .00 


.49 


.37 


.22 


Kent* 


el91,993 


74,221 


75,774 


32.470 


.93 


.54 


.47 


.20 


Mont 


906,723 


581,339 


373,548 


110,756 


dl .04 


.49 


.43 


.13 


Prince 


















George's 


670,216 


239.289 


324,115 


159.665 


1 .08 


.41 


.50 


.26 


Q . A * ... 


141,650 


81,008 


76,048 


33,205 


.88 


.49 


.47 


.19 


St . M .* .. 


81,323 


47,074 


40,584 


17,381 


.94 


.55 


.47 


.20 


Som .* 


134,088 


71,339 


54,091 


23,122 


1 .00 


.60 


.47 


.18 


Talbot 


167,613 


123,514 


92,840 


46,809 


.78 


.57 


.45 


.23 


Wash . 


636,375 


279,070 


335,631 


173,320 


.85 


.35 


.46 


.23 


Wico .* .... 


273,698 


173,135 


126,757 


53,259 


.95 


.50 


.46 


.21 


Wore .* .. 


196,606 


106,688 


94,185 


45,625 


1 .00 


.45 


.47 


.20 



* Receives equalization fund in 1933-34 . 

t Figures for calendar year 1934 compared with calendar year 1933 . 
j Figures for calendar year 1931 compared with 1932-33 . 

a Excludes $70,000 for outstanding notes to carry items included in preceding levy . 
b Excludes receipts from Federal Government for Indian Head . 
c Average rate $1 .81; range $1 .39 to $2 .58 . 
d Average rate $1 .04; range $ .97 to $1 .65 . 

e Excludes $58,370 due on notes or on 1932-33 levy for which uncollected taxes are available . 

The State is distributing a new fund of $1,500,000 to the counties 
on the basis of the 1930 Federal census for use in reduction of taxa- 
tion. Because the school population is increasing faster in the counties 
than in Baltimore City, the share of the counties in the fund dis- 
tributed on the basis of census and attendance in 1933-34 is nearly 
$19,000 greater than in 1932-33. On the other hand, the State funds 
distributed to the counties in 1933-34 for the Equalization Fund, for 
part-payment of salaries of county school officials, and for vocational 
education are over $450,000 less than in 1932-33. The net increase in 
State aid to the county schools for 1933-34 is, therefore, $1,068,000, 
all of which is being used to reduce county tax rates. This provides 
sufficient State aid so that the minimum State program for school 
current expenses can be carried in Equalization-Fund counties on a 
county tax rate of 47 cents, a reduction of 20 cents under the 67 cents 



Decreases in County Levies and Tax Rates; How Effected 



11 



required for eleven years prior to the levy of 1933, and so that the 
Non-Equalization-Fund counties can reduce tax rates for school 
current expenses by amounts varying between 12 and 17 cents. 
(See column one, Table 3.) 

TABLE 3 

How the County School Levies for 1933-34 Are Reduced Under Those For 1932-33 



Reduction in County Levy for Schools 







Due to Reduction in 










Due to 














^Increase 


Appropri- 


Current 


School 


School 


School 


County 


in 


ation 


Expenses 


Current 


Debt 


Capital 




State 


for 


Other Than 


E xpenses 


Service 


Outlay 




A \ A 


Salaries 


Salaries 


Ut't<>J 








1 


2 


3 


4 


_ 
5 


6 


Total Counties.. 


$1,067,690 


$ 597,024 


$ 76,485 


$1,741,199 


$ +11,752 


$ 53,853 


All 


114 795 


73,088 


41,502 


229 385 


2 876 




Anne Arundel*.. 


56 652 


til 686 


tl2,554 


| OU f O J£i 


t+'soo 


t250 




227,786 


ta40,626 


t+6,862 


f261,550 


+AOA 

T4»4 


t+ 4,500 


Calvert* 


750 


7,633 


988 


9,371 


295 




Caroline*... 


-1,519 


19,184 


11,335 


29,000 


464 




Carroll* 


27,107 


36,893 


2,476 


66,476 


678 


37,534 


Cecil. 


44,027 


18,600 


+ 6,732 


55,895 


+ 375 


+ 268 


Charles* 


1,596 


11,317 


415 


13,328 


728 


+ 845 


Dorchester* 


10,173 


24,027 


11,889 


46,089 


+ 8,595 


Frederick..., 


94,416 


O c30,943 


°+28,321 


°97,038 


°4,260 


° + 4,696 


Garrett* 


-3,396 


39,188 


15,784 


51,576 


+ 60 


2,160 


Harford 


58,704 


1bl3,471 


t+11,475 


t60,700 


t625 


t9,500 


Howard 


27,005 


12,318 


4,964 


44,287 


135 


Kent* 


11,101 


14,984 


6,385 


32,470 


+ 3,225 




Montgomery .... 


92,863 


27,537 


+ 9,644 


110,756 


12,171 




Prince George's 


106,488 


48,949 


4,228 


159,665 


+ 3,563 


6,000 


Queen Anne's*.. 


12,252 


19,000 


1,953 


33,205 


+ 1,725 




St . Mary's* 


4,847 


8,303 


4,231 


17,381 


+ 2,777 




Somerset* 


-2,533 


20,630 


5,025 


23,122 


+ 2,303 


9,000 


Talbot 


31,185 


13,282 


2,342 


46,809 


40 


+82 


Washington 


116,118 


54,684 


2,518 


173,320 


+ 3,947 


+ 1,300 


Wicomico* 


23,182 


25,627 


4,450 


53,259 


90 


1,100 


Worcester* 


14,091 


25,054 


6,480 


45,625 


+ 7,538 



















* Receives equalization fund in 1934 . 

t Figures for calendar year 1934 compared with calendar year 1933 . 

j The new appropriation of $1,500,000 must be offset by the reduced allowance in the equaliza- 
tion fund, high school aid, and part -payment of salaries of officials . 

° Reduction in levy for calendar year 1934 under levy for year from July 1, 1932 to June 30, 1933 . 
a In addition salaries were reduced by $86,827 for the preceding calendar year 1933 . 
b In addition salaries were reduced by $6,000 for the preceding calendar year 1933 . 
c In addition salaries were reduced by $16,247 for the preceding school year 1932-33 . 

Salaries of teachers and school officials have been reduced in 
most cases by from ten to fifteen per cent in accordance with the 
plan set up for State employees and the legislation reducing the 
State minimum salary schedule for a two-year period. In a few Non- 
Equalization-Fund counties a flat ten per cent reduction was put 
into effect. It was possible to eliminate some positions which became 
vacant through resignation, either by increasing the size of other 
classes or by giving teachers a heavier teaching schedule. As a result 
of this policy and reductions in salaries, teachers are therefore con- 



12 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



tributing nearly $600,000 toward reduction in county school current 
expenses. In addition, the counties reduced the levy for school pur- 
poses other than salaries by over $76,000. (See columns two and 
three, Table 3.) 

The levy for school debt service shows increases in most counties, 
the levy for the twenty-three counties being greater by $11,750 in 
1933-34 than it was for 1932-33. In Carroll, Somerset, and Prince 
George's, the levy for school capital outlay shows a rathei large re- 
duction for 1933-34 under the year before. (See columns five and six, 
Table 3.) 

TABLE 4 

How the County School Tax Rates for 1933-34 Are Reduced Under Those For 

1932-33 



Amount of Reduction in County Tax Rates for Schools 







Due to Reduction in 














Due to 






School 








All 




Increase 


Appropri- 


Current 


Current 


School 


School 




School 


County 


in 


ation 


Expenses 


Expenses 


Debt 


Capital 




Purposes 




State 


for 


other than 


(1 + 2 + 3) 


Service 


Outlay 




(4 + 5 + 6) 




Aid 


Salaries 


Salaries 










1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




7 


Total Counties.. 


$ .114 


$ .064 


$ .008 


$ .186 


$+ .002 


$ .006 




$ .190 


Allegany 


.136 


.087 


.049 


.272 


+ .003 






.269 


Anne Arundel. .. 


.116 


t .024 


t.025 


t .165 


t+ .002 


t.ooi 




t.164 


Baltimore. 


.136 


ta.024 


t+ -004 


f.156 


t.002 


t+ .003 




t.155 


Calvert* 


.013 


.138 


.018 


.169 


.006 




.175 


Caroline* 


- .010 


.123 


.073 


.186 






.186 


Carroll* 


.074 


.100 


.007 


.181 


.002 


.104 




.287 


Cecil... 


.121 


.051 


+ .018 


.154 


+ .001 


+ .001 




.152 


Charles* 


.016 


.113 


.004 


.133 


.007 


+ .009 




.131 


Dorchester* 


.044 


.105 


.052 


.201 


+ .041 






.160 


Frederick 


.142 


°c .047 


°+ .043 


°.146 


°.005 


°+ .007 




°.144 


Garrett* 


- .013 


.153 


.062 


.202 


+ .001 


.011 




.212 


Harford 


.120 


fb .027 


t+ -023 


t.124 


t-002 


t .018 




t.144 


Howard. 


.135 


.061 


.025 


.221 


+ .002 






.219 


Kent* 


.069 


.093 


.040 


.202 


+ .019 






.183 


Montgomery 


.112 


.033 


+ .011 


.134 


.015 






.149 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's*.. 


.170 


.078 


.007 


.255 


+ .003 


.009 




.261 


.071 


.110 


.012 


.193 


+ .012 






.181 


St . Mary's* 


.055 


.095 


.048 


.198 


+ .032 






.166 


Somerset*... 


- .020 


.159 


.039 


.178 


+ .021 


.075 




.232 


Talbot 


.153 


.065 


.011 


.229 








.229 


Washington 


.154 


.073 


.003 


.230 


+ .007 


+ .002 




.221 


Wicomico* 


.090 


.100 


.017 


.207 


.003 


.004 




.214 


Worcester* 


.062 


.110 


.029 


.201 


+ .040 






.161 









* Receives equalization fund in 1934 . 

t Figures for calendar year 1934 compared with calendar year 1933 . 

° Reduction in tax rate for calendar year 1934 under tax rate for year from July 1, 1932 to June 
30, 1933 . 

a In addition the rate for salaries was reduced by $ .051 for the preceding calendar year 1933 . 
b In addition the rate for salaries was reduced by $ .001 for the preceding calendar year 1933 . 
c In addition the rate for salaries was reduced by $ .025 for the preceding school year 1932-33 . 

How Decreases in County Tax Rates for Schools Were Effected 

If the twenty-three counties are considered as a group, the increase 
in State aid represents on the average 11 cents on the county tax 
rate; the lower levies for salaries of teachers are making possible near- 



How Decreases in County School Tax Rates Were Effected 13 

ly 7 cents reduction in county tax rate; and the tax rate for school 
current expenses other than salaries is reduced by nearly one cent. 
The sum of these three items represents 19 cents, which is the aver- 
age reduction in the school current expense rate. In Equalization- 
Fund counties, a reduction of 20 cents is in effect. (See Table 4.) 

A summary of the factors bringing about a reduction in county 
school budgets follows. Through the increase in State aid obtained 
by reducing salaries of State officials and employees, and by de- 
creasing appropriations to all State institutions, the State has en- 
abled the counties to decrease county taxation for schools. Because 
of legislation decreasing the State minimum salary schedule, and 
salary reduction in counties paying above the minimum, teachers 
have contributed a considerable amount toward tax reduction. 
Expenditures for books, repairs, transportation, and other items 
of school maintenance have been brought to a minimum. In these 
ways an average reduction of 19 cents in the county school tax rate 
has been made possible through the cooperation of every teacher and 
school official in the State. 



THE 1932 SCHOOL CENSUS OF WHITE CHILDREN 

The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland counties 
in the fall of 1932 enumerated 196,698 white children of ages five to 
eighteen years. Since the corresponding census in 1930 showed a 
population of 187,209 white children in these age groups, there was 
an increase of 9,489 in the two-year period. (See Table 5.) 

The enumeration is most nearly complete for ages five to fourteen 
years, and for each age group within these limits the county census 
included 13,049 to 15,987 white children. Twelve and eleven-year 
old children formed the largest age groups in the white census. It 
is difficult to be certain of the explanation or the significance of these 
figures, but the fact that there are in the counties more white children 
aged eleven and twelve years than in the younger age-groups where 
the numbers logically should be greater, if the birth rate is stationary 
or increasing, tends to strengthen the conclusion that in recent years 
the birth rate has been declining. (See Table 5.) 



TABLE 5 

Census of White Children Five and under 19 Years of Age Inclusive in 23 
Maryland Counties, November, 1932 



Age 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 1930 


187,209 


95,682 


91,527 


1932 


196,698 


100,505 


96,193 


18 


10,545 


5,520 


5,025 


17 


12,002 


6,187 


5,815 


16 


12,899 


6,584 


6,315 


15 


13,253 


6,809 


6,444 


14 


14,053 


7,122 


6,931 


13 


13,816 


7,105 


6,711 


12 


15,987 


8,068 


7,919 


11 


15,499 


7,902 


7,597 


10 


15,296 


7,740 


7,556 


9 


15,217 


7,693 


7,524 


8 


15,219 


7,833 


7,386 


7 


15,349 


7,854 


7,495 


6 


14,514 


7,476 


7,038 


5 


13,049 


6,612 


6,437 



The Division of Vital Statistics of the Bureau of the Census re- 
ports that the birth rate for a majority of the states for 1932 fell 
below 18 per 1,000 of population, the lowest on record. In 1915 the 
rate was over 25. The rate for 1932 is about 4 per cent below that 
for 1931. The effects of the depression have merely accelerated the 
downward trend in the number of births already noticeable in the 
decade before 1929. 

Comparison of Boys and Girls 

As in former enumerations, there are in every age group more white 
boys than girls. This is reflected in the public school enrollment, 
which in 1932 had more boys than girls in every grade from the first 



14 



The 1932 School Census of Md. County White Children 15 

through the first year in high school. In the last three years of the 
public high schools more girls than boys were enrolled, not because of 
a larger proportion of girls of high school age, but because more boys 
than girls withdraw from school. (See Table 5.) 

White Children Seven to Fifteen Years Old In and Out of School 

Of the 133,689 white county children of compulsory attendance 
ages, seven to fifteen years inclusive, 115,870, or 86.7 per cent, were 
enrolled in public schools; 11,196, or 8.4 per cent, had their instruc- 
tion in parochial and private schools; and the remaining 6,623 chil- 
dren, 4.9 per cent of the total, were not in any school in November, 
1932. The percentage in public school showed a gain over 1930. 

The new attendance law enacted in 1931 makes the ages of school 
attendance compulsory from the seventh to the sixteenth birthday. 
Children of fourteen and fifteen years who are regularly and law- 
fully employed are excused from school attendance. 

TABLE 6 



Number and Per Cent of White Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, 
November, 1932 







NUMBER 








PER CENT 








In Private 








In Private 




COUNTY 


In 


and 


In No 




In 


and 


In No 




Public 


Parochial 


School 


Total 


Public 


Parochial 


School 




School 


School 






School 


School 




Total and Average: 
















1930 


109,927 


11,047 


7,018 


127,992 


85.9 


8.6 


5.5 


1932 


115,870 


11,196 


6,623 


133,689 


86.7 


8.4 


4.9 


Prince George's „. 


... 9,234 


852 


198 


10,284 


89.8 


8.3 


1.9 


Montgomery 


7,206 


865 


174 


8,245 


87.4 


10.5 


2.1 


Talbot 


2,092 


33 


59 


2,184 


95.8 


1.5 


2.7 


Anne Arundel 


6,534 


484 


219 


7,237 


90.3 


6.7 


3.0 


Harford 


4,642 


241 


168 


5,051 


91.9 


4.8 


3.3 


Cecil 


3,625 


440 


151 


4,216 


86.0 


10.4 


3.6 


Howard 


2,276 


307 


116 


2,699 


84.3 


11.4 


4.3 


Garrett 


4,388 


74 


210 


4,672 


93.9 


1.6 


4.5 


Charles 


1,570 


290 


91 


1,951 


80.5 


14.8 


4.7 


Allegany 


12,586 


2,365 


759 


15,710 


80.1 


15.1 


4.8 


Caroline 


2,410 


17 


137 


2,564 


94.0 


.7 


5.3 


Queen Anne's ... 


1,875 


23 


109 


2,007 


93.4 


1.2 


5.4 


Baltimore 


17,166 


3,338 


1,178 


21,682 


79.2 


15.4 


5.4 


Carroll 


5,266 


258 


314 


5,838 


90.2 


4.4 


5.4 


Kent 


1,641 


33 


101 


1,775 


92.4 


1.9 


5.7 


Dorchester 


3,312 


8 


209 


3,529 


93.9 


.2 


5.9 


Washington. 

St. Mary's 


11,052 


61 


716 


11,829 


93.4 


.5 


6.1 


1,145 


944 


145 


2,234 


51.3 


42.2 


6.5 


Worcester 


2,506 


10 


181 


2,697 


92.9 


.4 


6.7 


Wicomico 


4,016 


52 


307 


4,375 


91.8 


1.2 


7.0 


Somerset 


2,519 


15 


214 


2,748 


91.7 


.5 


7.8 


Calvert 


896 




79 


975 


91.9 




8.1 


Frederick 


7,913 


486 


788 


9,187 


86.1 


5.3 


8.6 



The counties vary considerably in the percentage of white children 
of compulsory attendance ages, from seven to fifteen years inclusive, 
in public schools. In fourteen of the counties from 90 to nearly 96 
per cent of the white children of these ages are in public schools. 
But in St. Mary's County only 51 per cent, in Baltimore County 79 
per cent, and in Allegany and Charles just over 80 per cent are in 



16 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



public schools. The four counties just mentioned have the highest 
per cent of children in parochial and private schools. In St. Mary's 
42 per cent and in the other three counties close to 15 per cent of the 
white children of ages seven to fifteen years inclusive are in parochial 
and private schools. (See Chart 1 and Table 6.) 

CHART 1 



PER CENT OF WHITE CHILDREN OF AGES 7-15 YEARS, INCLUSIVE, 

ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1932 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



Total 

No. of % In 
County White public 

Children Schools 
!2 ta Av and 135.689 86.7 



Co. Av 

Pr. Geo. 
Mont. 
Talbot 
A. A. 

Harford 

Cecil 

Howard 

Garrett 

Charles 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Q. A. 

Baltimore 

Carroll 

Kent 

Dorch. 

Wash. 

St. M. 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Frederick 



10,284 
8,245 
2,184 
7,257 
5,051 
4,216 
2,699 
4,672 
1,951 

15,710 
2,564 
2,007 

21,682 
5,838 
1,775 
3,529 

11,829 
2,234 
2,697 
4,375 
2,748 
975 
9,187 



89.8 
87.4 
95.8 
90.3 
91.9 
86.0 
84.3 
93.9 
80.5 
80.1 
94.0 
93.4 
79.2 
90.2 
92.4 
93.9 
93.4 
51.3 
92.9 
91.8 
91.7 
91.9 
86.1 



% 

In No 
School 



% In Private 
and Parochial 
Schools i i 



m 8.4 




5:4 1 



54 HE! 



1.9 





.2 




EH 


1.5 








42.2 


mm 


D.4 




\ 70 







■6 EH 



County Children 7-15 Yrs. in Public, Non-public and No School 17 



The counties are ranked in Table 6 according to the per cent of 
white children of compulsory school attendance ages not in any 
school, the county with the smallest percentage being ranked first. 
The per cent of children out of school ranged from less than 3 per 
cent in three counties to over 8 per cent in two counties. (See Chart 
1 and Table 6.) 

The census enumeration indicates that all of the counties, except 
Talbot, Caroline, and Worcester, had more children of ages seven to 
fifteen years in public schools in 1932 than they had in 1930. The 
parochial and private school enrollment was lower in 1932 than in 
1930 in all of the counties, except Prince George's, Talbot, Harford, 
Charles, Howard, Baltimore, Garrett, Carroll, and Caroline. Only 
six counties, Talbot, Charles, Howard, Caroline, Wicomico, and 
Calvert, reported more children not in school in 1932 than in 1930. 

TABLE 7 

Defective White Children Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties, School Attendants 
and Non-School Attendants, Distributed by Type of Defect, for Children 7-15 
Years of Age, November, 1932 





School Attendants 


Non-School 


Attendants 


County 


Defective 


Defective 




Physically 


Mentally 


Physically 


Mentally 


Total, 1930 


722 


224 


395 


230 


1932.. 


775 


246 


444 


235 


Allegany 


69 


16 


38 


14 


Anne Arundel 






24 


5 


Baltimore... 


130 


36 


67 


35 


Calvert 


1 


1 


1 




Caroline 


10 


9 


8 


9 


Carroll * 


81 


30 


22 


13 


Cecil 


18 


5 


9 


6 


Chailes 


12 


8 


4 


2 


Dorchester 


12 


2 


14 


8 


Frederick 


70 


21 


40 


18 


Garrett 


55 


12 


35 


10 


Harford 


55 


7 


5 


9 


Howard 


17 


6 


4 


2 


Kent 


5 


1 


4 


5 


Montgomery 


53 


44 


29 


16 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


28 


3 


22 


12 


6 




2 


3 


St. Mary's 


37 


7 


4 


9 


Somerset 


7 


1 


12 


2 


Talbct 






12 


2 


Washington 


89 


16 


47 


26 


Wicomico 


11 


14 


26 


22 


Worcester 


9 


7 


15 


7 



18 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

White Children Not In School 

Of the 6,623 white children of ages seven to fifteen years not in 
school, 444 were physically and 235 were mentally defective, and 
3,016 were over fourteen years and employed. This means that 56 
per cent of those not attending school could be excused from attend- 
ance for legal reasons. Another 2,156, or 33 per cent, were over 
fourteen years old and not employed. This leaves 253 employed 
and 519 not employed, not defective, white children of ages seven to 
thirteen years, a total of 772, or 11 per cent of the children of com- 
pulsory attendance age not in school. Some of these children may 
have permission for private instruction at home, but the others 
should not be permitted to grow up without obtaining their chance 
for an education during the years when society has provided the 
opportunity for securing it. (See Tables 7 and 8.) 

TABLE 8 

Not Defective White Non-School Attendants Enumerated in 23 Maryland 
Counties, Distributed According to Employment and Age Groups 
November, 1932 





EMPLOYED 


NOT EMPLOYED 




Children 


of Ages 


Children 


of Ages 


County 






(7-13) 


(14-15) 


(7-13) 


(14-15) 


Total— 1930 


286 


3,408 


523 


2,175 


1932 


253 


3,016 


519 


2,156 


Allegany 


2 


232 


194 


279 


Anne Arundel 


4 


60 


22 


104 


Baltimore 


65 


502 


75 


434 


Calvert 


5 


31 


15 


27 


Caroline 


6 


75 


2 


37 


Carroll 


14 


171 


15 


79 


Cecil 


5 


51 


9 


71 


Charles 


6 


38. 


13 


28 


Dorchester 


14 


92 


18 


63 


Frederick 


56 


444 


50 


180 


Garrett 




93 


1 


71 


Harford 


2 


98 


13 


41 


Howard , 


7 


67 


2 


34 


Kent 




87 




5 


Montgomery.... 


3 


73 


14 


39 


Prince George's 




55 


2 


107 


Queen Anne's 


2 


50 


6 


46 


St. Mary's 


1 


49 


11 


71 


Somerset 


6 


73 


19 


102 


Talbot. 




22 


2 


21 


Washington 


22 


358 


34 


229 


Wicomico 


25 


212 


2 


20 


Worcester , 


8 


83 




68 











INCREASE IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



The county white elementary public school enrollment of 112,509 
showed a total increase of 1,139 over the 1932 figures. Thirteen of the 
counties had more white elementary school pupils than they had the 
year before, Montgomery and Prince George's showing the greatest 
gains. For the first time the Baltimore and Anne Arundel County 
white public elementary school enrollment was lower than it was the 
year before. In Anne Arundel this is probably due to the elimination 
of the eighth grade. (See Table 9.) 



TABLE 9 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Public 
Duplicates, For Years Ending July 31, 



Elementary Schools, 
1923, 1932 and 1933 



Excluding 



County 



Total Counties. 



Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Prince George's. 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel. .. 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Cecil 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



H06.069 

13,333 
11,107 
10,859 
6,421 
4,524 
8,505 
4,947 
5,902 
4,290 
5,373 
3,986 
3,405 



1932 



1933 



*111,370 *112,509 



17,753 
12,610 
11,323 
8,068 
7,163 
7,857 
6,868 
5,240 
4,427 
4,217 
3,785 
3,445 



17,737 
12,700 
11,458 
8,530 
7,827 
7,812 
6,762 
5,133 
4,407 
4,242 
3,805 
3,420 



County 


Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 




1923 


1932 


1933 


Dorchester 

Somerset 


3,432 
3,059 
2,984 
3,025 
2,241 
2,105 
2,101 
1,803 
1,748 
2,117 
1,060 


3,175 
2,391 
2,393 
2,279 
2,032 
1,951 
1,645 
1,536 
1,482 
1,043 
907 


3,199 
2,427 
2,346 
2,303 
2,128 
1,899 
1,742 
1,533 
1,527 
1,109 
869 


Worcester 


Caroline 

Howard 


Talbot 


Queen Anne's.... 
Charles 


Kent 


St. Mary's 

Calvert 




Baltimore City 


t*79,124 


t*78,069 


t*77,639 


State 


t*185,193 


t*189,439 


t*190 148 





* Total excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment in 
vocational schools. For enrollment in counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 285. 

If comparison is made with the 1923 enrollment, it will be found 
that only eight of the counties — Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, 
Prince George's, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Harford, and Cecil- 
had more white elementary pupils in public school in 1933 than they 
had ten years before. (See Table 9.) 

Baltimore City had a smaller 1933 white elementary school en- 
rollment, including an estimate for grades 7 and 8, than it had in 
1932 and 1923. In 1933 the counties enrolled 59 per cent of the 
State's white public elementary school children. This excess of 
34,870 in county white public school enrollment is partly explained 
by the preponderance of 21,494 in city over county children in 
parochial and private schools. 

. „ " , 1933 White Elementary Enrollment 

Type of School Counties Baltimore City 

Public 112,509 77,639 

Catholic. 9,532 30,614 

Private non Catholic 1,183 1 595 



TOTAL 123,224 



109,848 



For detailed data on enrollment in parochial and private schools, see Tables III to V 
pages 286 to 289. 

19 



20 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The excess for the counties is partly due to the fact that the num- 
ber of families having young children is greater in the counties than 
in the City. The figures below include both the white and colored. 

Per Cent of Families According to 1930 Federal 
Census Having Children Under 10 Years 
Families Having Counties Baltimore City 

No children under 10 years .._ 56.6 62.2 

1 child under 10 19.5 19.1 

2 children under 10 12.1 10.7 

3 children under 10 6.6 4.8 

4 or more under 10 5.3 3.2 

Total families 191,188 193,991 

Median size of families 3.59 3.38 

It will be noted that 62 per cent of the families in Baltimore have 
no children under 10, while this is the case for but 57 per cent of the 
county families. On the other hand, 24 per cent of the county families 
have 2 or more children under 10 as against 19 per cent in the City. 

Third, under normal conditions there are undoubtedly more op- 
portunities in the City than in the counties for remunerative work. 
This means that when children reach the age when employment 
certificates may be secured a larger proportion of City than of county 
children drop out of school before completion of the high school 
course. 

The counties have a larger child population than the City, a 
smaller enrollment in parochial and private schools, and the county 
schools hold their pupils in school longer than do the City schools. 
As a result the county public schools not only have to care for a larger 
public school enrollment than the city, but this school enrollment is 
spread out over an area of 9,862 square miles in contrast to the 79 
square miles for the City. 

LENGTH OF SESSION IN WHITE SCHOOL'S 

The county white schools on the lower Eastern Shore started their 
school year in the fall of 1932 on September 1, while Harford County 
schools did not open until September 13. The closing dates in 1933 
likewise were as early as May 31 in the three lower Eastern Shore 
counties, and the schools in Baltimore County kept open until June 
23. (See Table 10.) 

The session for the white schools varied in length from 180 days, 
the minimum required by law, in Calvert, to 192 days in Baltimore 
County. There was a decrease on the average of 1.6 days in the 
length of session for white county high schools and two tenths of a 
day for white county elementary schools for 1933 under 1932. (See 
Table 10.) 

There were only five county schools open fewer than 180 days, a 
much smaller number than for any year preceding. Three of these 
schools were in Calvert County and one each in Garrett and Fred- 
erick Counties. (See lable 11.) 



County and City Elementary Enrollment; Length of Session 21 

TABLE 10 

Length of Session in White Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



COUNTY 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . ... 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's.... 

St . Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City. 



School Year, 
1932-33 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/6 
>9/8 
9/12 
9/7 
9/5 
9/5 
9/7 
9/7 
9/7 
9/6 
9/6 
9/13 
9/6 
9/2 
9/4 
9/8 
9/12 
9/8 

°4 
9 4 

9/1 
9/6 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/16 

6/16 

6/23 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/16 

6/16 

6/16 

6/16 

6/16 

6/16 

6/9 

6/9 

5/31 

6/9 

6/9 

5/31 

5/31 

6/16 



COUNTY 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent.. 

Washington 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel... . 

Cecil 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Baltimore City... 

State Average 



Average Days in 
Session 





White 


White 


Elemen- 


High 


tary 


Schools 


Schools 


186 .4 


187 .7 


192 .0 


191 .9 


191 .5 


189 .7 


189 .0 


189 .3 


187 .9 


188 .5 


189 .8 


188 .2 


188 .0 


187 2 


187.0 


187.1 


185 .9 


186 .0 


187 .0 


185 '.9 


185 .8 


185.6 


185 .4 


185 .2 


184.1 


184.5 


184 .2 


184 .1 


181 .2 


183 .4 


184 .0 


183 .1 


184 .0 


183 .0 


183 .0 


182 .9 


182 .3 


182 .6 


181 .6 


182 .6 


181 .5 


182 .3 


182 .1 


182 .2 


181 .1 


181 .5 


180.4 


179 .7 


188 .0 


190 .0 


186.9 


188.0 



Annapolis and Glen Burnie opened 9/l5. 



TABLE 11 

Number of County White Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 
Year Ending July 31, 1933 



Days, 



For All Counties by Year 



For 1933 by County 



Year 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


County 


Total 
No. 


Having 
One 

Teacher 


1926 

1927 


124 

83 


109 
68 


15 
15 


Frederick..... 


1 


1 


1928 


33 


25 


8 


Garrett 


1 


1 


1929 


62 


45 


17 


Calvert 


3 




1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 


28 

12 

9 

5 


22 
7 
8 
2 


6 
5 
1 
3 









Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE HIGHER 

The attendance, 92.2 per cent of the average number belonging, 
was higher in county white elementary schools than for any year 
preceding. This was an increase of .8 of 1 per cent over the preceding 



22 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



year and of .6 of 1 per cent over two years preceding. All counties 
except seven shared in the increase. By comparing columns 1 and 4 

TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1931, 1932, and 1933 



County 1923 1931 1932 1933 

County Average.. 84.2 91.6 91.4 92.2 

Allegany .... 89 .0 *94 .0 *92 .3 *94 .1 

Prince George's ... 84 .9 92 .9 f93 .0 f93 .5 

Frederick 83 .6 92 .5 f91 .7 f93 .4 

Talbot 85 .8 92 .5 92 .1 92 .8 

Garrett 83 .9 92 .5 92 .4 92 .7 

Washington 84 .9 91 .5 *91 .3 *92 .7 

Anne Arundel 84 .5 90 .9 91 .8 92 .4 

Wicomico 86.5 91.5 91.8 92.4 

Kent 86 .7 90 .7 92 .8 92 .4 

Caroline 86 .5 93 .2 92 .5 92 .0 

Montgomery 81 .9 *91 .7 *91 .1 *91 .8 

Harford 84 .5 89 .9 90 .3 91 .8 



County 1923 

Cecil 84 .8 

Carroll 79.4 

St . Mary's 74 .5 

Baltimore 84 .0 

Howard 84 .0 

Worcester 83 .5 

Queen Anne's 85.4 

Somerset 83 .3 

Dorchester 81 .2 

Charles 79.5 

Calvert 79.9 

Baltimore City 89 .8 

Entire State 86 .7 



1931 1932 1933 



90.7 
90.6 

90 .2 

91 .0 
90.8 
89.5 
89 .8 
91 .6 
91 .4 
88 .3 
89.5 



91 .4 
89 .8 
92.5 
t90 .6 
90.4 
89.5 

91 .0 

92 .0 
91 .4 
90.6 
88.0 



91 .4 91 .2 
91 .6 91 .3 



91 .7 
91.6 
91 .4 
t91.3 
90.9 
90.7 

90 .6 
90.6 
90.1 
89 .9 
88 .6 

91 .1 
91 .7 



* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8 . 
t Includes Junior High School, Grade 7 . 

TABLE 13 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1932, and 1933, 



By Types of White Elementary Schools 



County 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 
1924 1932U933 



County 



Schools Having 
Two Teachers 
1924 1932U933 



County 



Graded Schools 
1924 1932U933 



County Aver 80 .9 90 .1 90 .4 

Anne Arundel....77 .6 90.4 94.8 

Talbot 87 .2 92 .9 94 .2 

Charles 77 .3 90 .9 94 .0 

Frederick.. 79.6 91 .4 93.7 

Kent 84.8 92.0 92.4 

Caroline 88 .3 90 .4 91 .9 

Prince George's 83 .3 90.9 91 .5 

Garrett 81 .2 91 .8 91 .4 

St . Mary's 79 .3 91 .6 91 .4 

Wicomico 83 .9 90 .6 91 .1 

Somerset 81 .7 91 .8 90 .4 

Harford 82 .7 89 .1 90 .4 

Washington 80 .1 87 .5 90 .2 

Carroll 78 .2 87 .9 89 .9 

Allegany 82 .9 88 .5 89 .9 

Cecil 81 .7 91 .1 89 .8 

Montgomery 78.1 89.4 89.5 

Baltimore 82 .3 90 .2 89 .1 

Calvert 77 .2 88 .9 88 .5 

Howard. 82 .5 89 .6 88 .4 

Queen Anne's ..82 .9 89 .0 88 .1 

Dorchester 81 .3 89 .9 87 .2 

Worcester 77.0 88.1 86.8 



County Aver . ..83 .9 91 .0 9 1 .9 County Aver 88 .3*91 .7*92 .5 

Allegany 88 .9 92 .7 95 .4 

Talbot 86 .7 93 .8 95 .1 

Garrett... 87 .7 92 .8 94 .2 

Anne Arundel .81 .9 92 .5 93 .9 
Cecil 86.5 93.1 93.8 

Wicomico. .. 86.3 92.2 93.5 

Prince George's85 .8 92 .9 92 .7 

Calvert 81 .7 91 .0 92 .5 

Somerset 83.3 93.8 92.4 

Kent 85 .8 93 .7 92 .2 

Caroline -87 .9 92 .3 92 .1 

Washington 80 .6 88 .4 91 .8 

Frederick 80 .3 90 .3 91 .6 

Harford 85 .6 89 .6 91 .6 

St . Mary's 81 .4 92 .9 91 .5 

Carroll 81 .4 90.3 91 .2 

Howard 81 .9 90 .0 91 .1 

Montgomery 80.5 90.0 91.0 

Baltimore 82 .5 89 .4 90 .4 

Queen Anne's....86 .5 91 .1 90 .1 

Charles 84.3 89.1 89.4 

Dorchester 86 .7 90 .7 87 .7 

Worcester 82 .6 85 .1 85 .8 



Allegany 92 .4*92 .5*94 .1 

Prince George's 89 .0J93 .2t93 .8 

Garrett... 89.9 92.9 93.7 

Frederick 86 .4191 .9t93 .6 

Washington 88 .8*92 .2*93 .1 

Wicomico 89.3 92.1 92.6 

Talbot 88 .5 91 .9 92 .5 

Kent 88 .3 92 .9 92 .4 

Anne Arundel 87 .9 91 .8 92 .3 

Harford 88 .9 90 .7 92 .2 

Montgomery 86 .3*91 .4*92 .1 

Howard 85 .8 91 .1 92 .1 

Caroline 89 .9 92 .8*92 .0 

Carroll 84 .3 90 .2 91 .9 

Cecil 87 .3 91 .0 91 .8 

Worcester 89 .3 90 .1 91 .8 

Baltimore 86 .2190 .8J91 .4 

Dorchester. 89.5 92.0 91.4 

Queen Anne's 88 .3 91 .7 91 .2 

St . Mary's 93 .3 91 .0 

Somerset 86 .7 91 .8 90 .3 

Charles 88.4 90.8 89.9 

Calvert 84 .9 87 .0 



* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8 . 
t Includes Junior High School, Grade 7 . 

t For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 291 



% of Attendance Annually and By Months in White Elementary Schools 23 

the very great increase in per cent of attendance over a ten-year 
period is evident. In the average county the difference between 
the percentages for the two years was 8. Among the individual 
counties the corresponding differences over the ten-year period 
ranged between 5 and 17. (See Table 12.) 

All types of county white schools had a higher average percentage of 
attendance in 1933 than they had the year preceding. A few counties, 
however, had poorer attendance in all types of schools in 1933 than 
in 1932. This was the case in St. Mary's, Somerset, Queen Anne's, 
and Dorchester, and was true of the two-teacher and graded schools 
in Kent and Caroline. (See Table 13.) 

Monthly Enrollment Highest in November 

The county white elementary schools had their highest enrollment 
in November as was the case for the graded schools. In the one- 
teacher schools it was in October that the peak enrollment was found 
and in the two-teacher schools in December. (See Table 14.) 

In all types of schools the per cent of attendance was highest the 
first month of school, next highest the last month of school and low- 
est in December. (See Table 14.) 

With the exception of the two-teacher schools in June, the per 
cent of attendance in the county elementary schools in every month 
was lowest in one-teacher schools and highest in the graded schools. 
(See Table 14.) 

TABLE 14 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Schools by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1933 





AVERAGE NUMBER 


PER CENT OF 








BELONGING 




ATTENDANCE 




MONTH 


















All 




One- 


Two- 




All 


One- 


Two- 






Elementary 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Elementary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




105,917 




10,401 


11,114 


84,402 


96.6 


95.3 


96 .2 


96 .8 


October 


108,265 




10,755 


11,493 


86,017 


93.6 


91 .9 


93 .0 


93.9 


November 


108,513 




10,749 


11,545 


86,219 


92 .1 


90.3 


91 .7 


92 .4 




108,221 




10,734 


11,626 


85,861 


88.8 


86.7 


88 .4 


89 .1 


January 


108,175 




10,736 


11,578 


85,861 


90.6 


88.8 


90.0 


91 .0 


February 


107,853 




10,661 


11,508 


85,684 


90.6 


87.8 


90 .4 


90.9 


March 


107,402 




10,622 


11,507 


85,273 


91 .5 


90 .0 


91 .6 


91 .7 


April 


106,983 




10,526 


11,471 


84,986 


91 .6 


90.1 


91 .6 


91 .8 


May 


106,363 




10,439 


11,372 


84,552 


92.7 


91 .2 


92 .4 


92 .9 


June 


*87,186 




*7,966 


*9,350 


*69,870 


95.1 


94 .2 


95.5 


95.1 


Average for Year. 


107,472 




10,602 


11,415 


85,455 


92 .2 


90.4 


91 .9 


92.5 



* Four counties in which the schools close May 31, report no pupils enrolled in June . 



Fewer County Children Attend as Short a Time as 100 and 140 Days 
The number of children attending only 100 and 140 days was much 
lower than ever before, less than 5 per cent attending under 100 days, 
and 11 per cent attending fewer than 140 days. Although the one- 
teacher and two-teacher schools have made remarkable improvement 



24 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



since 1924 m reducing the number of children who are absent a 
great portion of the year, they still show relatively greater absence 
than do the graded schools. (See Table 15.) 



TABLE 15 

County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days, for School 
Years Ending in June from 1924 to 1933 





present UNDER 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


year 


All Ele- 
mentary 


1 

One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 



NUMBER 



15,110 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


30,913 


12,684 


5,704 


12,343 


5,179 


2,180 


4,984 


26,497 


10,502 


4,776 


11,533 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


25,327 


9,359 


4,196 


10,382 


3,701 


1,572 


5,109 


22,513 


7,749 


3,579 


8,479 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


18,712 


5,989 


2,656 


8,692 


2,512 


1,337 


4,843 


19,985 


5,539 


3,121 


6,888 


1,566 


996 


4,326 


15,871 


3,883 


2,329 


5,825 


1,155 


717 


3,953 


13,631 


2,733 


1,717 


5,707 


874 


684 


4,149 


13,180 


2,126 


1,613 


5,045 


685 


550 


3,810 


11,933 


1,681 


1,393 



PER CENT 



23 .4 
19 .6 
17.8 
16.1 
13 .3 
13 .3 
9 .3 
7.7 
6.8 
6 .4 



15.6 
13 .2 
11 .9 
10.9 
8 .7 
9.6 
7.4 
5.8 
5.7 
4.8 



10.7 
8.5 



4 .4 



30.7 
26 .1 
24 .9 
21 .9 
18.2 
19 .3 
15.2 
12 .9 
12.3 
11 .0 



45.4 
39.7 
.1 
33 
28 
29 
23 
18 
16 
15 



33 .5 
29 .0 
26 .9 
24 .8 
19.7 
22 .5 
17 .2 
13 .8 
13 .4 
12 .0 



The counties varied greatly in the per cent of children present 
under 100 days. In Prince George's and Garrett, less than 2 per cent 
of the white elementary pupils were present so short a time, while in 
Montgomery and Calvert over 8 per cent of the pupils had less than 
five months of instruction. The per cent of white elementary pupils 
having less than 7 months' instruction varied from less than 8 per 
cent in Prince George's, Kent, and Garrett, to over 16 per cent in 
St. Mary's, Somerset, Charles, and Calvert. Since no attendance 
officer was employed in the last two counties mentioned, enforcement 
of the school attendance law was added to the duties of the superin- 
tendent who had little time to devote to this problem. (See Table 16.) 

Note that as many as 10 and 11 per cent of the pupils in one- 
and two-teacher schools of several counties and of the graded schools 
in Calvert attended school less than 5 months in 1933. (See Table 16.) 



White Elementary Pupils Attending Fewer Than 100 and 140 Days 25 



TABLE 16 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1933 





PER CENT OF PUPILS ATTENDING 




All Elementary 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


COUNTY 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


lata 1 Ml l m Hor 


5 045 


11,933 


685 


1,681 


550 


1,393 


3,810 


8,859 


County Aver. 


A tt 
4 .O 


11 o 


6 4 


15 7 


4 8 


l£ .u 


A A 
4 .4 


i n q 
iu .o 


Pr . George's 


1 .8 


6 .5 


2 .0 


10 .0 


1 .3 


8 .7 


1 .8 


6 .0 


Kent 


2.4 


7.3 


2 .6 


7.9 


2.5 


8 .6 


2.4 


6.7 


Garrett.... 


1.5 


7.6 


1 .5 


9.5 


.6 


5.6 


1 .6 


5.9 


Frederick .. 


2.3 


8.1 


2.9 


9.7 


2.6 


11 .3 


2.2 


7.6 


Allegany 


4.0 


8 .3 


8 .0 


16.7 


2.4 


4 .7 


4.0 


8 .2 


Caroline 


2 .9 


8.5 


3.3 


9.3 


2 .1 


6.7 


3.0 


8.7 


Harfnrd 


4 .1 


9.7 


8.2 


15.7 


3.3 


8.5 


3.2 


8.4 


Baltimore 


4.9 


10.2 


5.1 


15.7 


5.0 


12 .3 


4.9 


9.9 


Carroll 


3.8 


10.6 


6.3 


15.7 


4 .1 


10.7 


3.5 


10.0 


Washington .. 


5.3 


11 .8 


9.8 


19 .9 


7.8 


15.9 


4.4 


10 .2 


Wicomico .... 


5.1 


12 .1 


5.7 


13 .8 


3.8 


12 .0 


5.1 


11 .7 


Anne Arundel 


6 .4 


12 .7 


10.8 


15.7 


5 .0 


11 .5 


6.4 


12.8 


Talbot 


5 .1 


13 .1 


3.4 


11 .3 




2 .2 


5.4 


13.7 


Dorchester .. 


5.4 


13.7 


10.3 


22 .1 


6.2 


13 .7 


3.9 


11 .4 


Queen Anne's 


3 .4 


13 .9 


5.2 


18 .1 


5.4 


18 .3 


2.7 


12 .3 


Cecil 


6.7 


14 .3 


10.8 


23 .0 


6.8 


9.9 


5.2 


12 .3 


Worcester 


5.4 


14 .8 


8.0 


25.5 


11 .1 


30.7 


4.3 


11 .0 


Montgomery 


8 .2 


15 .0 


10.3 


20.7 


9.1 


17.2 


7.9 


14.3 


Howard 


7 .3 


15.7 


8.7 


18 .6 


5.9 


14 .7 


7.1 


14.6 


St . Mary's .. 


6.4 


16 .2 


6.5 


15.8 


5.7 


16.5 


8.2 


15.8 


Somerset 


5.7 


16.4 


6.4 


15.2 


2.2 


14 .7 


6.1 


17.1 


Charles 


6 .1 


17.7 






10.1 


19 .0 


5.4 


17.7 


Calvert 


8 .2 


21 .6 


5.6 

1 


22 .2 


4 .0 


11 .6 


10 .0 


25.6 



FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

The number and per cent of late entrants to white elementary 
schools showed a considerable reduction for 1933 under all preceding 
years. The only cause of late entrance showing no reduction was 
negligence or indifference, which remained the same for the years 
1932 and 1933. Employment as a cause of late entrance showed 
a reduction. The elimination by legislation of 1931 of the 100 day 
provision in the school attendance law by which children of ages 
13 to 16 years could postpone entrance to school to November 1 has 
probably helped bring children into school on time who formerly 
would have stayed out for employment. (See Table 17.) 

Late entrance due to every cause except illness or quarantine 
affects a greater proportion of pupils in one-teacher than in two- 
teacher schools, and in two-teacher than in graded schools. Two- 
teacher schools have the greatest percentage late in entering because 
of illness or quarantine. (See Table 17.) 

Four counties, Prince George's Dorchester, Worcester, and St. 
Mary's, had a greater percentage of pupils who entered school after 
the first month in 1933 over 1932 because of negligence or indifference 
or employment. The variation in per cent entering late for these 
causes was from .4 in the county having the least late entrance to 2.5 



26 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 17 

Causes of Late Entrance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending 

in June, 1924-1933 



entering after 
first month EX- 
CLUSIVE OF 
TRANSFERS 



Number 



Per Cent 



PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 
PUPILS ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE 
FIRST MONTH BECAUSE OF 



13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 



Negli- 




Under 


Illness 


gence or 


Just 


13 Years, 


or 


Indif- 


Moving 


Illegally 


Quaran- 


ference 


to Place 


Employed 


tine 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



1924 


11,792 


10.4 




3.5 


2.5 


1 .8 


1 .4 


1 .0 


.2 


1925 


9,297 


8.2 




2.8 


2.1 


1.6 


.8 


.7 


.2 


1926 


8,646 


7.6 




2.7 


1.6 


1 .3 


.8 


.7 


.5 


1927 


7,330 


6.4 




2.2 


1 .4 


1 .1 


.5 


.7 


.5 


1928 


5,534 


4.8 




1 .7 


1 .1 


.8 


.4 


.5 


.3 


1929 


6,227 


5.4 




1 .6 


1 .0 


1 .0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930 


4,240 


3.6 




1.2 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.5 


.2 


1931 


3,020 


2.6 




.8 


.7 


.5 


.1 


.3 


.2 


1932 


2,832 


2.4 




*.4 


.6 


.6 


t.2 


.5 


.1 


1933 


2,236 


1 .9 




*.3 


.6 


.4 


t.l 


.4 


.1 



ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



1924 


5,644 


17.5 


7.4 


3.5 


1 .9 


3 .0 


1 .4 




1925 


4,349 


14 .3 


6 .1 


3 .1 


1 .9 


2 .0 


.9 


.3 


1926 


3,854 


13.7 


6.2 


2.5 


1 .5 


1.9 


.9 


.7 


1927 


3,058 


11 .6 


5.0 


2 .3 


1 .2 


1.3 


.9 


.9 


1928 


2,178 


8.9 


4.2 


1 .7 


.9 


.9 


.6 


.6 


1929 


2,160 


9.9 


4.3 


1 .5 


1 .1 


.8 


.9 


1.3 


1930 


1,334 


6.9 


3.2 


1 .4 


.7 


.6 


.7 


.3 


1931 


805 


4.7 


1 .9 


1 .1 


.8 


.2 


.5 


.2 


1932 


586 


4.0 


*1 .1 


.9 


.7 


t.5 


.6 


.2 


1933 


367 


3.0 


*.6 


.8 


.5 


t.5 


.4 


.2 



TWO-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



1924 


2,183 


11.5 


3.9 


2.6 


1 .8 


1 .6 


1 .1 


.5 


1925 


1,725 


9.4 


3.2 


2.6 


1 .7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1926 


1,494 


8.6 


3.5 


1 .6 


1 .2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1927 


1,228 


7.6 


3 .1 


1 .6. 


.9 


.6 


.7 


.7 


1928 


896 


6.0 


2.1 


1 .6 


.9 


.4 


.5 


.5 


1929 


926 


6.0 


2.1 


1 .1 


1.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930 


710 


4 .7 


1 .8 


1 .1 


.8 


.3 


.4 


.3 


1931 


454 


3.3 


1 .1 


.8 


.6 


.3 


.3 


2 


1932 


373 


2.8 


*.5 


.6 


.7 


t.4 


.4 


.2 


1933 


278 


2.2 


*.4 


.6 


.4 


t-2 


.5 


.1 



GRADED SCHOOLS 



1924 


3,965 


6.4 


1 .4 


1 .8 


1.7 


.5 


.8 


.2 


1925 


3,223 


5 .0 


1 .0 


1.6 


1 .4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1926 


3,298 


4 .8 


1 .0 


1 .4 


1 .2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1927 


3,044 


4.2 


1 .0 


1 .0 


1 .1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1928 


2,460 


3.2 


.8 


.8 


.8 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1929 


3,141 


4 .0 


.8 


.9 


.9 


.2 


.6 


.6 
.2 


1930 


2,196 


2.7 


.7 


.7 


.5 


.2 


.4 


1931 


1,761 


2.0 


.5 


.6 


.4 


.1 


.3 


.1 


1932 


1,873 


2.1 


*.3 


.6 


.6 


t.l 


.4 


.1 


1933 


1,591 


1 .7 


*.2 


.6 


.4 


t.l 


.3 


.1 



* Fourteen years or more, employed . 
t Under 14 years, illegally employed . 



Late Entrants to White Elementary Schools 



27 



per cent of the total enrollment in the county which had the highest 
per cent of*pupils entering after the first month of school. No white 
elementary children in Kent County entered late for negligence 
or indifference, while this was the case for 1.9 per cent of the white 
elementary pupils in Calvert. Employment was given as the reason 
for late entrance foi as few as .1 of 1 per cent of the enrollment in 
Prince George's, Montgomery, and Baltimore, and as many as 1.4 
per cent of the enrollment in St. Mary's. (See Table 18.) 



TABLE 18 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or Neglect, 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1933 





Number and Per Cent Entering School After 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 




First Month for Following Reasons: 


After 


First Month for 














Following Reasons: 


COUNTY 
























Negli- 




Under 


Negli- 




Under 




Total 


Total 


gence 


14 Years 


14 Years 


gence 


14 Years 


14 Years, 




Number 


Per Cent 


or Indif- 


or More, 


Illegally 


or Indif- 


or More, 


Illegally 








ference 


Employed 


Employed 


ference 


Employed 


Employed 


County Aver . 


1,168 


1 .0 


.6 


.3 


.1 








Garrett 


17 


.4 


.1 


.3 


2 


12 


1 


PrinceGeorge's 


43 


.5 


.4 


.1 




8 


1 


2 


Cecil... 


18 


.5 


.3 


.1 


.1 


3 


4 


10 


Wicomico 


25 


.6 


.3 


.3 




4 


11 


3 


Montgomery.... 


50 


.6 


.5 


.1 




10 


5 


7 


Baltimore 


132 


.7 


.6 


.1 




13 


2 


4 


Anne Arundel 


52 


.7 


.5 


.2 




11 


7 


5 


Kent 


12 


.7 
.8 




.4 


.3 


1 


13 


20 


Frederick.... 


66 


.5 


.2 


.1 


9 


8 


12 
9 


Carroll 


48 


.9 


.4 


.4 


.1 


5 


17 


Allegany 


122 


.9 


.7 


.1 


.1 


18 


6 


8 


Howard 


23 


1 .0 


.8 


.2 




17 


9 


6 


Somerset 


26 


1 .0 


.8 


.1 


.1 


20 


3 


15 


Harford 


52 


1 .1 


.4 


.5 


.2 


7 


19 


18 


Dorchester .... 


40 


1 .2 


.4 


.4 


.4 


6 


15 


21 


Charles 


19 


1.2 


.7 


.4 


.1 


15 


14 


13 


Caroline 


33 


1 .4 


.7 


.5 


.2 


16 


18 


17 


Talbot 


32 


1 .6 


.7 


.8 


.1 


14 


23 


14 


Queen Anne's.. 


30 


1 .7 


.8 


.7 


.2 


19 


22 


16 


Worcester 


44 


1 .8 


.6 


.6 


.6 


12 


21 


22 


Washington .... 


235 


1.9 


1 .1 


.5 


.3 


22 


20 


19 


Calvert 


20 


2.3 


1 .9 


.3 


.1 


23 


10 


11 


St . Mary's 


29 


2 .5 


1 .1 


.4 


1 .0 


21 


16 


23 



WITHDRAWALS FOR PREVENTABLE CAUSES FEWER 

The number of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or com- 
mitment to institutions for white elementary schools was exactly the 
same as for the year preceding— 12,008, or 10 per cent of the enroll- 
ment. The percentage of these withdrawals was highest in one-teach- 
er schools and lowest in graded schools. 

Withdrawals for causes other than transfer, removal, death, or 
commitment to institutions were slightly below those for the pre- 
ceding year in number and per cent, but this was due chiefly to the 
fact that there was a substantial reduction in withdrawals for mental 



28 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

and physical incapacity and for children under or over compulsory 
attendance ages. There was an increase in withdrawals for employ- 

TABLE 19 

Causes of Withdrawal from County White Elementary Schools, for School Year 

Ending in June, 1933 





Number Leaving 


Per Cent Leaving 


Causes of Withdrawal 


All Ele- ! 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Removal, Transfer, • 
Death, Commitment 
to Institutions 


12,008 


1,603 


1,251 


9,154 


10.0 


13 .1 


9.8 


9.6 




Total Other Causes 


2,932 


358 


304 


2,270 


2 .4 


2.9 


2.4 


2 .4 


Employment 


1,098 

1,037 
352 
337 


157 


138 


803 


.9 


1.3 


1 .1 
.8 


.8 
.9 


Mental and Physical 
Incapacity 


85 


101 


851 


.8 


.7 


Under 7 or Over 16 
Poverty 


55 
48 


29 
29 


268 
260 
88 


.3 
.3 


.4 
.4 


.2 
.2 


.3 
.3 


Other Causes 


108 


13 


7 


.1 


.1 


.1 


.1 















TABLE 20 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending June 30, 1933 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 



Queen Anne's 

Howard 

Prince George's 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Baltimore.... 

Harford 

Anne Arundel.... 

Dorchester 

Garrett.... 

Montgomery 

Kent 

Talbot 

Charles 

Fredericks •„ 

Washington 

Caroline 

Allegany 

St . Mary's 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Worcester 



Baltimore City. 
State 



Withdrawals 
for Removal, 
Transfer, 
Death or 
Commitment 



No 



12,008 

242 
273 

1,118 
330 
514 
588 

1,889 
512 
801 
214 
478 
865 
182 
158 
70 
758 

1,183 
222 

1,111 
106 
159 
67 
168 

2,539 

14,547 



Per 
Cent 



10.0 

13 .4 
12 .3 
12 .6 

9 .3 
9 .6 

14 .4 
10.3 
11 .0 
11 .3 

6.4 
10.7 
10.6 
11.4 
8.0 
4 .5 
9 .2 
9.6 
9 .4 
8.3 
9.0 
6.4 
7.6 
7.0 



3.2 
7.3 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 



Total 
Num- 
ber 



2,932 

22 
28 

119 
56 
88 
74 

348 
90 

158 
75 

106 

215 
44 
55 
46 

254 

384 
75 

423 
38 
97 
35 

102 

3,637 
6,569 



Total 
Per 
Cent 



2 .4 

1 .2 
1 .3 
1 .3 
1 .6 
1 .6 
1 .8 
1 .9 

1 .9 

2 .2 

2 .3 
2.4 
2.6 
2.7 
2.8 

3 .0 
3 .1 
3 .1 
3.2 
3.2 
3 .2 
3.9 
4.0 
4.2 

4.6 

3 .3 



PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 



Em- 
ploy- 
ment 



1 
1 

1.6 
1 .3 
1 .6 
1 .2 

1 .3 

2 .1 
.8 

1 .7 

1 .0 



Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 



Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 



.8 

.4 
.5 
.7 
.7 
.5 
.7 
.8 
.6 
.8 
.6 
.8 
1 .4 
1 .3 
1 .4 
1 .2 
1 .3 
1 .0 
.7 
.8 
.7 
.9 
.9 
1 .1 

.9 

.9 



Pov- 
erty 



.1 

.3 


.1 


-i 




'.2 
.6 




.2 


.2 


.1 


.1 
.6 


.1 


.3 




.4 




.1 

.3 




.1 


.4 


.1 


.7 


.2 


.3 


.2 


.5 


.4 


2 .1 


.1 


1 .1 


.2 



Withdrawals and Long Absences from White Elementary Schools 29 



ment and because of poverty. The depression thus affected to a slight 
extent the continuance of children in school. (See Table 19.) 

The shifting of population which meant moving and transferring to 
another school affected over 12 per cent of the white elementary chil- 
dren in Wicomico, Queen Anne's, Prince George's, and Howard, while 
only slightly more than 4 per cent of the Charles County children 
withdrew for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to an in- 
stitution. (See Table 20.) 

Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, death or 
commitment varied from 1.2 to 4.2 per cent of the enrollment in the 
different counties. Employment was the cause of withdrawal for 
less than one-half of one per cent of the enrollment in Prince George's 
and Howard, whereas over one and a half per cent or more withdrew 
for this cause from Frederick, Caroline, Somerset, and Worcester. 
Over 1 per cent of the white elementary pupils in Worcester, Charles, 
Frederick, Kent, Talbot, and Montgomery withdrew because of 
mental and physical incapacity. (See Table 20.) 

FEWER CHILDREN ABSENT 40 DAYS OR MORE 

The per cent of white elementary pupils absent 40 days or more 
decreased considerably under the figures for the two preceding years. 
The only causes for long absence which showed increases were those 
due to bad weather and roads, and poverty, indifference, and neglect 
for two-teacher and graded schools. (See Table 21.) 



TABLE 21 

Per Cent of Pupils Absent 40 Days or More, With Cause of Absence, for School 
Year Ending June 30, 1933 











All White Ele- 




One- 


Two- 




mentary Schools 


Cause of Absence 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 








Schools 


Schools 


Schools 














1933 


1932 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 












Mental Defects. 


3.4 


2.8 


2.9 


3.0 


4 .5 


Poverty, Indifference, Neglect .. 


3.3 


3.2 


2.6 


2.7 


2.7 


Illegally Employed 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


.4 


.5 


Bad Weather and Roads. 


.9 


.5 


.2 


.3 


.1 


Other Causes. 


.2 


.1 


.1 


.1 


.1 


Total 


8.8 


7.4 


6.1 


6.5 


7.9 


Number Absent 40 Days or 












More 


990 


884 


5,450 


7,324 


8,758 



Nearly 9 per cent of the pupils in one-teacher schools miss at least 
two months of school, and this is true of over 7 per cent of the children 
in two-teacher and of 6 per cent of the pupils in graded schools. 



30 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



EFFICIENCY JN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance thus 
far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and with- 
drawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been arranged 
in order according to their average rank in these three items for public 
white elementary schools. That county is considered highest which 
has a high percentage of attendance accompanying a low percentage 
of late entrance and withdrawal. A county which makes no effort to 
get its children in school when they open and permits them to with- 
draw before the close of the year may keep them in regular attendance 
while they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly helping all of its pupils 
to secure an education less well than a county which brings all of its 
children into school at the beginning of the year, discourages 
withdrawals, and still keeps a high percentage of attendance. 



TABLE 22 

An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools for School 
Year Ending June 30, 1933 









OF 


RANK 


IN PER 


CENT 




PER CENT 




OF 


COUNTY 
















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


fWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


County and Average.... 
Prince George's 


92 .2 


1 .0 


2.4 








93.5 


.5 


1 .3 


2 


2 


3 


Garrett 


92 .7 


.4 


2.4 


5 


1 


11 


Wicomico 


92 .4 


.6 


1.8 


8 


4 


6 


Cecil 


91 .7 


.5 


1 .6 


13 


3 


4 


Anne Arundel 


92.4 


.7 


2.2 


7 


7 


9 


Frederick 


93 .4 


.8 


3.1 


3 


9 


16 


Montgomery 


91 .8 


.6 


2.6 


11 


5 


12 


Baltimore 


91 .3 


.7 


1.9 


16 


6 


7 


Carroll 


91 .6 


.9 


1 .6 


14 


10 


5 


Kent 


92 .4 


.7 


2.7 


9 


8 


13 


Allegany 


94.1 


.9 


3.2 


1 


11 


19 


Howard 


90 .9 


1 .0 


1 .3 


17 


12 


2 


Harford 


91 .8 


1 .1 


1.9 


12 


14 


8 


Talbot 


92.8 


1 .6 


2.8 


4 


18 


14 


Queen Anne's 


90.6 


1 .7 


1 .2 


19 


19 


1 


Washington 


92.7 


1 .9 


3.1 


6 


21 


17 


Caroline 


92.0 


1 .4 


3.2 


10 


17 


18 


Dorchester 


90.1 


1 .2 


2.3 


21 


15 


10 


Charles 


89 .9 


1 .2 


3.0 


22 


16 


15 


Somerset 


90.6 


1 .0 


3.9 


20 


13 


21 


St . Mary's 


91 .4 


2.5 


3.2 


15 


23 


20 


Worcester 


90.7 


1 .8 


4.2 


18 


20 


23 


Calvert 


88.6 


2.3 


4.0 


23 


22 


22 



* For employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the smallest percentage of 
late entrants is ranked first . 

t For causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. The county 
having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first . 



Index of Attendance; Grade Distribution of White Enrollment 31 



The counties at the top of the list are Prince George's, Garrett, 
Wicomico, Cecil, Anne Arundel, Frederick, Montgomery, and Bal- 
timore. (See Table 22.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The enrollment by grades for the year ending in June, 1933, showed 
only slight changes from the year preceding. The second grade enroll- 
ment decreased by 431, while the third grade enrollment increased 
by 592, the sixth grade by 204, and the seventh grade by 626. In 
the high school, the first year enrollment grew by 886, the third year 
by 650, and the fourth year by 577. (See Chart 2.) 

CHART 2 



Grade 
or Year 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLEDt BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1933 



Total 



Kgn. 


473 


1 


17,081 


2 


15,183 


3 


15,612 


4 


15,261 


5 


14,756 





14,151 


7 


12,878 


8 


3,105 


I 


10,548 


II 


7,658 


III 


6,720 


rv 


*5,376 



iBoys 



I I Girls 



249 
224 




* 2,356 



*3,018 



t Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to institutions, and of 

12 boys and 6 girls in an ungraded class in Talbot County. 
* Includes 75 boys and 94 girls post-graduates. 



32 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The first grade enrollment of 17,081 is nearly 1,500 more than the 
enrollment in the third grade, the grade having the next highest enroll- 
ment. Thereafter the enrollment is lower in each succeeding grade 
until it is 12,878 in grade 7, 10,548 in the first year of high school, 
and 5,376 in the last year of high school. 

There are more boys than girls in every grade through the first year 
of high school, and thereafter the girls exceed the boys. (See Chart 2.) 

The enrollment by grades in one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded 
schools indicates a larger proportion of children in the lower grades 
in the one and two-teacher schools, and a smaller proportion in the 
upper grades than are found in the graded schools. (See Table 23.) 



TABLE 23 

Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade of Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools (By Types) Year Ending June 30, 1933 



GRADE 


*Number in Each Grade 


Per Cent in Each Grade 
















One- 


Two- 




One- 


Two- 






Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Kindergarten. 






473 






.5 


1 - - 


1,950 


2,011 


13,120 


18.2 


17 .4 


15.2 


2 - 


1,646 


1,715 


11,822 


15.3 


14.8 


13.7 


3 


1,736 


1,755 


12,121 


16.2 


15.2 


14.1 


4 


1,661 


1,762 


11,838 


15.5 


15.3 


13 .7 


5 


1,545 


1,623 


11,588 


14.4 


14 .0 


13.4 


6 


1,165 


1,530 


11,456 


10.9 


13 .2 


13.3 


7 


941 


1,030 


10,907 


8.8 


8.9 


12 .6 


8... 


79 


135 


2,891 


.7 


1 .2 


3.4 


Total 


10,723 


11,561 


f86,234 

















* Exclusive of pupils who withdrew for removal, transfer, commitment to institutions or death . 
t Includes 12 boys and 6 girls, special class . 



For enrollment by grades jn each county see Table 24. 

Change in Grade Enrollment from 1921 to 1933 

A comparison of grade enrollment in October, 1921, and November, 
1933, shows the change which has taken place in the twelve-year 
period. Although there are 27,000 more children enrolled at the later 
date, the enrollment in the first grade is lower by 3,000 in November, 
1933, than it was twelve years earlier in 1921. There are increases in 
enrollment, especially in the upper elementary grades and the four 
years of high school. (See Chart 3.) 

Survival Through School Compared for 1921 and 1933 

In this connection data from the age-grade survey made in Novem- 
ber, 1933, compared with 1921, showing the estimated survival of 
white entrants to grade 1 through grade 7 and the high school years 



Enrollment by Grades 1921 and 1933; By Counties 1933 



33 



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34 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 3 



GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE ENROLLMENT 



Grade I I 1921 ■■1953 





are very interesting. Of every 100 first grade entrants it is 
estimated that 78 reached grade 7 in 1921 compared with a corre- 
sponding figure of 96 in 1933.* (See Chart 4.) 

Of the 78 who reached grade 7 back in 1921, only sixty-one per cent 
or 47 reached the first year of high school. In 1933 on the other hand, 
of the 96 who reached grade 7, eighty per cent or 76 entered high 
school. (See Chart 4.) 

Of the 100 boys and girls entering the first grade of county public 
schools, only 15 in 1921 reached the fourth year of high school com- 
pared with 39 in 1933. (See Chart 4.) 

* Obtained by dividing grade enrollment by largest age group. 



Grade Distribution and Survival of White Pupils 1921 and 1933 35 

CHART 4 



ESTIMATED NUMBER OF EVERY 100 V/HITE ENTRANTS TO GRADE 1 
>7H0 REACHED GRADE 7 AND THE VARIOUS HIGH SCHOOL YEARS 



Grade W77A 1921 HS 1933 



i 

ii 
in 

IV 



I i5 V//A 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 

The number of graduates of white county elementary schools in 
1933, 10,774, was slightly lower than the number for 1932, which was 
the largest number ever reported. There was a slight increase in the 
girls graduated and a decrease for the boys. The graduates included 
9.9 per cent of the white elementary school enrollment. For girls the 
percentage was 10.9 and for boys 9.1. (See Table 25.) 

Graduates in the Counties 
For individual counties boys graduated from white elementary 
schools in 1933 varied from 6.4 to 11.5, and girls from 8.2 to 15.7 per 
cent of the county white elementary school enrollment. One would 
expect to find Allegany, Washington, and Montgomery Counties, 
with their 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan of grade organization having a smaller 
per cent of eighth grade graduates than the counties having a 7-4 
plan have of seventh grade graduates. (See Chart 5.) 



36 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 25 

White County Elementary School Graduates 



Number Per Cent 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


•8.1 


no .2 


•9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


•8.1 


•10.1 


•9.1 


1929 


•4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


no .4 


*9 .6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


•10,140 


*9 .0 


no .5 


*9 .7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


no .2 


*9 .4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


*10,825 


*9 .3 


no .9 


no.i 


1933.. 


*5,121 


*5,653 


*10,774 


•9.1 


no .9 


*9.9 



* Includes seventh and or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools . 



The per cent of boys and girls graduated in 1933 was lower in one 
and two-teacher schools for the counties as a group, but this was not 
the case in every individual county. (See Table 26.) 



TABLE 26 

County White Elementary School Graduates in 1933 by Types of Schools 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 


COUNTY 


One- 


Two- 






One- 


Two- 








Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total and Average 


384 


450 


442 


480 


4,295 


4,723 


6.8 


8.8 


7.2 


8.8 


9.6 


11.4 


Talbot 


3 


4 


5 


5 


93 


126 


2.8 


4 .2 


2 .2 


2.3 


11.2 


17.0 


Caroline 


1 


2 


10 


12 


101 


130 


1 .0 


2 .3 


6.5 


9.3 


11.5 


16.0 


Kent 


20 


15 


4 


14 


68 


44 


10.1 


10.4 


3.8 


15.1 


13.7 


11.1 


Garrett 


108 


125 


31 


16 


90 


89 


11 .3 


14 .0 


12 .2 


7 .1 


10.3 


11.2 


Cecil... 


41 


52 


29 


22 


114 


112 


11 .7 


14 .0 


10.6 


9.1 


10.6 


11.8 


Queen Anne's 


7 


18 


7 


4 


70 


71 


6.8 


14 .0 


6.4 


5.2 


11 .5 


13.1 


Harford 


18 


45 


42 


40 


152 


162 


4.7 


12 .1 


11 .4 


13.2 


10.7 


12 .4 


Frederick 


17 


15 


44 


44 


318 


371 


11 .2 


9.6 


10.4 


12 .4 


9.5 


12.0 


Wicomico 


26 


28 


7 


11 


126 


174 


7.9 


9.9 


5.1 


8.5 


9.4 


13 .6 


Calvert 


3 


2 


5 


16 


19 


41 


12.5 


16 .7 


4.5 


14.2 


7.5 


13.6 


Carroll 


2 




19 


25 
38 


207 


257 


.8 




6.8 


10.6 


10.1 


13.7 


Baltimore 


8 


5 


50 


772 


825 


7.5 


5.5 


7.4 


6.5 


9.9 


11 .4 


St . Mary's 


17 


12 


31 


32 


12 


6 


10.0 


9.8 


9.3 


12 .3 


11 .7 


7.4 


Prince George's 


11 


11 


37 


42 


343 


356 


5.0 


5.0 


8.7 


10.6 


9.9 


11.6 


Charles 






9 


10 


54 


78 






7.6 


8.5 


8.3 


13.4 


Montgomery 


11 


13 


16 


14 


*320 


*359 


4.0 


5.9 


4 .3 


4.2 


10.3 


12 .0 


Dorchester 


24 


31 


20 


20 


100 


114 


7.7 


11 .5 


9.5 


10.4 


9.1 


11.2 


Anne Arundel 


1 


3 


14 


26 


278 


291 


2.4 


7.3 


7.7 


14 .8 


9.1 


10.5 


Worcester 




2 


1 


7 


109 


95 




1 .6 


.9 


6.4 


11 .3 


12.1 


Somerset 


18 


18 


4 


4 


78 


96 


7.2 


8.8 


2.8 


3.1 


9.3 


12 .7 


Howard 


18 


15 


13 


13 


67 


57 


6.5 


6.5 


7.4 


7.3 


11 .9 


10.6 


Allegany 


15 


8 


18 


11 


*480 


*505 


5.5 


3.3 


3.6 


2.4 


8.7 


9.5 


Washington 


15 


26 


26 


54 


*324 


*364 


2.5 


4.5 


4.2 


9.2 


7.3 


8.5 



* Includes pupils promoted from eighth grade in junior high schools . 

Caroline, Queen Anne's, Harford, Montgomery, Prince George's, 
and Dorchester had more graduates in 1933 than in 1932, and the 
percentages were higher in 1933 in Anne Arundel which adopted the 
7-4 plan of organization in the fall of 1932. (See Chart 5.) 



Graduates of White Elementary Schools 
CHART 5 



37 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN 1933 COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT t 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 
Total and 5,121 
Co. Average 5,653 



Per Cent Boys 



Talbot 

Caroline 

Kent 

Garrett 

Cecil 

Queen Anne's 

Harford 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

St. Mary's 

Pr. George's 

Charles 

Montgomery* 

Dorchester 

A. Arundelt' 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Howard 

Allegany* 

Washington* 



101 
112 

92 
229 
184 

84 
212 
579 
159 

27 
228 
830 

60 
391 

63 
347 
144 
293 
110 
100 

98 
513 
365 




135 I 15.7 
144 L 
73 




93 
247 
430 
213 

59 
282 
868 

50 
409 

88 



52 



386 I 10.! 
165 H^l 






X Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to institutions. 
* County has eight grades in elementary school course. 
° Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high schools, 
t Includes seventh grade pupils promoted to high school. 

' In transition stage between seven and eight grades in elementary school course. 



38 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



NON-PROMOTIONS INCREASE 
The counties had more non-promotions in white elementary schools 
in 1933 than for any year since 1925. There were 10,503 boys and 
6,244 girls not promoted. Since the school population at the later 
date was greater, the per cent not promoted was higher than for any 
year since 1928. On the average 15 per cent of all pupils were con- 
sidered not ready for a higher grade, the average for boys being 18.6 
per cent and for girls 12 per cent. (See Table 27.) 



TABLE 27 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary Schools 







Number 






Per Cent 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21 .7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22 .7 


14 .8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1929 


9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11 .3 


14.3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,332 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11 .0 


14 .2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 



The non-promotions by counties varied for boys from less than 12 
per cent in St. Mary's and Montgomerjr to 24 per cent or more in 
Anne Arundel, Dorchester, and Caroline Counties. Less than 7 per 
cent of the girls failed in Talbot, Montgomery, and Harford, whereas 
over 16 per cent failed in Anne Arundel, Calvert, and Dorchester. 
Anne Arundel's adoption of a seven instead of an eight grade ele- 
mentary course probably explains the large increase in non-promo- 
tions of seventh grade pupils not considered ready for high school 
entrance. (See Chart 6.) 

Allegany, Caroline, Calvert, Somerset, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, 
and Dorchester increased the non-promotions for both boys and girls 
from 1932 to 1933. There were considerable decreases in non-pro- 
motions in Howard, Charles, and St. Mary's counties. The excess of 
non-promotions for boys over girls is clearly evident in every county. 
(See Chart 6.) 

Between the fall of 1921 and the fall of 1933 there was a reduction 
by more than half in the per cent of pupils over-age. In some counties 
the per cent of pupils over-age in 1933 is only one third of the per 
cent twelve years earlier. In other counties, however, the 1933 per- 
centage over-age is two-thirds of the 1921 percentage, which may 
mean that more pupils in these counties can not meet the fixed 
standard set up by the schools, and that the schools in these counties 



Non-Promotio\s in White Elementary Schools 
CHART 6 



39 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED. 1933 



County 


Boys 


Girls 


Total and 


10,503 




Co. Average 




6,244 


Montgomery 


449 


262 


St • Mary ' 8 


70 


41 


Cecil 


206 


136 


Talbot 


100 


61 


Harford 


301 


154 


Garrett 


311 


169 


Frederick 


565 


364 


Howard 


168 


76 




178 




Somerset 


115 


Kent 


133 


59 


Wicomico 


288 


185 


Washington 


987 


646 


Carroll 


478 


253 


Charles 


15/ 


68 


Prince George 


s 752 


430 


Queen Anne's 


154 


85 


Baltimore 


1,744 


1,127 


Worcester 


269 


131 


Allegany 


1,462 


860 


Caroline 


275 


142 


Calvert 


89 


73 


Dorchester 


428 


249 


Anne Arundel 


903 


558 



Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent Girls 



6 f 244 112.0 VZW /Z////////////A 




10.6 '///////////////A 



i o . a '///////////// ///A 



20.1 



11.7 Y/////////////////A 



■ I P. M-WlHUg 

14. g //////// ////////////7777X 



BE) 



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14,4 Y//////4& 



V//////////////////A 



are not making the effort to change their set-up, procedure and con- 
tent to meet the individual differences which certain pupils reveal. 
(See Chart 7.) 

_ The achievements of the large majority of pupils at the present 
time are superior in standardized tests in the subjects of reading and 
arithmetic in every grade than when they were given from 5 to 12 
years ago. The reduction of retardation alone is not a defendable 
reason for promoting pupils unless remedial work and improved 
instruction following upon diagnosis of individual difficulties have 



40 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



made it entirely justifiable for a larger proportion of children to re- 
ceive promotion. 

CHART 7 



PER CENT OF PUPILS OVER AGE BY COUNTIES IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
NOVEMBER, 1921 AND 1953 



County 

County Average 

Allegany 
Kent 
Talbot 
Cecil 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Wicomi co 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's 

Harford 

Washington 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Prince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Garrett 

Dorchester 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Howard 



11.4 


1 


12.3 


1 


123 


1 


123 


1 1 


13.4 


1 



Per Cent 
Over Age 
1921 1933 



31.6 

27.9 
27.9 
30.0 
35.6 
33.4 
31.7 
33.2 
35.7 
26.9 
28.1 
27.1 
33.5 
28.2 
33.8 
28.9 
38.8 
27.6 
27.1 
46.5 
29.1 
35.0 
43 
39.6 



1953 



1921 





In the various types of schools it will be noted that the percentage 
of boys and girls who failed of promotion was higher in graded than 
in one and two-teacher schools. The boys in one-teacher schools had 
a range of non-promotions from 9 per cent to 31, whereas for girls it 
varied from to 22 per cent. In two-teacher schools one county failed 
4 per cent of its boys, while another failed 29 per cent, as against a 
minimum of 5 per cent of girls in one county and a maximum of 20 
per cent in another. In graded schools the variation in non-promo- 
tions for boys was from 11 to 28 per cent, while for girls it was 
from 7 to 19 per cent. (See Table 27a.) 



Overageness 1921 to 1933; Non-Fromotions by Types of Schools 41 



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42 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Similar differences between boys and girls appear in the data show- 
ing per cent of boys and girls over-age by types of schools in Novem- 
ber.. 1933. (See Chart 8.) 



CHART 8 



PER CENT OF WHITE BOYS AND GIRLS OVER AGE BY TYPE OF SCHOOL, 1933 



Type of Enroll- Per Cent 



School 


ment 


Over Age 


One-Teacher 


10,230 


18.6 | 


Two-Teacher 


11,495 


16.7 | 


Graded 


85,722 


14.5 1 


All 

Elementary 


107,447 


15.2 f 


High 


29,792 


11.6 I 



IBoys ESZ3 Girls 



I '//////// ////////////////////A 



w 



Non-Promotions by Grades 

The greatest number and per cent of non-promotions 1932-33 ap- 
peared in the first grade, 25 per cent for boys and 18 per cent for girls, 
but these figures were approximately the same as those for the pre- 
ceding year. In every other grade the number and per cent of non- 
promotions was higher in 1933 than in 1932. For boys the percent- 
ages ranged between 15 and 21 in grades above the first, and for 
girls from 10 to 13 per cent. (See Chart 9.) 

For the school year 1932-33 in every type of white elementary 
school the maximum per cent of pupils not promoted was found in 
grade 1. In the one and two-teacher schools and for girls in graded 
schools, the fourth grade had the next greatest number and per 
cent of failures. In the graded schools a greater number and per 
cent of the boys failed in grades 2 and 7 than in other grades, ex- 
clusive of grade 1. (See Table 28.) 



Overageness by Grade 

The reduction in the per cent of pupils over-age by grades from 
the fall of 1921 to the fall of 1933, twelve years later, shows the re- 
markable change which has taken place. This reflects the results of 



Non-Promotions by Grade 
CHART 9 



43 



NON PROMOTIONS BY GRADES IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN 
JUNE, 1933 



Grade 

Kgn. 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

6 
7 
8 



Number 



Boys Girls 
11 



2,316 
1,520 
1,261 
1,406 
1,239 
1,202 
1,231 
517 



■■■ Per Cent Boys ZZZZH Per Cent Girls 

101 ±.5Y///\ 
l,455 m3J^^^^^^^^^ 
727 EOT! 
736|k 

921 BB 

779^1 

749 1 
690 1 
197 



1 //////////////////A 



w&mmmmamaam 



] 9.0 



20.5 



TABLE 28 

Number and Per Cent of White County Elementary School Boys and Girls Not 
Promoted, by Grades, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



NUMBER 



PER CENT 





One- 


Two- 






One- 


Two- 






GRADE 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Kindergarten 










11 


10 










4.4 


4.5 


1 


318 


191 


302 


204 


1,696 


1,040 


30.7 


20.9 


27.6 


22 .3 


24 .1 


17.1 


2 


144 


55 


163 


72 


1,213 


600 


15.6 


7.6 


17.7 


9.0 


19.3 


10.8 


3 


128 


65 


120 


60 


1,013 


611 


13.7 


8 .1 


12 .5 


7 .6 


16 .0 


10.6 


4 


153 


112 


199 


101 


1,054 


708 


18 .0 


13 .8 


21 .9 


11 .9 


17.3 


12 .3 


5 


88 


66 


118 


73 


1,033 


640 


11 .3 


8.6 


13.8 


9.5 


17.4 


11 .3 


6 


87 


49 


112 


67 


1,003 


633 


14 .3 


8.8 


14.2 


9 .1 


17 .2 


11 .3 


7 


65 


30 


74 


35 


1,092 


625 


14 .2 


6.2 


14 .2 


6 .9 


19.9 


11 .6 


8 


6 


6 


4 


6 


307 


185 


16.2 


14 .3 


7 .1 


7.6 


21 .1 


12.9 


Total 


989 


574 


1,092 


618 8,422 


5,052 


17.6 


11 .3 


17 .9 


11 .3 


18 .8 


12 .2 



careful surveys of the needs of individual children considered likely 
to fail, who were studied and given special help by teachers and super- 
visor. Changes in organization, in method and in curriculum have 
been adopted to meet the individual difficulties which were disclosed. 
(See Chart 10.) 



44 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 10 



PER CENT OF WHITE PUPILS OVER AGE BY GRADES 




I 

1 

] 



] 



Causes of Non-Promotion 

The causes of non-promotion which showed the greatest increase 
from 1932 to 1933 were unfortunate home conditions and lack of in- 
terest, mental incapacity, and "other" causes. These causes seemed 
to affect a larger proportion of pupils in graded than in rural schools. 
Nine per cent of all pupils failed of promotion because of unfortunate 
home conditions, lack of interest and mental incapacity, according to 
the reports of their teachers. (See Table 29.) 

Among the counties non-promotions ranged from less than 10 per 
cent to over 23 per cent. Teachers attributed non-promotions to 
unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest in the case of less 
than 4 per cent of the pupils in Talbot, Cecil, Montgomery, and 
Howard, whereas Calvert, Worcester, and Anne Arundel teachers 
gave these causes as responsible for the failure for over 8 per cent of 




OVERAGENESS BY GRADE; CAUSES OF NON-PROMOTIONS 



45 



TABLE 29 



Causes of Non-Promotions for White Elementary School Pupils Not Promoted 
for Year Ending Julv 31, 1933 



Causes of Non-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 

Elementary 
Schools 










1933 


1932 



NUMBER 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 












Lack of Interest 


516 


659 


5,076 


6,251 


5,773 


Mental Incapacity..™ 


312 


354 


2,650 


3,316 


2,854 


Personal Illness...., 


170 


160 


1,287 


1,617 


1,930 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


168 


153 


1,055 


1,376 


1,333 


Transfer from Other Schools 


83 


110 


678 


871 


903 


Fourteen Years or Over, Employed.... 


103 


85 


585 


773 


728 


Late Entrance 


31 


30 


140 


201 


285 


Other Causes 


180 


159 


2,003 


2,342 


1,466 


Total 


1,563 


1,710 


13,474 


16,747 


15,272 



PER CENT 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 












Lack of Interest 


4.8 


5.7 


5.9 


5.8 


5.4 


Mental Incapacity 


2.8 


3.1 


3.0 


3.0 


2.6 


Personal Illness... 


1 .6 


1 .4 


1 .5 


1 .5 


1 .8 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


1 .6 


1 .3 


1 .2 


1 .3 


1 .2 


Transfer from Other Schools 


.8 


.9 


.8 


.8 


.8 


14 Years or Over, Employed 


1 .0 


.7 


.7 


.7 


.7 


Late Entrance 


.3 


.3 


.2 


.2 


.3 


Other Causes 


1 .7 


1 .4 


2.3 


2 .1 


1 .4 


Total 


14.6 


14.8 


15.6 


15.4 


14.2 



the pupils. These latter figures seem to indicate the need of a social 
welfare program. (See Table 30.) 

Less than 1 per cent of the children in St. Mary's, Baltimore, and 
Montgomery Counties were reported as failures due to mental in- 
capacity, whereas over 5 per cent were retarded by teachers for this 
cause in Prince George's, Allegany, Carroll, and Anne Arundel. 

Illness brought non-promotion for over 2 per cent of the children 
in Worcester, Baltimore, Queen Anne's, and Talbot. Irregular 
attendance resulting from causes other than illness caused non- 
promotion of 3 or more per cent of the white elementary pupils in 
Charles, Dorchester, and Calvert. " Other" causes not specified 
affected the promotion of 3 or more per cent of the children in Queen 
Anne's, Allegany, Baltimore. Caroline, and Dorchester. (See Table 
30.) 



46 



1933 



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Causes of Non-Promotion; Standard Tests Given 1932-33 47 



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48 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Standard Tests Given in the Counties 

During 1932-33 there was no State-wide testing program, but 
eighteen of the counties gave standardized tests. The tests used and 
the grades tested in the various counties are shown in Table 31. In 
addition to batteries such as the Standard Graduation Examination 
used in 5 counties, the New Stanford Achievement Test in 4 counties 
and the Metropolitan Achievement Test in 2 counties, tests of in- 
telligence and in the subjects of reading, arithmetic, English, and 
history were given. (See Table 31.) 

Plans were made for a State-wide test of reading and arithmetic 
with parts of the Metropolitan Achievement Test to be given in 
October, 1933. 

SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN 
Handicapped Children in the Counties 

In the counties physically handicapped children whose educational 
needs are not met by ordinary school facilities are given the special 
services which are necessary for their education. The special pro- 
gram for each child is planned and carried out by the county school 
authorities under standards, rules, and regulations of the State 
Board of Education, and financed from a fund of $10,000 appro- 
priated in the State public school budget. 

The number of children for whom special education provisions 
were made in 1932-33 and in the fall of 1933 and the kind of service 
given are shown in Table 32. 



TABLE 32 

Services Given Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland Counties 





Physically Handicapped 


Members of County 




Children 


Receiving 


Staff 


Service 


Special 


Services 


Giving Special Services 




1932-33 


Fall 1933 


1932-33 


Fall 1933 


Special Classes 


20 


23 


2 


2 


Instruction at Home 


35 


38 


°26 


°25 


Special Transportation 


18 


13 






Physiotherapy Center, Equip- 






ment, etc 


*19 


t30 


1 


1 


Total children served. .. 


*80 


f90 


°29 


°28 



* Includes only once 12 children in a special class as well as a physiotherapy center, 
t Includes only once 14 children in a special class as well as a physiotherapy center. 
c Includes substitute teachers and regular teachers who give each pupil home instruction two 
hours each week. 



The average per pupil cost of the service rendered was $114.14 in 
1932-33 and is estimated as $111.11 in 1933-34. 



Standard Tests; Special Education for the Handicapped 



49 



The grade distribution and recommended disposition of the 35 
children instructed at home in 1932-33 is given below: 





No. of 


No. of 


Grade 


Pupils 


Recommended Disposition Pupils 


1 


13 


Return to Regular Class 4 


2 


9 


3 


4 


Discontinue because of 


4 


4 


unsatisfactory progress 2 


5 


2 


illness.. 1 


6 


2 




7 


1 


Continue for Home Instruction 28 



The distribution of physically handicapped children in each 
county receiving services in the fall of 1933 is given in Table 33. 

TABLE 33 

Special Provision for Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland Counties 

Fall of 1933 



County 


Number of Pupils 


Number 
of 

Teachers 


in 

Special 
Classes 


At 
Home 


Trans- 
ported 


Other Service 
(Physiotherapy, 
equipment, etc.) 


Allegany 


14 


1 

3 
9 




°13 


t*3 
2 
1 


Anne Arundel 


1 


Baltimore 






Calvert 




1 




Caroline 




2 
1 

2 

1 
1 
1 




2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Carroll.... 




1 




Cecil 






Dorchester 








Frederick 




1 




Garrett 




2 


Harford.. 




1 


Kent 




2 
4 
1 
1 




1 
3 
1 
1 


Montgomery... 








Prince George's 








Queen Anne's. 














1 


Somerset. 




1 

2 
3 
3 




1 
1 
*4 
2 


Talbot 








Washington 


9 


1 




Wicomico 




Baltimore City 




7 














Total 


23 


38 


13 


°16 

j 


**f28 


(90) 



* Includes one full-time teacher of special class . 

t Includes one full-time physiotherapist 

In addition to special class pupils in Cumberland 



Mentally Handicapped 

Supervisory assistance was given to 16 teachers of special classes 
for retarded children in 3 counties during the year 1932-33. Plans for 



50 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the organization of additional classes in other counties are being 
made and it is expected that many more retarded children will be 
cared for next year. 

Teacher Training 

During the summer of 1933, 32 teachers from Maryland counties 
pursued courses in special education at Johns Hopkins University 
and the University of Maryland. 

On the day prior to the 1933 State Teachers' Meeting, 15 special 
teachers from the counties, together with three elementary super- 
visors and one attendance officer, visited special classes for handi- 
capped children in Baltimore and observed the latest methods of 
special class instruction. 

Clinical Study of Children 

Clinical study of problem children in rural schools is carried on 
through the special education service and the various public and 
private clinics of the State. Children who have physical defects that 
interfere with school progress are referred to the Maryland League 
for Crippled Children or the Johns Hopkins Hospital; those who 
have become behavior problems are studied by the Commissioner of 
Mental Hygiene or the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic; those who show 
disabilities in learning are tested by the psycho-educational clinic of 
the Baltimore schools. Complete reports and recommendations on 
each child are made available to the local school authorities, and the 
state supervisor of special education assists in securing remedial 
services. 

Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 

The chief change in the special class situation in 1932-33 in Balti- 
more City came about through the organization of industrial centers 
for the disciplinary and behavior problems and children not mentally 
capable of doing the work of the regular classes. Sixteen industrial 
centers with 429 white pupils and 10 with 333 colored pupils were 
started. The figures indicate that 80 per cent of the white and 60 per 
cent of the colored children in these centers were making satisfactory 
improvement. (See Table 34.) 

There are many different types of shop and office experiences in 
which these children participate. After going the round of these 
shops, a study is made to find out the particular type of work in 
which the individual pupil fits best and additional experience is 
given in this specialty. It is a type of pre- vocational training in which 
every attempt is made to find a field of endeavor in which the boy or 
girl can succeed. (See Table 34.) 

For white physically handicapped children an additional open air 
class was organized and there was one less class for crippled children. 
An additional class was started for colored children needing sight 
conservation. (See Table 34.) 



Special Education for the Handicapped; Teacher Certification 



51 



TABLE 34 

Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1933 



Returned Per Cent Promoted 

KIND OF CLASS No . of Total to Average of Once or Twice 

Classes Admitted Regular Net Attend- 

Classes Roll nace No. fPer Cent 



White Pupils 



Physically Handicapped 


37 


895 




71 


741 


90 


601 


82 






17 


476 


K1 
Ol 


OOO 


an 


6 IS 


— 
82 


Crippled 


10 


258 


17 




Q 4 


165 


86 


Sight Conservation 


5 


83 


3 


77 


82 


51 


68 


Hearing Conservation 


2 


33 




32 


92 


31 


94 


Deaf 


2 


28 




26 


88 


25 


96 


Cardiac 


1 


17 




16 


85 


11 


69 


Americanization 


3 


77 


9 


58 


91 


48 


80 


Disciplinary 


1 


48 


12 


21 


81 


11 


50 


Mentally Handicapped ... 


110 


2,937 


46 


2,394 


87 


1,926 


77 


Opportunity... 


84 


2,319 


46 


1,874 


88 


H.504 


*76 


Industrial Centers 


16 


429 




349 


82 


*280 


*80 


Special Center 


10 


189 




171 


87 


*142 


*83 






Colored 


PuriLs 










Physically Handicapped 


7 


156 


3 


141 


88 


105 


70 


Crippled 


3 


62 




60 


90 


47 


76 


Sight Conservation 


3 


66 


"l 


56 


86 


35 


56 


Open Air 


1 


28 


2 


25 


88 


23 


88 


Mentally Handicapped. .. 


27 


864 


17 


603 


80 


430 


59 


Industrial Center 


10 


333 


14 


191 


78 


*163 


*60 


Opportunity 


10 


289 


3 


228 


85 


*137 


*66 


Special Center 


7 


242 




184 


77 


*130 


*66 



* Making satisfactory improvement . 

t Per cent of number admitted, exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or withdrawn in 
other ways . 



CERTIFICATE STATUS OF WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

Of *2,757 principals and teachers in county white elementary 
schools in service in October, 1933, 97.7 per cent hold elementary 
principals', advanced first or first grade certificates. Second grade 
certificates are held by 45 teachers and third grade certificates by 19 
teachers. Second and third grade certificates are no longer issued to 
new applicants for positions. In the graded schools there were 221 
teachers holding elementary principals' certificates. The new ad- 
vanced first grade certificate is held by 160 teachers who have had 
three years of normal school training or the equivalent. New appli- 
cants are no longer eligible to apply for the first grade certificate, 
issued until the close of the school year 1932-33 to graduates of a two- 
year normal school course. (See Chart 11 and Table 35.) 

It will be noted that the graded schools have a slight advantage 
over the one and two-teacher schools in the proportion of teachers 
holding certificates requiring more tiaining. (See Table 35.) 

In seven counties there are no teachers employed who hold cer- 
tificates lower than first grade. No county has less than 91 per cent 

* Teachers of elementary grades in junior high schools are excluded. 



52 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 11 



TRAINING OF MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 
Number „ % Regular 1=1 % Provisional 

EL. PRINCIPALS' , ADVANCED, AND FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES 





Reg- 


Provi- 


OCT. 


ular 


sional 


1921 


1228 


51 1 


1922 


1351 


52 1 


1925 


1633 


32 1 


1924 


1936 


38 1 


1925 


2212 


27 I 


1926 


2414 


24 1 


1927 


2597 


21 1 


1928 


2756 


35 1 


1929 


2814 


16 1 


1930 


2831 


14 I 


1931 


2870 


*15 1 


1932 


2704t 




1933 


2691+ 


° 2 | 




SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATES 



1921 


933 


189 




1922 


894 


175 




1923 


820 


97 




1924 


590 


125 




1925 


517 


55 




1926 


405 


21 




1927 


287 


21 




1928 


184 


8 




1929 


142 






1950 


118 


1 


El 


1931 


73 




B 


1Q32 


61 







1933 


45 








THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATES 



1921 


568 


291 




1922 


365 


201 




1923 


520 


124 




1924 


229 


101 


HEMDD 


1925 


182 


65 


HMD 


1926 


161 


46 




1927 


87 


24 


BE 


1928 


60 


4 


B 


1929 


41 







1930 


3 9 







1931 


25 







1932 


19 







1935 


19 








* Includes 4 substitutes. 

t Excludes teachers in grade 7, and grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools. 
° Cannot hold a certificate. 

For 1933 data by counties, see Table XI, page 295. 



Certification of White Elementary Teachers 53 
TABLE 35 

Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elementary Teachers in Various Types 

of Schools, October, 1933 



grade of 
certificate 


Number in 


Per Cent in 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Elementary 

Principal's 


221 
1181 
*2.291 
45 
19 






221 
136 
1,627 
26 
6 


j 97.7 

1 .6 

.7 


94 .8 

2 .6 
2 .6 


96 .7 

2 .5 
.8 


98.4 

1 .3 
.3 


Advanced First 

First 

Second 

Third 

Total 


18 
343 
10 
10 


27 
321 

9 
3 


2,757 


381 


360 


2,016 


100 .0 


100 .0 


100.0 


100 .0 



t Includes 21 holding high school certificates. 

* Includes 1 holding a provisional certificate and 1 who cannot hold a certificate. 

of its teachers holding certificates of first grade or better. The 
October, 1933, per cent of teachers holding first grade certificate, 98, 
is 1 per cent higher than the per cent for 1932, and 58 per cent higher 
than the corresponding figure for October, 1921. (See Table 36.) 

TABLE 36 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers, Exclusive of Those in 
Grades 7 (8) in Junior High Schools, Holding Elementary Principals', Advanced 
First and Regular First Grade Certificates in October, 1933, With Comparisons of 
Per Cent for 1932 and 1921 



County 



Total & Average 

Baltimore 

♦Calvert 

♦Caroline 

♦Garrett 

♦Kent 

♦Queen Anne's... 
♦Prince George's 

Frederick... 

Montgomery 

♦Allegany 

♦Anne Arundel 



1933 



Num- 
ber 



t2,692 

f349 
20 
f58 
117 
44 
43 
f206 
fl93 
fl87 
f258 
160 



Per 

Cent 

98 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
99 
99 
99 
98 



Increase 
in 1933 
Per Cent 
Over 



1932 



1921 



58 

11 

58 
74 
93 
70 
51 
64 
62 
31 
28 
39 



County 



♦Talbot. 

♦Wicomico.. 
♦Dorchester 

Howard 

Harford 

Washington 

♦Carroll 

♦Charles 

♦St. Mary's. 

Cecil 

♦Somerset.... 
♦Worcester.. 



1933 



Num- 
ber 



49 

88 
85 
57 

119 
f261 

129 
38 
33 
85 
60 
53 



Per 
Cent 

98 
97 
97 
97 
96 
96 
96 
95 
94 
93 
92 
91 



Increase 
in 1933 
Per Cent 
Over 



1932 



1921 



41 
76 
79 
72 
58 
69 
69 
80 
78 
66 
70 
74 



t Excludes teachers in grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior high schools. 
* Received Equalization Fund in 1932-33. 

For counties arranged alphabetically for 1933 data, see Table XI, page 295. 

For detailed data on various kinds of certificates held in white ele- 
mentary, one-teacher and two-teacher schools, see Tables XI and 
XII, pages 295 to 296. 



54 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FEWER TEACHERS ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL 

The number of county white elementary teachers who attended 
summer school decreased from 963 or 34.6 per cent of the staff em- 
ployed in October, 1932, to 596 or 21.6 per cent of the staff in service 
in October, 1933. Because of the 1933 legislation reducing the 
minimum State salary schedule effective in September 1933, the State 
Board of Education postponed for 1933 and 1934 the requirement for 
attendance at summer school for renewal of certificates. The fact 
that over one-fifth of the county white elementary staff went to 
summer school, although it was not required, is proof of their pro- 
fessional interest in self improvement in order to give their pupils 
the benefit of a wider cultural background or more modern methods of 
teaching. (See Table 37.) 

TABLE 37 

County White Elementary Teachers in Service in October, 1933, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1933 



County 



Total 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Washington 

Cecil. 

Charles 

Frederick.. 

Harford 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Montgomery... 
Prince George's 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Queen Anne's... 

Howard 

St . Mary's 

Kent 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel ... 



Teachers Employed 
Oct ., 1933, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1933 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 


Per Cent 


J 596 


21 .6 


*108 


41 .2 


f49 


36.3 


18 


31 .0 


79 


28.9 


*25 


27.5 


10 


25 .0 


*43 


22 .1 


27 


21 .8 


14 


21 .5 


17 


19.3 


*63 


18 .1 


*9 


18 .0 


16 


17.6 


32 


16.9 


**34 


16.4 


3 


15.0 


17 


14.5 


t6 


14 .0 


T7 


11 .9 


*4 


11 .4 


5 


11 .4 


3 


5.2 


7 


4 .3 



Total 



University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland College 

Columbia University 

University of Delaware 

University of Virginia 

Shepherd State Teachers' College ... 
Harrisonburg State Teachers' College 

Duke University 

University of Chicago 

Catholic University 

Pennsylvania State Teachers' College 

University of Maine 

New York University 

University of North Carolina 

Northwestern University 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Wisconsin 

All Others 



Number 
of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



% Excludes 8 supervising or helping teachers and 3 attendance officers . 
* Each asterisk represents one supervising or helping teacher excluded . 
t Excludes one attendance officer . 

a One took courses at both Johns Hopkins and University of Virginia . 
b Excludes 2 supervising or helping teachers and 1 attendance officer . 
c Excludes 3 supervising or helping teachers and 2 attendance officers . 
d Excludes 1 supervising teacher . 
e Excludes 2 supervising teachers . 



Allegany, Carroll, Worcester, Washington, Cecil, Charles, Fred- 
erick, Harford, and Somerset had from 41 to 21 per cent of their 
staffs in summer school, while this was the case for only 4 and 5 per 
cent respectively of the Anne Arundel and Caroline County teachers. 
(See Table 37.) 



Summer School Attendance, Resignations, White Elementary Schools 55 



The University of Maryland gave courses to 269 or over 45 per 
cent of the white elementary teachers who attended summer school. 
Johns Hopkins University enrolled 141 or 24 per cent of the summer 
school group of white elementary teachers. Western Maryland, 
Columbia University, University of Delaware, University of Virginia, 
Shepherd and Harrisonburg State Teachers Colleges enrolled from 
41 down to 10. (See Table 37.) 

The following white elementary teachers completed extension 
courses offered by Western Maryland College during 1932-33. 

No. 
Comoleting 

County Extension Courses 

Washington 55 

Allegany 47 

Carroll 18 

Frederick 2 

Howard .._ 1 

Total 123 

RESIGNATIONS FROM WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There wei e about half as many resignations of teachers from county 
white elementary schools* in 1931-32 as there were five years eailier 

TABLE 38 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools* Between October of One Year and October 

of the Following Year 



YEAR 



u S 
O 3 

£2£ 



.2 1 

'So 

OX! 



o d 
c > 

- 0- 



— bC 

O.S 

O rt 



o t 
&/-> c < 

c «< ° fe 



2-= o 

S >> 2 S * 

"« u a e 



s: 

o 
c 

o 

u 



u O 



"S3 05 C 

iSi 



NUMBER 



1927-28 


148 


14 


31 


37 


24 


10 
8 


10 






1928-29 


164 


27 


27 


12 


14 


8 






1929-30 


136 


27 


23 


15 


15 


8 


7 






1930-31 


122 


19 


37 


12 

9 


9 


14 


6 






1931 -32 


83 


24 


23 


9 


9 


7 


5 


3 



43 


30 


27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


35 


23 


18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


36 


9 


20 


330 


23 


47 


12 


10 


11 


21 


276 


22 


19 


34 


2 




24 


201 


15 


10 


6 



PER CENT 



1927- 


-28 37.1 


3.5 


7.8 


9.3 


6 


.0 


2 .5 


2 .5 


1928- 


-29|42 .7 


7.0 


7.0 


3 .1 


3 


.7 


2 .1 


2.1 


1929- 


-30 41 .2 


8 .2 


7.0 


4 .6 


4 


.5 


2.4 


2 .1 


1930- 


-31 ,44 .2 


6.9 


13.4 


4.3 


3 


.3 


5.1 


2.2 


1931- 


-32 41 .3 


11 .9 


11 .4 


4 .5 


4 


.5 


4 .5 


3.5 



2 .5 



6.3 
12.5 
10.3 
5.4 
1 .0 



10.8 


7.5 


6.7 


100 


9.1 


6.0 


4.7 


100 


10.9 


2 .7 


6.1 


100 


3.6 


4 .0 


7.6 


100 


1 .0 


.5 


11 .9 


100 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high schools are 
excluded from this table. They are included in Table 87, page 119. 



56 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

in 1927-28, the number being 201 in the later year. The number of 
resignations has been fewer each year since 1927-28, but the decrease 
in resignations between 1930-31 and 1931-32 (75) was greater than 
for any preceding year shown. (See Table 38.) 

Marriage continues to be the chief cause of resignation, but the 
number resigning for this cause, 83, in 1931-32 is lower than for any 
year since 1928-29, when it was 164. There is also a sharp reduction 
in the number withdrawing from county teaching positions because 
they have taken teaching positions elsewhere, or positions in fields 
other than teaching. The number dropped because of provisional 
certificates or failure to attend summer school is also reduced from 
the number five years ago. 

The number of teachers on leave of absence and transferring from 
one county to another is considerably smaller in 1931-32 than for 
any of the past five years. 

TURNOVER IN THE COUNTIES 

Not only was there a reduction in the number of vacancies in the 
counties due to fewer resignations of teachers, but county superin- 
tendents decreased the number of teaching positions in the white 
elementary schools by f81 between the school years 1931-32 and 1932- 
33. The number of teachers new to the county white elementary 
schools in 1932-33 was 149, in comparison with 275 the preceding 
year, and 343 two years before. The per cent of white elementary 
teachers new to Maryland counties was 5.3 in contrast with 11.8 per 
cent two years before. (See Table 39.) 

Of the 149 white elementary teachers new to the counties of Mary- 
land in 1932-33, there were 102 who were inexperienced. The counties 
employed 29 teachers who had formerly taught in the counties but 
who were not in service in 1931-32. Only two teachers who had had 
experience outside of Maryland were employed. Only 10 teachers 
transferred from one county to another. (See Table 39.) 

Among the individual counties, only Cecil did not have any 
teachers new to the white elementary school staff for the school 
year 1932-33. At the opposite extreme Baltimore County had 25 
and Prince George's 22 teachers new to their elementary school 
staffs. There were only 5 counties— Talbot,St.Mary's,Prince George's, 
Charles, and Calvert— in which the new members of the staff in- 
cluded ten or more per cent of the staff in 1932-33. (See Table 39.) 

In only 2 counties — Anne Arundel and Charles — were there more 
teaching positions in white elementary schools than existed the year 
before, and in each of these counties there was only one additional 
position. Harford and Dorchester show no change, while there were 
reductions ranging from 1 to 13 teaching positions in the other coun- 
ties. (See Table 39.) 

The number of inexperienced white elementary teachers em- 
ployed ranged from none in Cecil, Wicomico, and Kent, to 10 and 15 

t A few of these positions appearing as reductions for elementary schools are found as increases 
for junior high schools. 



Resignations and Turnover in White Elementary Schools 57 

in Harford and Baltimore County, respectively. Prince George's 
added 8 and Washington 4, experienced teachers formerly in the 
counties who were out of service in 1931-32. Prince George's was the 
only county which appointed teachers who had had their experience 
in other states and which added to its staff as many as four teachers 
who were members of the staff in other counties in 1931-32. (See 
Table 39.) 

TABLE 39 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the 
Elementary Schools of Each Individual County 

During the School Year 1932-1933 



L^ounty 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1931 
to 

Oct., 1932 


Number New to County Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


Experienced 


SUD- 

sti- 
tutes 


in 

County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
i ear 

Before 


but 
New 

to 
State 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Junior, 
Junior- 
Senior, 
or 

T? prri ll 51 F 

High 
School 


%(~* nil r\t v T n t q 1 onH Avorocw 
OUUUvjr l ULol a. 1 1 u il vciagc. 

1930-31 _-_ 


t343 
t275 
tl49 


11 .8 

9 .5 

5.3 


—24 

61 

—81 

—5 
—3 
—4 
—6 


238 
210 
102 


56 
32 
29 


29 
17 
2 


44 
19 
10 


5 
5 
6 


15 
11 
10 


1931-32 


1932-33 


Cecil .Z. 


Wicomico 


1 
1 

5 
3 
8 
3 
2 
8 
7 

16 
8 

11 
3 

25 
4 

10 
5 
2 
4 

22 
4 
7 

57 


1 .1 
1 .6 
1 .9 
3.3 
4.1 
4 .4 
4 .4 
4 .9 
5.5 
5.8 
5.8 
5.9 
6.5 
6.6 
6.7 
7.9 
8 .5 
10. 
10.0 
10.7 
11 .4 
14 .0 

3.8 














Worcester 

Allegany 


1 
4 
3 
5 
2 


1 










Dorchester ::_„ 










Frederick 

Somerset 


—4 
—2 
—1 
+ 1 
—6 
—6 
—8 
—2 

—13 
—2 


2 




1 






Kent 


2 

i 
i 

4 
2 
1 








Anne Arundel... 


7 
5 
9 
5 
7 
2 

15 
4 

10 
4 
1 
3 
6 
3 
6 










Garrett.. 




1 






Washington 




1 
1 

3 


2 


Carroll 






Montgomery 








Queen Anne's 




1 




Baltimore 


3 




1 


6 


Howard 






Harford 












Caroline. _ 


—3 
—6 
+1 
—6 
—1 
—1 


1 
1 










Calvert 










Charles 




1 
4 






Prince George's 


8 


2 




2 


St . Mary's 




Talbot 




1 






Baltimore City 


10 


6 


40 


1 











* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior-senior high schools are excluded from this table . 
They are included in Table 88, page 121. 

t Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 



TURNOVER IN BALTIMORE CITY 

The teacher turnover in Baltimore City white elementary schools 
was 157 in 1929-30. It increased to 176 the following year and then 
declined precipitately to 110 and 57 in 1931-32 and 1932-33 as an 
effect of the depression. In the last two years the number of posi- 
tions in the white elementary schools was actually decreased by 75 



58 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

and 216 respectively. Most of the teachers appointed to fill positions 
were inexperienced normal school graduates, but in 1931-32, 17 ex- 
perienced persons from other states and 12 in other kinds of teaching 
service in Baltimore City were brought into the elementary schools. 
In 1932-33 vacancies in white elementary schools were filled by as- 
signing 40 persons who had formerly been in administration and 
supervision to teaching positions. (See Table 40.) 

TABLE 40 



Turnover of White Elementary Teachers in Baltimore City 



Year 


Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimoie 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 


Teachers New to Baltimore 


City Schools 


Inex- 
per- 
ienced 


Who Were Experienced 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing Year 


In 
County 

Pre- 
ceding 

Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Balto. 
City 

School 


Other 


1929-30 


157 


+9 


137 


6 


9 


3 


1 


1 


1930-31 


176 


+36 


155 


2 


5 


7 


5 


2 


1931-32 


110 


—75 


67 


17 


9 


4 


12 


1 


1932-33 


57 


—216 


10 


6 






40 


1 



TEACHERS CHANGING TYPE OF SCHOOL WITHIN COUNTY 

Of 157 county white elementary teachers who changed from one to 
two-teacher or graded schools or vice versa within the county in 
which they were employed the year preceding, there were 123 who 
went from smaller to larger schools, while only 34 went from larger 
to smaller schools. Of 27 teachers in schools which changed their 
status as either one-teacher, two-teacher, or graded schools between 
the years 1931-32 and 1932-33, there were 17 teachers employed in 
schools which increased their staffs and 10 in schools which decreased 
their staff. 

EXPERIENCE OF COUNTY TEACHERS 

There were 99 inexperienced teachers employed in the county white 
elementary schools in October, 1933, which was an increase of 14 over 
the number in service the year preceding. Fewer teachers, however, 
dropped out of service among those more experienced so that the 
median experience, 8.3 years in the later year, was .7 more than for the 
year before. (See Tabic 41.) 

In no county was the median experience of white elementary teach- 
ers less than 6 or more than 15 years. It was higher in every county 
except Calvert, Cecil, and Queen Anne's than was the median ex- 
perience for the year preceding. (See Table 41.) 

Although the number of one-teacher schools was reduced from the 
preceding year, they had 5 more inexperienced teachers in service in 



Turnover and Experience in White Elementary Schools 



59 



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60 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

October, 1933, than in 1932. Because a considerable number left 
the one-teacher schools after two years of experience, the median 
experience in one-teacher schools increased from 5.1 to 6.0 years 
between October 1932 and 1933. The median experience in one- 
teacher schools of the individual counties ranged from 1.8 years to 
14 years. Three counties showed a reduction in median years of 
experience from 1932 to 1933. (See Tabic 41.) 

SIZE OF CLASS LARGER 
CHART 12 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 1931 1932 1933 

Co. Average 34.0 34.9 

Baltimore 
Calvert 
Frederick 
Anne Arundel 
Wicomico 
Pr. George's 
Allegany 
Charles 
Worcester 
Washington 
Cecil 
Talbot 
Carroll 
Caroline 
Queen Anne's 
Dorchester 
Somerset 
Montgomery 
Harford 
Howard 
Kent 
Garrett 
St. Mary's 

Balto. City 32.0 32.7 
State 33.2 34.1 




t The upper bar for Baltimore City represents the first term, while the lower bar represents the 
second term of the school year 1932-33. 



Number of Pupils per White Elementary Teacher 



61 



The average number of pupils per teacher in white elementary 
schools was larger for the school year 1932-33 than for any year 
preceding. On the average every county elementary class in Mary- 
land had 1.3 more pupils belonging than for the year preceding, the 
average for the counties being 36.2 pupils. (See Chart 12.) 

The average number of pupils per teacher ranged from 30 in St. 
Mary's to nearly 42 belonging per teacher in Baltimore County. 
Every county except Charles, which had a decrease, and Talbot, 
which remained stationary, had more pupils per teacher in 1933 than 
in 1932. The greatest change occurred in Calvert County which in- 
creased the average number of pupils per teacher from 32.2 in 1932 
to 40.3 in 1933. This great change came about through the elimina- 
tion of a number of one-teacher schools and the concentration of 
their pupils in one building in large graded classes. (See Chart 12.) 

Baltimore City also showed a considerable increase in the number 
belonging per principal and teacher for the second term of the school 
year. The average of the first term 32.8 increased to 36.2 for the sec- 

TABLE 42 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year End'ng July 31, 1933 

Schools Schools Schools 

Having Having Having 

One Two Three or 

County Teacher County Teachers County More 

Teachers 



County Average .. 26 .1 

Calvert. 36 .0 

Wicomico 30 .7 

Somerset. .. 29 .8 

Baltimore 29 .6 

Anne Arundel 28 .3 

Howard 28 .2 

Cecil. 28 .1 

Prince George's ... 27 .3 

Worcester... 26 .3 

Washington 26 .1 

Caroline 26 .0 

Talbot 26 .0 

Frederick. 25.7 

St . Mary's 25 .6 

Montgomery 25 .6 

Garrett 25 .6 

Dorchester 25 .5 

Harford 25 .4 

Allegany 24 .4 

Carroll 23 .7 

Kent 22 .5 

Queen Anne's 21 .6 

Charles 13 .0 



County Average .. 31 .3 

Calvert 37.2 

Baltimore 37.1 

Frederick.. 35 .2 

Washington 34 .4 

Garrett 34.1 

Allegany.. 33 .4 

Cecil 32 .6 

Worcester 32.2 

Kent 32 .2 

Queen Anne's 32 .0 

Prince George's ... 31 .7 

Carroll 31 .4 

Anne Arundel 29 .2 

St. Mary's.. 29.1 

Charles 28.6 

Dorchester 28 .4 

Harford 28 .4 

Caroline 28 .0 

Montgomery 27 .0 

Wicomico 26.5 

Howard 26 .1 

Somerset 23 .5 

Talbot 23 .0 



County Average .. 38 .9 

St . Mary's 44 .8 

Baltimore 42 .4 

Calvert 42 .1 

Garrett 40.8 

Wicomico 40 .4 

Cecil 40 .3 

Queen Anne's 39 .5 

Frederick 39 .5 

Charles 39.1 

Worcester 39 .1 

Dorchester 38 .9 

Anne Arundel 38 .8 

Howard 38 .7 

Washington 38 .3 

Somerset 38 .2 

Prince George's ... 38.1 

Talbot 37 .9 

Harford 37 .8 

Carroll 37 .6 

Allegany 37 .6 

Caroline 37 .2 

Kent 36.9 

Montgomery 35 .1 



62 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ond term. The Baltimore City average for the second term corres- 
ponds exactly with the county average for 1933. (See Chart 12.) 

The average size of class in one-teacher schools, 26.1 pupils, was 
an increase of .4 pupils over 1932. In two-teacher schools, the average 
number belonging per teacher, 31.3, was .7 pupils more than the year 
before. It was, however, in the graded schools that the largest in- 
crease in size of class occurred, 1.1 pupils, bringing the average to 
38.9 pupils per teacher. (See Table 42.) 

The classes having one teacher ranged in average size by county 
from 13 to 36; those having two teachers varied from 23 to 37:2 
pupils, while the larger graded schools had an average of 35.1 pupils 
per teacher in the county with the smallest classes and 44.8 pupils 
per teacher in the county with the largest classes. Only one county, 
Montgomery, had fewer pupils per teacher in its graded schools than 
Baltimore City, for the second term of the year, (See Chart 12 and 
Table 42.) 

AVERAGE SALARY DECREASES 

For the first time since 1917 the average salary of the county white 
elementary teachers and principals showed a decrease from the salary 
of the preceding year. The average was $1,225 in 1933 as against 
$1,230 in 1932. (See Table 43.) 

TABLE 43 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher, 

1917-1933 



Average 
Salary 

Year White 
Ending Elementary 
June 30 School 

Teachers 

1917._ $491 

1918 542 

1919 521 

1920 631 

1921 881 

1922 937 

1923 990 

1924 1,030 

1925 1,057 



Average 
Salary 

Year White 
Ending Elementary 
June 30 School 
Teachers 

1926 $1,103 

1927 1,126 

1928 1,155 

1929 1,184 

1930 1,199 

1931 1,217 

1932 1,230 

1933 1,225 



The decrease in average salary just noted came about not from a 
general decrease in salaries throughout the counties, for the majority 
were paying only the minimum salaries, but from decreases in a few 
of the counties paying salaries above the minimum. Baltimore 
County decreased its salaries by 10 per cent beginning January, 1933 ; 
Anne Arundel decreased salaries by 12 per cent in April, May, and 



Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 



63 



June; Queen Anne's, Talbot, and Carroll showed slight decreases 
from the year preceding. In all other counties there was a slight in- 
crease in average salary. (See Chart 13.) 



CHART 13 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1930 


1931 


1932 


Co. Average 


11199 |1217 $1250 


Baltimore 


1505 


1522 


1541 


Montgomery 


1285 


1328 


1562 


Allegany 


1265 


1284 


1297 | 


Pr. George* s 


1204 


1207 


1221 


Cecil 


1197 


1205 


1210 


Queen Anne's 


1174 


1126 


1191 


Kent 


1151 


1158 


1170 1 


Washington 


1165 


1178 


1167 


Harford 


1108 


1128 


1146 | 


Anne Arundel 






1 ortn 1 
IcU J 


Calvert 


1 (Y7d 
IXJi \J 


ilia 


111 A 1 


Garrett 


1084 


1105 


1131 1 


Wicomico 


1124 


1125 


1127) 


Frederick 


1099 


1109 


1129 1 


Talbot 


1092 


1108 


1127 | 


Somerset * 


1088 


1100 


1109 1 


Worcester 


1069 


1091 


1102 


Caroline 


1101 


1092 


1096| 


Howard 


1091 


1105 


1101 


Dorchester 


1065 


1075 


1090 


Charles 


1035 


1086 


1088 


St. Mary's 


1015 


1052 


1077 


Carroll 


1082 


1097 


1097 


Balto. City- 


1759 


1812 


1788 


State 


1415 


1448 


1443 




* Excludes $1,897 for junior high and $1,830 for vocational teachers in 1933. 

Baltimore City had a decrease in salary of 6 34 per cent effective in 
January, 1932, and one of 10 per cent effective in January 1933. 
The 1931-32 average salary in the City showed a slight decrease 



64 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



from 1930-31 and the 1932-33 salary showed a still further decrease, 
the average being $1,701 in 1933. (See Chart 13.) 

In the counties the average salary ranged from $1,095 to $1,453. 
In only five counties was the average over $1,200, and these counties 
all paid above the minimum State salary schedule. (See Chart 13.) 

Legislation of 1933 affecting the minimum State salary schedule 
brought about the following reductions for a two-year period be- 



ginning in September, 1933 : 

Per Cent 

Salaries Reduction 

Under $1,200. _ 10 

$1,200 to $1,799 11 

$1,800 to $2,399 12 



The minimum State salary schedule as it was from October, 1922, 
to June, 1933, and as it is reduced from September, 1933, to June, 
1935, is given in Table 44. 

TABLE 44 

Minumum Annual Salaries in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 
in Effect Since September, 1922 

Reduced Salaries jor the Period August 1, 1933, to July 31, 1935, 
Are Shown in Italics 

Grade of Years of Experience 



Certificate 


1-3 


4-5 


6-8 


9+ 


Third 


$ 600 

540 


$ 650 

585 






Second 


750 

675 


800 

720 


$ 850 

765 




First ... 


950 

855 


1,050 

945 


1,100 

990 


$1,150 
1,035 


First in Charge of One — or Two — 
Teacher School.. 


1,050 

945 


1,150 
1,035 


1,200 
1,068 


1,250 
1,112.50 


Principal with 2 Assistants 


1,150 
1,035 


1,250 
1,112.50 


1,300 
1,157 


1,350 
1,20150 


5 Assistants, 200 A. D. A.* 


1,350 
1,201.50 


1,450 

1,290.50 


1,500 
1,335 


1,550 
1,379.50 


9 Assistants, 360 A. D. A.* 


1,550 
1,379.50 


1,650 
1,468.50 


1,700 
1,513 


4,750 

1,557.50 



* A. D. A. — Average Daily Attendance. 



The average salary per teacher was lowest in one-teacher schools 
and highest in graded schools for the counties as a group. In one- 
teacher schools the average was $1,153, in two-teacher schools, $1,190, 
and in graded schools $1,244 for the counties as a group. This same 



Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 



65 



relationship for salaries among the three types of schools held true of 
Allegany, Cecil, Queen Anne's Dorchester, Talbot, and Carroll, 
but the opposite relationship, highest salaries for one-teacher schools 
and lowest for graded schools was found for Baltimore, Prince 
George's, and Garrett Counties in 1933. (See Table 45.) 

In one-teacher schools average salaries ranged between $1,025 and 
$1,647; in two-teacher schools between $1,037 and $1,478; and in 
graded schools between $1,014 and $1,447. Baltimore County is at 
the top in salary for each type of school. It will be noted that only 
two or three counties had average salaries above $1,300. (See Table 
45.) 

TABLE 45 

Average Salary Per Teacher in County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending July, 1933 



Schools 
Having 

County One County 

Teacher 



Schools 
Having 
Two 
Teachers 



Schools 
Having 

County Three 
or More 
Teachers 



County Average $1,153 



Baltimore 1,647 

Montgomery 1,335 

Prince George's ... 1,269 

Charles 1,243 

Anne Arundel 1,215 

Allegany 1,174 

Garrett 1,159 

Cecil 1,157 

Calvert 1,150 

Kent 1,143 

Washington. 1,143 

Queen Anne's 1,143 

Wicomico 1,134 

Harford 1,133 

Worcester 1,112 

Frederick 1,108 

Somerset. 1,108 

Howard 1,105 

St . Mary's 1,101 

Caroline 1,087 

Dorchester 1,081 

Talbot 1,079 

Carroll 1.025 



County Average.. . $1,190 



Baltimore 1,478 

Allegany 1,313 

Montgomery 1,309 

Prince George's .. 1,244 

Kent._ 1,204 

Cecil. 1,201 

Queen Anne's 1,160 

Wicomico 1,155 

Frederick 1,154 

Garrett 1,153 

Calvert 1,152 

Worcester 1,134 

Harford 1,131 

Washington 1,120 

St . Mary's 1,115 

Talbot 1,105 

Anne Arundel 1,099 

Dorchester. 1,086 

Caroline... 1,080 

Howard 1,069 

Charles 1,061 

Somerset 1,059 

Carroll 1,037 



County Average.-. $1,244 



Baltimore 1,447 

Montgomery 1,378 

Allegany 1,325 

Cecil..... 1,269 

Prince George's ... 1,225 

Queen Anne's 1,203 

Kent 1,188 

Washington 1,180 

Harford 1,165 

Anne Arundel 1,153 

Calvert 1,148 

Wicomico 1,145 

Somersat 1,140 

F-ederick 1,140 

Talbot 1,131 

Caroline...- 1,127 

Howard 1,121 

Carroll 1,118 

Dorchester 1,118 

Worcester 1,117 

Garrett 1,116 

Charles 1,105 

St . Mary's 1,014 



Except for Baltimore County, which reduced salaries in January, 
1933, and Anne Arundel in Aoril, 1933, most of the county teachers 
did not feel the effects of salary reduction until September, 1933. 
The distribution of salaries in county white elementary schools for 
October, 1933, shows the median salary to be $1,050 for teachers in 
all types of schools. In October, 1932, the median salary was $1,150 



66 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in each type of school except those for two teachers and for these 
schools it was $1,200. The median teacher is therefore receiving from 
$100 to $150 less than for the preceding school year. Salaries of teach- 
ers range from $600 to $1,600 in October, 1933, whereas the year 
before the extremes were $650 and $1,800. (See Table 46.) 

For 200 county elementary school principals the median salary of 
October, 1933, $1,400, is $150 less than the median for October, 1932. 
Salaries of principals in October, 1933, range from $1,100 to $2,250 
whereas last year the minimum was $1,150 and the maximum $2,500. 
(See Table 46.) 

TABLE 46 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers in Service 
in Maryland Counties, October, 1933. 



teachers in white elementary 

SCHOOLS* 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



3 
2 
6 
1 
9 
1 

113 
17 
93 
70 
25 
18 
10 
1 
7 



381 
$1,050 



Having 

Two 
Teachers 



6 

2 
34 

8 
40 
24 
66 
62 
44 
10 
28 

5 

9 



360 
$1,050 



Graded 
Schools 
Excluding 
Principals 



1 

5 
11 
4 

138 
45 
179 
225 
399 
100 
329 
101 
86 
18 
27 
30 
103 
6 
9 



1,816 
$1,050 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



5 

7 
23 
7 

181 
54 
332 
266 
558 
232 
398 
129 
124 
24 
43 
30 
111 
10 
14 
9 



2,557 
$1,050 



Salary 



$1,100. 
1,150. 
1,200. 
1,250. 
1,300 
1,350. 
1,400. 
1,450. 
1,500. 
1,550. 
1,600. 
1,650. 
1,700. 
1,750. 
1,800. 
1,850. 
1,900. 



2,000. 
2,050. 
2,100. 
2,150. 
2,200. 
2,250. 



Total 
Median 



* Teachers in Junior High Schools will be found in Table 99 page 134 . 

MEN TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The number of men teaching in county white elementary schools 
after declining gradually from 1923 to 1930 has shown a slight in- 



Salaries October 1933; Men Teaching; Per Pupil Cost 67 
White Elementary Schools 



crease since that time. The number in 1933 was 219 and included 7.4 
per cent of the elementary teaching staff. (See Table 47.) 

TABLE 47 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching fn County White Elementary Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 



1923 287 9 .4 

1924 253 8 .3 

1925 233 7 .6 

1926 224 7 .3 

1927 218 7.1 

1928 204 6 .6 



Year Number Per Cent 



1929..... 208 6.8 

1930 195 6 .4 

1931 206 6.7 

1932 217 7 .2 

1933 219 7 .4 



Five of the counties have no men teaching in white elementary 
schools. Jn five counties the per cent of men teachers is over 8. 
These counties are Carroll, Washington, Frederick, Baltimore, and 
Garrett. (See Table 48.) 

TABLE 48 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1933 



COUNTY 


Men Teaching 


COUNTY 


Men Teaching 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


218.6 


7 .4 


Caroline 


2 
2 

4.2 
9 
10 

21 .4 

7 
15 

49 .3 
25.4 
41 
21 


3.2 
3.3 
3.4 
4.2 
6 .1 
6.5 
7.8 
11 .9 
12.7 
13 .0 
13.5 
15.1 


Calvert 


Worcester. 

Harford 


Kent. 






Montgomery 


Queen Anne's 






Anne Arundel 


St . Mary's 






Allegany 


Wicomico 






Dorchester 


Howard 


1 
4 

2.1 
1 .2 
1 

2 


1 .7 
1 .9 
2.3 
2.4 
2.5 
3.0 


Garrett 


Prince George's 


Baltimore.. 


Cecil 


Frederick 


Talbot 


Washington 


Charles 


Carroll 


Somerset 





4 



LOWER COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average current cost of instructing a white elementary school 
pupil in the Maryland counties, exclusive of general control, declined 
by $2.45 or 5 per cent, or from $49.27 in 1932 to $46.82 in 1933. Every 
county, except Calvert, which had the highest cost per pupil among 
the counties, shared in the decrease. (See Chart 14 and Table 49.) 

The counties varied in current expense cost per pupil, excluding 
general control, from $40 to $60. Seven counties had costs between 
$50 and $60 per pupil while only three had costs under $45. In 
most of the counties the costs appeared in the limited range between 
$45 and $48. (See Chart 14.) 

Every item entering into the cost per pupil showed a reduction. 
The greatest decrease was found in the item for salary of teachers 



68 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 14 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN MITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County- 



Co. Average 

Calvert 
Kent 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Anne Arundel 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Cecil 

Pr. George's 

Howard 

Harford 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Balto. City 

State 



1931 1932 1933 



$ 50 




* Excludes $80 for junior high and $136 for vocational schools. 

which was lower by $1.38 per pupil, making the 1933 cost per pupil 
$33.85. Books and materials decreased by 55 cents per pupil to $1.36. 
The expense per pupil for cleaning and heating buildings declined by 
20 cents to $3.42. For repairs the cost per pupil decreased by 16 cents 



Cost per White Elementary School Pupil 



69 







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70 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



to $1.11. The cost of supervision per pupil, $1.25, was lower byI14 
cents than in 1932. For auxiliary agencies the decrease from 1932 to 
1933 was least of all, 2 cents per pupil, making the 1933 cost pei pupil 
$5.83. 

Cost of Supervision per Pupil 

The cost of supervision varied among the counties from less than 
one dollar per pupil in two of the larger counties employing less than 
the full quota of supervisors to which they were entitled to over two 
dollars per pupil in four of the smaller counties. In every county 
except Calvert, Frederick, and Harford which had higher costs 
per pupil for supervision and Talbot where the cost per pupil was 
stationary, there was a reduction from 1932 to 1933 in the per pupil 
cost of supervision. (See columns 1 and 9, Table 49, for cost and rank 
in cost per pupil for supervision.) 



Salary Cost per Pupil 

The teacher's salary cost ranged from $28.52 in Calvert to $40.99 
per pupil in Montgomery. Every county, except Charles, showed a 
lower cost per pupil in 1933 than in 1932. This would be expected 
since every county except Charles and Talbot had more pupils per 
teacher in 1933 than in 1932, and in addition five of the counties showed 
a lower average salary per teacher in the later year. Although 
Calvert ranked lowest in salary cost per pupil and highest in average 
number belonging per teacher, it will be noted that it ranked highest 
in cost per pupil for transportation and total current expense cost 
per white elementary pupil. (See columns 2 and 10, Table 49, for 
cost and rank in cost per pupil for teachers' salaries.) 

Per Pupil Cost of Books, Materials and Instruction Costs Other than Salaries 

The amount spent for books and materials for each white ele- 
mentary pupil ranged between 49 cents in Garrett and $2.39 in Kent. 
Since the amount from State funds for books and materials averaged 
89 cents per pupil belonging, Garrett and Baltimore County spent 
less on white elementary pupils than the average amount provided 
for this purpose from State funds. Every county, except Calvert, 
Cecil, Kent, and St. Mary's spent less for books, materials and 
"other" costs of instruction per white elementary pupil belonging in 
1933 than in 1932. (See columns 3 and 11 of Table 49.) 

Operation Cost per Pupil Lower 

The per pupil cost of cleaning and heating county white elementary 
schools ranged between $1.55 and $5.41. Every county except four, 
Calvert. Dorchester, Prince George's, and Somerset, had lower costs 
in 1933 than in 1932. (See columns 4 and 12 of Table 49.) 



Analysis of Cost per Whites Elementary Pupil 



71 



Repair of Buildings Casts Less per Pupil 
Expenditure per pupil for repair of buildings and equipment varied 
from 38 cents to $2.14. All except eight of the counties spent less for 
repairs per pupil in 1933 than in 1932. Three of the eight counties 
which showed higher costs in 1933 spent less than the amount used 
for repairs in the average Maryland county — $1.11. (See Columns 
5 and 13 of Table 49.) 

Cost of Auxiliary Agencies per Pupil 

It was noted before that there was little change from 1932 to 1933 
in the average cost per pupil for auxiliary agencies. This is reflected 
in the fact that 10 counties spent more per pupil for auxiliary agen- 
cies in 1933 than in 1932. There was great variation among the coun- 
ties in this item, one county spending only $2.53 per pupil, while at 
the opposite extreme Calvert County spent $21.66 per pupil. An 
analysis of the items, transportation, libraries, and health, which go 
to make up auxiliary agencies will show the importance of the various 
factors. (See columns 6 and 14 of Table 49.) 

Transporting Pupils Biggest Factor in Cost of Auxiliary Agencies 

Cost of transporting pupils to school at public expense accounts for 
97 per cent of the amount spent for auxiliary agencies in white ele- 
mentary schools. In 1933, there were 28,750 pupils transported to 
white elementary schools at public expense, an increase of 3,957 
pupils over 1932. The per cent of pupils transported at public ex- 
pense rose from 23.1 in 1932 to 26.5 per cent in 1933, a difference of 
3.4 per cent. Expenditures for this purpose totalled $593,736 in the 
counties, an increase of $13,841 over 1932. The cost per pupil trans- 
ported was $20.65, less by $2.74 than for the year before. (See first 
four columns in Table 50.) 

Without exception the counties increased the number and per cent 
of pupils transported to white elementary schools at public expense 
from 1932 to 1933. At one extreme Calvert County transported 63.2 
per cent of its white elementary pupils to school, while at the opposite 
extreme Washington County's percentage was 11.3. The distribution 
of the population in the county, its concentration in Hagerstown and 
large towns and the continuance of a number of one-teacher schools 
account for the low percentage for Washington County. On the 
other hand Calvert County is entirely rural and most of its rural 
schools have been abandoned so that children may receive improved 
instruction in larger graded schools. Transportation makes it 
possible to abandon the one-teacher schools. (See Table 50.) 

Calvert County ranks low in cost per pupil for salaries of teachers 
because of large classes, but high in transportation costs because so 
large a percentage of pupils is transported at a rather high cost 
per pupil transported. It is pupil transportation which makes Cal- 
vert County have the highest current expense cost per white ele- 
mentary pupil among the 23 counties. (See Table 49.) 



72 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In about one-half the counties transportation expenditures for 
white elementary schools were greater than for the preceding year 
and in the remainder they were lower, but in every county the cost 

TABLE 50 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools— Year Ending July 31, 1933 



COUNTY 



Total and 

Average... 

Calvert 

Queen 

Anne's 

St. Mary's .. 

Charles 

Carroll 

Worcester... 
Anne 

Arundel... 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Garrett 

Kent 

Frederick 

Dorchester .. 

Somerset 

Howard 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Wicomico ... 
Baltimore... 

Harford 

Prince 

George's . 
Washington 



Transportation 



Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 



Number 



28,750 

517 

744 
412 
880 
2,255 
973 

2,859 

1,017 
686 
843 
384 

2,761 

1,054 
687 
475 

1,842 
806 

2,054 
793 

3,781 
555 

1,115 
1,257 



Per 
Cent 



26.5 

63.2 

47.4 
38.5 
59.1 
46.1 
43.3 

45.6 
47.2 
37.7 
21.1 
26.8 
36.7 
33.9 
29.6 
24.2 
25.2 
24.7 
16.8 
22.7 
22.9 
13.4 

14.3 
11.3 



Amount 
Spent 



$593,736 

17,453 

20,187 
13,155 
19,017 
47,142 
20,751 

51,924 
19,933 
16,113 
31,621 
10,846 
57,294 
22,114 
14,007 
10,789 
33,618 
15,671 
44,387 
13,084 
57,010 
11,780 

20,626 
25,214 



Cost 
per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



$20.65 

33.76 

27.13 
31.93 
21.61 
20.91 
21.33 

18.16 
19.60 
23.49 
37.51 
28.24 
20.75 
20.98 
20.39 
22.71 
18.25 
19.44 
21.61 
16.50 
15.08 
21.22 

18.50 
20.06 



Libraries 




Amount per 


Total 






Expen- 






ditures 






for 


School 


Teacher 


Libraries 






$5,376.84 


$5.90 


$1.82 


291.66 


13.89 


6.34 


242.10 


11.00 


6.96 


30.00 


2.73 


.75 


46.60 


2.03 


.78 


243.68 


8.12 


1.49 


110.00 


6.88 


2.18 


54.86 


.63 


.44 


5.53 


.23 


.12 


231.91 


4.73 


1.19 


98.61 


2.53 


1.09 


2.62 


.04 




70.00 


2.33 


1.18 


493.31 


9.49 


2.28 


619.30 


9.38 


1.89 


597.10 


16.59 


6.49 


1,305.00 


20.08 


3.36 


70.00 


1.32 


.56 


590.00 


10.17 


2.80 


274.56 


3.05 


.90 



Health and 
Physical 
Education 



Total 
Expen- 
ditures 

for 
Health 



$14,085 
8 

110 



989 
203 



114 
192 



4,400 
1,920 



*2,559 



1,583 
2,003 



Amount 
per 
Pupil 



$ .13 
.01 
.07 



.16 
.10 



.06 



.61 
".16 
♦16 



* Expended for teachers of physical education on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. 

per white elementary pupil transported was lower in 1933 than in 
1932. Baltimore County with $15.08 spent least per white elementary 
pupil transported in 1933,, while Garrett with $37.51 spent most. 
There are many factors which affect the cost of transportation, such 
as length of route, capacity of bus, type and equipment of bus used, 
type of roads traversed, period of contract, requirements regarding 
responsibility of drivers, amount of insurance canied, whether 
busses are owned by county or contractor, and others. (See Table 50.) 



Counties Expend Less for Library Books 

Only $5,377 was spent from county funds for libraries in white 
elementary schools in 1932-33. This was $3,893 less than for the 
year preceding. The average spent per school was $5.90, and per 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil for Transportation and Libraries 73 



teacher $1.82. Four counties spent nothing for libraries for ele- 
mentary schools in 1932-33. They were Calvert, Carroll, Caroline, 
and Cecil. Other counties like St. Mary's, Wicomico, Queen Anne's, 
Baltimore, Prince George's, Montgomery, and Talbot spent from $6 
to $20 per school and from $2 to nearly $7 per teacher. (See Table 
50.) 

MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION HELPS ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS* 

In addition to the library facilities of the schools, many teachers 
took advantage of the opportunities for obtaining books fiom the 
public libraries in the counties and from the Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission with offices at 517 North Charles Street in 
Baltimore. (See Table 51.) 



TABLE 51 

Service of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to County White 
Elementary Schools, School Year, 1932-1933 



» 

County 


Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


) 1931.. 


12,022 


157 


196 


299 


89 


124 


393 


Total. .. \ 1932.. 


9,799 


165 


209 


275 


79 


84 


266 


J 1933.. 


16,606 


182 


275 


419 


87 


112 


334 


Allegany 


a220 


a3 


a 5 


a5 


a5 


a5 


a22 


Anne Arundel ... 


cb 1,029 


cbl3 


cbl8 


cb29 


cb2 


cb2 


cblO 


Baltimore 


3,577 


40 


54 


88 


23 


28 


97 


•Calvert 


15 








2 


3 


8 


•Caroline 


853 


7 


16 


26 


6 


10 


18 


Carroll 


3,347 


18 


29 


44 


3 


3 


11 


Cecil 


874 


16 


18 


26 


7 


13 


24 


•Charles 


cb452 


cb3 


cb8 


cbl5 


cbl 


cbl 


cbl 


Dorchester 


c664 


c9 


cl5 


cl7 


ell 


cl4 


c34 


Frederick 


c670 


c2 


cl6 


c20 








Garrett 


959 


17 


23 


29 


3 


3 


3 


Harford 


cb637 


cbll 


cbl2 


cbl8 


cb2 


cb2 


cbl2 


Howard 


665 


11 


12 


18 


4 


5 


18 


Kent 
















Montgomery 


1,199 


11 


18 


50 


2 


2 


14 


Prince George's 


329 


6 


10 


10 


1 


1 


1 


Queen Anne's.... 


98 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


6 


St. Mary's 


157 


2 


3 


5 


1 


1 


1 


Somerset 


531 


6 


8 


8 


11 


15 


49 


Talbot 


cb 














Washington 


d 

clOO 

230 














Wicomico 


c3 
2 


c3 
5 


c3 
6 








Worcester 


2 


3 


5 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. In ad- 
dition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools and supplied 
other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no outside 
help. 

* Information furnished by the courtesy of Adelene J. Pratt, Director, Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission, 517 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 



74 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number of volumes loaned by the Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission to the white elementary schools increased 
from 9,799 in 1931-32 to 16,606 in 1932-33, a total gain of 6,807. All 
the counties, except Allegany, Cecil, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's 
borrowed many more books in 1932-33 than during the previous 
school year. The counties showing the greatest increase in number of 
volumes borrowed were Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, 
Carroll, Dorchester, Howard, and Prince George's. Three counties, 
Kent, Talbot, and Washington, borrowed no books; however, two of 
these, Talbot and Washington, have county libraries which serve the 
schools and when necessary secure books from the Commission to 
supplement their collections. Wicomico County gives limited service 
to schools so that only three elementary schools in that county 
borrowed traveling libraries from the Commission. (See Table 51.) 

There has been a proportionate increase in the number of schools 
and teachers using the Library and the number of traveling libraries 
and package libraries borrowed. 

Traveling school libraries are collections of books loaned for a 
period of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. The cost of transporting the 
books must be taken care of by the school benefiting and guarantee 
of reimbursement for lost and damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up to 
meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual needs 
or professional reading of teachers. These are loaned to anyone living 
in Maryland who is without access to a public library. These are 
mailed at the expense of the borrower. 

Nine elementary school supervisors have borrowed package 
libraries or traveling libraries on special subjects and in most cases 
circulated them among the teachers of their counties. 



Lower Health and Physical Education Expenditures 

The counties spent $14,085 for health and physical education 
activities, a decrease of about $2,800 under the preceding school 
year. Expenditures for these purposes amounting to $100 or more 
were confined to 10 counties. Montgomery, Washington, Prince 
George's, Allegany, and Anne Arundel Counties employed one or 
more school nurses to look after the health activities of the pupils. 
Baltimore County spent $2,559 for the physical education program 
carried on by members of the staff of the Playground Athletic League. 
In these counties the expenditure per white elementary pupil ranged 
between 16 and 61 cents. Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Kent, and Caro- 
line spent between $110 and $203, an average of from six to ten cents 
per pupil for these activities. (See Table 50, page 72.) 



Library and Health Facilities Offered by Maryland 



75 



t SCHOOL ACTIVITIES OF THE MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 

By July, 1933, every county in the State, except Caroline,! had 
full-time county health service. The personnel in the offices of the 22 
county health departments on September 30, 1933, included 22 full- 
time county health officers, 2 assistant health officers in Anne 
Arundel and Baltimore, 49 nurses and 25 clerks. (See Table 52.) 

The budgets for the county health offices totaled $317,815, of 
which 54.9 per cent came from State funds, 37.2 per cent from county 
funds, and 7.9 per cent from other agencies. State aid varied from 21 
per cent in Baltimore County to 88 per cent in Dorchester; county 
support from 9 per cent in Howard to 68 per cent in Allegany. 
Fourteen counties received no aid from "other agencies. ,, Mont- 
gomery with 21 per cent of its income derived from private sources, 
Anne Arundel with 24 per cent, and Howard with 36 per cent, had 
the highest percentages of their budgets derived from private agen- 
cies. (See Table 52.) 

TABLE 52 

Full-Time County Health Officers In Service, September 30, 1933 







Number of 




Amount of 




Per Cent 


of 










Receipts from 




Receipts from 




Year 






Total 














COUNTY 


Started 






Budget 






Other 






Other 






Nurses 


Clerks 




County 


State 


Agen- 
cies 


County 


State 


Agen- 
cies 


Total Counties 




49 


25 


$317,815 


$118,147 


*$174,644 


$25,024 


37.2 


54 .9 


7.9 


Allegany* 


1922 


7 


2 


44,716 


30,580 


*14,136 




68 .4 


31 .6 




Montgomery* . 


1923 


4 


2 


25,140 


10,650 


*9,300 


5,190 


42 .4 


37 .0 


20.6 


Baltimore 


1924 


7 




28,436 


18,239 


5,899 


4,298 


64 .1 


20 .8 


15.1 


Calvert 


1924 


2 




8,249 


2,100 


6,149 




25.5 


74.5 




Carroll 


1924 


1 




10,759 


3,600 


7,159 




33 .5 


66.5 




Frederick*. 


1924 


2 




11,820 


7,030 


*4,790 




59.5 


40.5 




Pr . George's. .. 
Talbot 


1927 


2 




7,707 


1,800 


5,907 




23 .4 


76 .6 




1927 






9,633 


2,000 


7,633 




20 .8 


79 .2 




Harford 


1928 


2 




7,855 


4,420 


3,435 




56 .3 


43 .7 




Cecil.. 


1929 


1 




10,954 


4,028 


6,152 


774 


36 .8 


56 .2 


7.0 


Wicomico 


1929 


1 




8,907 


3,360 


5,547 




37.7 


62 .3 




Anne Arundel 


1930 


3 




26,000 


5,000 


14,700 


6,300 


19 .2 


56 .6 


24 -.2 


Kent 


1930 


2 




14,731 


3,610 


8,721 


2,400 


24 .5 


59 .2 


16.3 


Washington* .. 


1930 


3 




20,924 


7,800 


*11,624 


1,500 


37 .3 


55.5 


7.2 


Worcester 


1931 


1 




9,493 


2,000 


7,493 




21.1 


78 .9 




Garrett 


1931 


2 




11,094 


2,500 


8,594 




22 .5 


77 .5 




Dorchester* .... 


1931 


2 




17,125 


2,100 


*15,025 




12 .3 


87 .7 




Queen Anne's.. 
Howard 


1931 


1 




7,305 


2,400 


4,905 




32 .9 


67.1 




1932 


2 




11,058 


1,000 


6,058 


4,000 


9.0 


54 .8 


36 .2 


Charles 


1932 


1 




10,094 


1,280 


8,814 




12 .7 


87 .3 




Somerset 


1932 


1 




8,130 


1,500 


6,630 




18.5 


81 .5 




St . Mary's 


1933 






7,685 


1,150 


5,973 


562 


15.0 


77 .7 


7.3 


Caroline 


1934 









































Includes cost of Branch Bacteriological Laboratories in counties indicated. 



Medical Examinations and Inspections of School Children 

Medical examinations of school children on the invitation of the 
school authorities, supplemented by inspections by the nurses, and 
the control of communicable diseases in the schools constituted an im- 
portant part of the regular duties of the county health officers. The 

t Report available through the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director, State Department of 
Health. 

X Caroline went on a full-time basis in January 1934. 



76 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



number of pupils examined or inspected during the year ending July 
31, 1933, was 119,087. Baltimore County led with a total of 23,483 
examinations and inspections; Anne Arundel came next with 13,595; 
Carroll was third with 10,121; and Howard was fourth with 9,196. 
(See Table 53.) 

TABLE 53 

School Activities of County Health Authorities, September, 1932 to June, 1933 



COUNTY 


No. of 
Public 
Health 
Nurses 
Working 
in 


No . of 
Visits to 
Schools 
by 

Nurses 


No. of 
Pupils 

Ex- 
amined 
or 


Preschool 
Examine 
1932 

Number 


Children 
d During 
-1933 

Per Cent 


Per Cent 
Examined 
Requiring 
Vaccination 




Counties 




In- 




















spected 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total 


55 


7,905 


119,087 


4,920 


1,277 


33 .9 


37 .3 


63 .0 


48 .6 


Allegany 


7 


829 


3,702 


222 




12.5 




100.0 




Anne Arundel 


4 


loo 


io,oyo 


291 


80 


36 .5 


20.7 


65.3 


67.5 


Baltimore 


7 


1,305 


23,483 


1,276 


182 


54 .0 


72 .2 


64 .3 


47 .8 


Calvert 


2 


257 


1,644 


91 


143 


74 .0 


98 .6 


25 .3 


28 .0 


Caroline 


1 


94 


1,362 


3 


2 


1 .1 


2.1 


100.0 


100.0 


Carroll 


1 


207 


10,121 


24 




3.9 




79 .2 




Cecil 


1 


57 


2,331 


104 


40 


23.0 


74.1 


85.6 


92 .5 


Charles 


1 


151 


3,132 


75 


62 


41 .0 


30.2 


58.7 


69 .3 


Dorchester 


2 


53 


903 


30 


3 


8.7 


1 .8 


90.0 


100.0 


Frederick 


3 


546 


4,045 


511 


2 


53 .6 


2 .0 


68 .9 




Garrett 


2 


265 


7,899 


355 




67.0 




62 .0 




Harford 


2 


199 


2,504 


373 


38 


65 .4 


37 .3 


56 .8 


50.0 


Howard 


2 


202 


9,196 


97 


37 


35.3 


43 .0 


31 .9 


29.7 


Kent 


2 


354 


3,460 


121 


139 


60.8 


100.0 


52 .1 


64 .0 


Montgomery 


4 


421 


4,121 


48 


30 


5.3 


13.3 


35.4 


20.0 


Prince George's ... 


2 


368 


6,064 


279 


70 


24 .0 


17.5 


52 .0 


65.7 


Queen Anne's 


1 


219 


2,426 


27 


57 


12 .0 


43 .2 


40.7 


35.1 


St . Mary's 


1 


146 


2,290 


19 


25 


7 .0 


14 .0 


68 .4 


64 .0 


Somerset 


1 


231 


2,389 


195 


108 


63 .7 


56.8 


65.1 


62 .0 


Talbot 


1 


460 


5,273 


27 


80 


12 .3 


63 .5 


88 .9 


87.5 


Washington.. 


4 


437 


4,258 


471 




37.9 




88.6 




w icomico 


3 
1 


140 
179 


3,213 
1,676 


236 
45 


165 
14 


51 .9 
16.8 


93 .8 
7 .0 




Worcester 


73 .3 


78 .6 



Complete medical examinations were limited in the majority of the 
counties, to the younger children, those in the first and third grades, 
with check-up examinations in some of the higher grades, and re- 
examination of children in need of follow up care. 

The findings in the medical examination of 9,575 public and 
parochial school children in Baltimore County are of special interest 
because, in spite of the generally unfavorable economic conditions, 
there was a definite reduction in the percentage of children who show- 
ed signs of malnutrition as indicated by underweight, in comparison 
with the proportion who were underweight of the 9,123 children 
examined in 1932. Of the total examined in 1932, 1,484 or 16.3 per 
cent were underweight; of the total in 1933, 1,405 or 14.5 per cent 
were underweight. Another significant improvement was in the in- 
crease in the correction of defects from 12 per cent of the total record- 
ed during the school year ending July 31, 1932, to 22 per cent of 
those observed during the year ending July 31, 1933. 



School Activities of Maryland State Department of Health 77 

The per cent showing evidences of malnutrition was lowest among 
the children in the first and second grades, and highest among those 
in the sixth and seventh grades. 

Examination of Preschool Children 

Child health conferences for the examination of babies and young 
children under school age are held regularly during the year, through- 
out the counties, under the joint auspices of the Bureau of Child 
Hygiene of the State Department of Health, and the County Health 
Departments. The examinations are made by physicians who have 
had special training in child care and a report of each examination 
is sent to the family doctor. 

During the spring and summer conferences special emphasis is 
placed on the examination of children who are reaching school age. 
Through the cooperation of the County Superintendents of Schools, 
many of these special examinations are made in the school buildings. 
The interest of the parents has been aroused and largely through the 
activities of the public health nurses, and the Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciations, the number of the prospective school entrants, brought for 
examination in preparation for admission to school has increased. 

Of the total number of preschool children examined during the 
school year ending July 31, 1933, 4,920 were white and 1,277 were 
colored. They included 34 per cent of the white and 37 per cent of 
the colored children about to enter school. Vaccination against 
smallpox was required for 3,101 or 63 per cent of the white children 
and for 621 or 49 per cent of the colored children examined. (See 
Table 53.) 

Medical examinations are made to help children toward normal 
growth and development and to protect them from avoidable 
illnesses. Effort is made to discover conditions that may need care or 
attention and that would endanger a child's health if not attended to. 
Special attention is paid to the throat, nose, teeth, heart, lungs, vision, 
hearing and to the general health, as indicated by weight and other 
evidences of nutrition or malnutrition. 

Of 4,156 white preschool children examined during 1932, 512 or 12.3 
per cent gave evidences of malnutrition, as indicated by under- 
weight*; 2,484, or 59.7 per cent were in need of dental attention; 991 
or 25.7 per cent had infected or enlarged tonsils; and 2,132 or 51.3 
per cent needed vaccination against smallpox. Of 1,220 colored chil- 
dren in this age group, 171 or 14 per cent were underweight; 492 
or 41 per cent needed dental attention; 229 or 20 per cent had 
infected or enlarged tonsils and 716 or 58.6 per cent were un vac- 
cinated. 

Conferences were held at 89 places in the summer of 1933 in con- 
nection with the visit of the Healthmobile of the Bureau of Child 
Hygiene to St. Mary's, Charles, Prince George's, Kent, Queen 
Anne's and Somerset Counties. The staff of the healthmobile in- 

* Children are considered underweight who are 10 per cent or more below the normal for height and 
weight. 



78 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



eluded a doctor, dentist, the public health nurse of the county visited 
and the driver of the car. 



Diphtheria Immunization 



Immunization against diphtheria was given to 14,838 children of 
school age and 2,404 in the preschool group in county clinics. Alle- 
gany led with 3,095 immunizations of whom 93 were preschool 
children; Anne Arundel came next with 1,943, of whom 203 were 
preschool children; Washington was third, with 1,937 school children. 

Dental Clinics 

In school dental clinics conducted in 19 counties, 18,275 children 
were examined and of these 9,614 were treated, requiring the per- 
formance of 42,061 operations. (See Table 54.) 

TABLE 54 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of Maryland 
State Department of Health, August 1, 1932— July 31, 1933 



County 



Total Counties. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

tCalvert 

Caroline 

Cecil...„ 

tCharles 

Frederick..^ 

Garrett 

Harford 

tKent._ 

Montgomery. 

tPrince George's 

tQueen Anne's 

fSt . Mary's 

fSomerset. 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

tHealthmobile 



Time Given 
to Service* 



Full 

Part 

Part 

Part 

3 months.. 

Part 

Part 

Half 

Part 

Part 

Half 

5 months. 

t 

Half 

Part. 



Number of 
Children 



Exam- 
ined 
by 
Den- 
tists 



Treated 



Part 

Part 

Half 

3 months 

Full, 3 mos .f. 



18,275 

2,484 

2,027 
722 
441 

1,252 
507 
785 

1,871 
48 
613 
982 

1,193 

1,549 
265 

93 
446 
524 
1,265 
1,208 



9,614 

2,399 
755 
406 
377 
164 

80 
294 
1,617 

47 
571 
273 
310 

331 
217 

156 
468 
191 
131 
827 



Number of 



Fillings 

In- 
serted 



19,351 

2,697 
2,331 
1,035 
386 
806 
352 
1,014 
4,549 
132 
1,009 
493 
1,279 

373 
100 

286 
351 
1,064 
733 
361 



Teeth 

Ex- 
tracted 



16,866 

5,327 
1,241 
875 
209 
226 
145 
329 
3,049 
155 
625 
309 
561 

641 
146 

182 
928 
339 
270 
1,309 



Clean- 
ings 



4,045 

376 
184 
136 

14 
120 

56 
158 
1,427 

49 
306 
222 
113 

126 
180 

126 
197 
155 
27 
73 



Treat- 
ments 



1,799 

190 
110 
100 
23 
54 
5 
91 
119 
18 
28 
157 
281 

130 
5 

128 
114 

75 
136 

35 



Total 
Opera- 
tions 



42,061 

8,590 
3,866 
2,146 

632 
1,206 

558 
1,592 
9,144 

354 
1,968 
1,181 
2,234 

1,270 
431 

722 
1,590 
1,633 
1,166 
1,778 



* The scope of service varies from full and half time service to one-day clinics conducted but once 
per month. This table, as nearly as possible, reduces these variations to the same basis. Part time in- 
fers one or more one-day clinics monthly . 

t The Healthmobile went to Calvert, Charles, Kent, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St . Mary's 
and Somerset . ( 

A course of 9 lectures was given by three representatives of the 
dental profession on the physiology of the mouth and teeth, diet as 
related to dentition, dental pathology and mouth hygiene as a part of 
the course in hygiene at the Maryland State Normal School at Tow- 
son. The lectures were supervised by the Chief of the Division of Oral 
Hygiene of the State Department of Health. 



School Activities of State Health Dept. ; Cost by School Type 79 



Sanitary Inspections 

The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Department of 
Health made 218 sanitary inspections of 123 public schools during 
the year. The improvements recommended were made at the follow- 
ing schools: 

Sewage treatment plant installed at Great Mills. 

Sewage irrigation field improved at Deals Island, Jarrettsville, and Pomonkey. 

Flush toilets installed at Prince Frederick and Centre ville. 

New pumping equipment and other improvements installed on the water 

supplies at Great Mills, Pine Grove, Sparks, and Pomonkey. 
Water under pressure installed at Prince Frederick. 

New wells built and existing wells improved at Great Mills, Pine Grove and 
Dublin. 

Sewer built to eliminate gutter nuisance at Catonsville. 

By-pass constructed around sewage tank at State Normal School at Salis- 
bury, to be used when cleaning tank. 

Cost Per Pupil Highest in One-Teacher Schools 
The average current expense cost per pupil, exclusive of general 
control, supervision and fixed charges, was highest in one-teacher 
and lowest in graded schools for the counties as a group and in Anne 
Arundel, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Baltimore, Kent, Prince 
George's, Garrett, Harford, and Cecil. Although in these counties 

TABLE 55 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1933, exclusive of Expenditures for General 
Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges 



One- Two- 
Teacher Teacher Graded 
County Schools County Schools County Schools 



County Average ..$50 .90 



Charles 102 .13 

Anne Arundel 69 .95 

Montgomery 63 .19 

Queen Anne's 61 .67 

Baltimore 61 .40 

Kent 58 .76 

Allegany.. 55 .16 

Prince George's ... 54 .96 

Garrett. 53 .10 

Talbot 51 .10 

Harford._ 50.01 

Carroll 49.99 

Caroline 49 .72 

Frederick 49 .53 

Cecil 48.81 

Dorchester 48.48 

St . Mary's 48 .12 

Washington 47 .97 

Worcester 45 .24 

Wicomico 43 .61 

Howard 43 .55 

Somerset 40 .50 

Calvert 34.82 



County Average ..$47 .88 



Montgomery 61 .22 

Talbot 55.87 

Kent 55.12 

Caroline.__ 55 .11 

Wicomico 55 .09 

Worcester 53.93 

St. Mary's 51 .65 

Queen Ajine's 52 .94 

Somerset 51 .65 

Prince George's ... 51 .38 

Dorchester 49 .89 

Howard 49 .80 

Anne Arundel 49 .69 

Calvert 48.44 

Baltimore 48 .17 

Harford 46.04 

Garrett 45.78 

Allegany 45 .35 

Cecil 45.07 

Carroll 42 .43 

Charles 41 .55 

Frederick 40 .74 

Washington 38 .43 



County Average ..$44 .59 



St . Mary's 67 .62 

Calvert 61 .41 

Montgomery 53 .31 

Kent 52 .98 

Queen Anne's 51 .78 

Charles 50.63 

Allegany 47 .09 

Carroll 46 .38 

Anne Arundel... 45 .66 

Talbot 45.59 

Worcester 45 .00 

Caroline...- 44 .98 

Cecil 43 .63 

Dorchester 43 .51 

Prince George's . 43 .44 

Somerset 43.36 

Baltimore 43 .33 

Garrett 42 .62 

Howard 42 .10 

Frederick...- 41 .54 

Harford 41 .53 

Wicomico 39 .55 

Washington 38 .57 



80 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the graded schools have considerable expense for transportation, their 
larger classes more than offset the additional expense involved in the 
smaller classes of one and two-teacher schools. The average cost 
per pupil was $50.90 in one- teacher schools, $47.88 in two-teacher, 
and $44.59 in graded schools. The counties varied in cost per pupil 
from $35 to $102 in one-teacher schools, from $38 to $61 in two- 
teacher schools, and from $39 to $68 in graded schools (See Table 
55.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The capital outlay for white elementary schools in 1932-33 totalled 
$283,165, all except $100,000 of the amount being spent in Anne 
Arundel. Somerset, Baltimore, Harford, and Allegany had a capital 
outlay which totalled between $25,000 and $10,000. (See next to last 
column in Table 56.) 

The capital outlay per pupil belonging in white elementary schools 
is given in column 8 of Table 49, page 69, and the rank in the last 
column. Anne Arundel and Somerset stand out as spending per pupil 
nearly $30 and $11, respectively. 

In the last column of Table 56 is given for each county the total 
capital outlay for white elementary schools from 1920 to 1933 in- 
clusive. Baltimore, Montgomery, Allegany, Washington, and Prince 
George's have spent from $3,000,000 to $832,000 during this period. 
These are the counties in which there has been a considerable increase 
in white elementary school enrollment as indicated in Table 9, page 
19. 



SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 911 county white elementary schools in operation dur- 
ing the school year 1932-33, fewer by 89 than the number the year 
before. Of these schools 409 had one teacher, 180 had two teachers, 
69 three teachers, 253 had four or more teachers, and 138 had 7 or 
more teachers. The number of one and two-teacher schools decreased 
by 79 and 10 respectively from the number the preceding year. (See 
Table 57.) 

Every county except Charles, Harford, and Talbot operated fewer 
white elementary schools in 1932-33 than it did the year preceding. 
The greatest reductions appeared in Baltimore County, Carroll, and 
Calvert, in which there were 15, 14, and 9 fewer schools respectively 
in the later year. These counties carried out a carefully planned con- 
solidation program. (See Table 57.) 

Allegany, Baltimore, and Washington Counties each had two ele- 
mentary schools with a teaching staff of more than 20 teachers. (See 
Table 57.) 



Capital 



Outlay for and Size of White Elementary Schools 81 



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in i-T co* eo* eo* ■«** ->** eo* t~* a* as 01 c-* ©* m' as* ^-* co" eo" oo "* in 

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82 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 57 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of Teachers, 

School Year 1932-1933 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Fredericks 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's ... 

St . Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

"Wicomico 

Worcester 



911 

a66 
30 
65 
7 
21 
4 5 
40 
11 
38 

d49 
87 
53 
30 
24 

f52 

g.™ 
21 
22 
27 
16 

h90 
36 
23 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



180 

14 
6 

17 
3 

b6 
7 
8 
4 
7 

11 
7 

12 
4 
3 

13 
bl4 
3 

10 
6 
1 

17 
5 
2 



55 





<o 


t- 


00 


o 


o 


r] 


IN 




rr 


lO 


cc 


t- 






© 


© 


1-1 


lO 


SD 


1-1 
t- 


i-H 

00 


tH 

Ci 


o 






CO 






cc 


t— 


oo 


O) 


| Ove 


37 


23 


27 


27 


16 


18 


11 


4 


10 


1 


2 


6 


4 


2 


1 


3 


6 


2 


3 


6 


3 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1 








1 


1 






2 


4 




1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 








"I 




3 


2 
1 


4 


4 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 






1 




1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 




























1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


3 


























3 






1 






1 


















2 


1 


1 




























2 


1 


1 


2 


1 
























5 


1 


2 


2 




1 


1 




2 




1 














2 








1 
























2 




1 


1 


1 
















1 












2 


1 


1 
























1 




1 




























2 


2 


1 


3 




2 


1 


2 




1 




2 












2 




1 


3 


1 


3 


2 










1 




















1 






























































1 




1 


















1 










2 
























1 










1 


4 




2 


1 


1 






3 






1 








1 


2 


3 




1 


1 


1 


1 






















2 


1 


1 





























































a Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Greene St . Junior High and Bruce Junior-Senior 
High School. 

b Includes a two-teacher school in which each teacher has only one or two grades . 

c Includes 2 two-teacher schools with primary grades only . 

d Includes the seventh grade of the Brunswick Junior-Senior High School . 

e Includes a two-teacher school with primary grades only . 

f Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Bethesda-Chevy Chase and Takoma-Silver Spring 
Junior-Senior High Schools . 

g Includes the seventh grade of Bladensburg Junior High and Mt . Rainier and Md. Park Junior- 
Senior High Schools . 

h Includes the seventh and eighth grades of South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High 
Schools . 

Fewer County Schools with a One-Teacher Organization 

The Maryland counties are continuing the policy of closing the 
schools in which one teacher instructs all of the grades in order to im- 
prove the teaching conditions for children who attended them. Al- 
though in the fall of 1933 there are still 381 white elementary teach- 
ers giving instruction in the first six or seven grades in one-room 
schools, this is a decrease of 26 from the 407 schools having this type 
of organization of the last school year, and a reduction of 790 under 
the 1,171 which existed in the counties fourteen years ago. On the 
average during this period of years 56 one-room schools have been 
closed each year. (See Table 58.) 

Fourteen years back during the school year 1919-1920, of the 
county white elementary teachers 39 per cent were giving instruction 
in one-room schools. The elimination of these one-room schools 



Size of White Elementary Schools; One-Teacher Schools 83 

means that at present only 13 per cent of these teachers have to be 
responsible for teaching children in all subjects in six or seven grades. 
(See Table 58.) 

TABLE 58 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1933 



County White Elementary Teachers 



bcnool Year Ending June o0 




In One-Teacher Schools 


1 otal 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 


3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


1930 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


1932 


3,022 


489 


16.2 


1933 


2,954 


407 


13.8 


Fall, 1933 


2,934 


381 


13.0 



For the school year 1932-33 the counties varied in the per cent of 
white elementary teachers having a one-teacher organization from less 
than 3 per cent in Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Charles to over 25 



TABLE 59 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1933 





Teachers in 


Pupils in 




Teacher in 


Pupils in 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 










Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




Num- 


Per 


Num- Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber Cent 


Total and Aver 


.. 407 


13.8 


10,602 


10.3 


Talbot 


8 


15.8 


208 11.6 












Worcester 


10 


16.6 


263 12 .1 


Baltimore 


7 


1 .8 


207 


1 .3 


Wicomico 


20 


21 .7 


613 17.5 


Anne Arundel 


3 


1 .8 


85 


1 .4 


Somerset 


15 


22 .2 


447 19.6 


Charles 


1 


2.5 


13 


.9 


Harford 


29 


23 .2 


737 17.8 


Calvert 


1 


5.0 


36 


4 .5 


Queen Anne's 


11 


23 .9 


238 15.1 


Frederick 


12 


6 .1 


308 


4.2 


Dorchester 


23 


25.5 


562 18 .3 


Allegany 


21 


6.4 


512 


5.2 


Cecil 


25 


27 .7 


702 21 .9 


Prince George's 


16 


7.6 


437 


5.9 


Howard 


18 


30 .8 


507 26 .0 


Montgomery 


19 


8.8 


487 


7.9 


St . Mary's 


11 


31 .6 


282 27 .2 


Caroline 


7 


11 .4 


182 


8.9 


Kent 


15 


33 .3 


337 23 .8 


Carroll 


20 


14 .4 


474 


9.8 


Garrett 


71 


56 .3 


1,815 45.8 


Washington 


44 


14.5 


1,150 


11 .6 







84 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



per cent in Dorchester, Cecil, Howard, St. Mary's, Kent, and Garrett. 
The per cent of the children receiving instruction in a one-teacher 
school having all elementary grades ranged from less than 1.5 per 
cent in Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Charles to over 21 per cent 
in Cecil, Kent, Howard, St. Mary's, and Garrett. Garrett with 
71 or 56 per cent of its elementary teachers and 1,815 or 46 per cent 
of the elementary pupils in one-teacher organizations in the most 
mountainous section of the State faces the greatest difficulties in 
solving the consolidation program. (See Table 59.) 

The progress made in Garrett and other counties in the past 13 
years in reducing the number of white elementary one-teacher schools 
is evident by comparing the first two columns in Table 60. The great- 
est reductions have occurred in Frederick, which has 100 fewer one- 



TABLE 60 

Number of Schools, and Pupils in White One-and Two-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, September, 1933, and Number of Schools in 1920 



COUNTY 


One-Teacher Schools 


Two-Teacher Schools 


Number 


Pupils, 
Sept., 1933 


Number 


Pupils, 
Sept., 19£3 






Sept., 




Fer 




Sept., 




Fer 




1920 


1933 


No. 


Cent 


1920 


1933 


No. 


Cent 


Total. 


1,171 


381 


9,925 


9.4 


255 


181 


11,141 


10.5 


Charles 


44 


1 


33 


2.3 


7 


3 


196 


13.5 


Calvert 


32 


1 


30 


4.0 


2 


3 


210 


28.5 


Anne Arundel 


41 


2 


60 


1.0 


11 


6 


340 


5.6 


Baltimore. 


40 


6 


210 


1.3 


43 


16 


1,219 


7.5 


Queen Anne's.. 


33 


6 


131 


8.9 


8 


4 


237 


16.2 


Caroline 


38 


7 


178 


9.0 


4 


6 


311 


15.8 


Worcester.. 


33 


8 


181 


8.5 


8 


3 


192 


9.1 


Talbot 


25 


8 


181 


10.6 


10 


1 


41 


2.4 


Frederick 


111 


11 


293 


4.0 


16 


11 


736 


10.1 


St. Mary's 


48 


11 


269 


27.1 


5 


10 


558 


56.0 


Kent 


24 


13 


301 


22.0 


5 


3 


183 


13.4 


Somerset.. 


28 


15 


399 


17 9 


11 


5 


275 


12.3 


Prince George's 


42 


16 


410 


5.3 


15 


13 


798 


10.3 


Howard 


30 


17 


450 


23.6 


7 


7 


362 


18.9 


Montgomery.... 


39 


18 


402 


5.6 


12 


13 


684 


9.5 


Wicomico 


43 


19 


' 595 


16.9 


8 


6 


357 


10.2 


Allegany 


51 


21 


539 


4.4 


18 


13 


856 


7.0 


Carroll 


97 


21 


501 


10.6 


12 


7 


400 


8.5 


Dorchester. 


57 


21 


518 


17.5 


9 


7 


362 


12.2 


Cecil....: 


57 


25 


678 


21.3 


5 


8 


507 


15.9 


Harford 


51 


27 


710 


17.5 


12 


12 


631 


15.6 


Washington .... 


81 


43 


1,105 


10.0 


16 


18 


1,210 


11.0 


Garrett 


126 


64 


1,751 


44.5 


11 


6 


476 


12.1 



Reduction in One-Teacher Schools; Supervision 



85 



teacher schools than in 1920, Carroll which has 76 fewer and Garrett 
which has 62 fewer. The reduction of one-teacher schools has been 
made possible by the improvement of roads and provision for 
transportation at public expense. (See Table 60 and also Table 50, 
page 72, for per cent of white elementary pupils transported.) 

In September, 1933, Charles and Calvert each has only one one- 
teacher school, while at the opposite extreme Washington County 
has 43 and Garrett 64. For the first time in September, 1933, less 
than 10 per cent of the county white elementary pupils were in one- 
teacher schools. (See columns 2 to 4 of Table 60.) 

The change in the number of two-teacher schools from 1920 to 
September, 1933, and the number and per cent of white elementary 
pupils in two-teacher schools in September, 1933, are given in the 
last four columns of Table 60. 

SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1932-33 there were 50 supervising and 
helping teachers employed in the 23 counties for the purpose of im- 
proving instruction in the white elementary schools, an increase of 
one over the year preceding, making the average number of teachers 
per supervisor 56. Except for the addition of Miss Violet Almony 
to the Baltimore County supervisory staff, there were no other 
changes in the county staffs. The Assistant State Superintendent 
and the State Supervisor of Elementary Schools continued their 
program of visiting teachers with the county supervisors, discussing 
the work of teacher and supervisor, participating in and evaluating 
teachers' meetings held by the county supervisors, arranging for 
supervisors to see and evaluate the work of supervisors and teachers 
in other counties, conducting sectional and State-wide conferences of 
supervisors, and preparing bulletins for the use of supervisors and 
teachers. 

The number of county supervisors employed in the fall of 1933 was 
reduced to 45. Miss Lula Crim in Cecil County retired. Miss Hamill 
in Garrett and Mrs. Sunday in Frederick became principals of ele- 
mentary schools; Mrs. Higgins in Allegany took a teaching position 
in a high school; and Miss Huldah Brust took a leave of absence 
because of illness. The last two positions were filled by the appoint- 
ment of Miss Eckhardt and Miss Alder, supervisors from Carroll 
County. Miss Nellie Gray was added to the supervisory staff in 
Baltimore County. The 1933 legislation made the employment of 
more than one supervisor in a county optional with the county 
Board of Education and the county commissioners for the years 1933- 
34 and 1934-35. Carroll County was the only county entitled to 
have 3 supervisors which reduced the staff to 1. Cecil, Anne Arundel, 
Harford, Frederick, Montgomery, Prince George's, Washington, 
Allegany, and Baltimore each employed one less supervisor than the 
number to which they were entitled prior to the temporary revision 
of the law in 1933. (See Table 61 and Chart 15.) 



Supervision of White Elementary Schools 



87 



TABLE 61 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties for Varying 
Numbers of White Elementary Teachers, October, 1933. 



Number of 

No . of White Supervisors Number pf 

Elementary Allowed Counties Names of Counties 

Teachers By Law 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, Kent, Queen 

Anne's, St . Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Worcester 

80 to 119 2 4 Cecil (1), Dorchester, Garrett, Wicomico 

120 to 185 3 3 Anne Arundel (2), Carroll (1), Harford (2) 

186 to 235 4 3 Frederick (3), Montgomery (3), Prince George's (3) 

236 to 285 5 1 Washington M), Allegany (4) 

286 to 335 6 1 

336 to 385 7 1 Baltimore (6) 



( ) The number of supervising or helping teachers actually employed in October, 1933, is shown 
in parentheses for counties which employed fewer than the minimum number required by the law as 
in effect prior to September, 1933. For the two-year period from September, 1933, to August 1935, 
the employment of more than one supervisor in a county is optional with the County Board of Educa- 
tion and is conditonal upon the provision of funds for their employment by the County Commis- 
sioners . 

Miss Simpson, Assistant Superintendent, spent considerable time 
in the spring and summer of 1933 in the preparation of a 331 page 
bulletin containing six units for each elementary grade on the teach- 
ing of science. As a result, most of the county supervisors are study- 
ing the bulletin with their teachers in order that the latter may be 
better prepared to carry out with their pupils the scientific procedure 
and experiments suggested. The bulletin contains a wealth of in- 
formation from the various scientific fields adapted for use in the 
various grades, together with bibliographies of the most recent refer- 
ence material published. 

The following problems were discussed at the statewide conference 
of county supervisors held on October 20 and 21, 1932 with the Staff 
of the State Department of Education. 

1. Are we as supervisors more concerned with the individual teacher's 
problem and with certain matters of routine than with definite programs 
for the improvement of instruction? 

2. Are we gathering accurate data upon which to base our programs of 
supervision, and are we properly interpreting those data? 

3. What are some practical long-term objectives and how may they be 
initiated and carried out? ■ 

4. What new emphases, policies, and tendencies are apparent in the 
programs of Maryland supervisors? 

5. What are some oi our main problems and attempted solutions in con- 
nection with the classification, promotion, and retardation of pupils? 

6. Are we providing and maintaining well-balanced courses of study? 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

COUNTY WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 30,778 

The county white high school enrollment which has been constant- 
ly mounting since 1920 reached a new peak of 30,778 pupils in 1933. 
Lack of opportunity for employment as well as transfer of pupils from 
private to public schools are probably the chief causes of the unusual- 
ly high enrollment in the public high schools. (See Chart 16 and Table 
62.) 

CHART 16 



GROWTH IN "WHITE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



♦Counties 



tBalto. City EZ3 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1952 

1932- 1933 



9392 

iSSFVSSSSSSSSJ 




— ^ 



233 ■ 



111792 



7///////////A 



'/////////////////////A 



16053 VZ//////////////////////////X 

warn* 



The high school enrollment in county Catholic private and paro- 
chial schools increased from 1,427 pupils in 1932 to 1,503 in 1933, but 
the enrollment in private non-sectarian schools decreased by 296 



88 



White Public High School Enrollment Continues To Grow 89 



TABLE 62 

White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools 
in 23 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City for School Years Ending 
June 1920 to 1933 





23 COUNTIES 


BALTIMORE CITY 


Year 














Ending 




Average 






Average 




July 31 


Enroll- 


Number 


Average 


Enroll- 


Number 


fAverage 




ment 


Belonging 


Attendance 


mentf 


Belonging! 


Attendance 


1920 


9,392 


* 


7,798 


6,208 


5,980 


5,408 


1921 


10,900 


* 


9,294 


6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


1922 


12,815 




11,188 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


1923 


14,888 


13,844 


12.716 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


1924 


16,026 


14,842 


13,696 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


1925 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


1926 


19,003 


17,516 


16,218 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


1927 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


1928 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


1929 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 


12,899 


12,782 


11,802 


1930 


24,760 


23,186 


21,890 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


1931 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


1932 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 


1933 


30,778 


28,877 


27,302 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 



* Average number belonging not reported before 1923 . 

t Includes estimate of ninth grade in junior high schools . 



pupils to 1,358 in 1933. In the counties the combined enrollment 
for public and private secondary schools included 33,700 pupils. 
(See Tables II to V, pages 285 to 289.) 

The enrollment in the last four years of public high schools in 
Baltimore City included 17,707 pupils, compared with 16,053 in 
1932 and 6,208 in 1920. The City as well as the counties, there- 
fore, has shown a remarkable growth in high school enrollment in 
the past thirteen years. (See Chart 16 and Table 62.) 

The City enrollment in Catholic secondary schools numbered 
3,570 pupils in 1933, a decrease of 28 pupils under 1932, and the 
enrollment in the non-Catholic private schools totalled 724 pupils, 
110 fewer than in 1932. (See Chart 16 and Table 62, also Tables 
HI-V, pages 286 to 289.) 

PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The average per cent of attendance in the countv white high schools 
was 94.5 in 1933, which is higher by .4 than in 1932. With Baltimore 
City reporting 93 per cent in average attendance, the average for the 
State as a whole was 94 per cent. Percentages of attendance among 
the counties varied from 92.9 in three counties to over 96 per cent in 
two counties. (See Table 63.) 



DO 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 63 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1931, 1932 and 1933 



County 1923 1931 1932 1933 

County Average 91.9 94.5 94.1 94.5 

Wicomico 92.3 95.8 95.7 96.4 

Frederick 91.5 95.5 95.8 96.3 

Washington 93.1 95.6 94.8 95.8 

Allegany 94.8 95.6 95.1 95.7 

Somerset 91 .4 95.1 94.0 94.7 

Anne Arundel 92.1 94.6 95.0 94.7 

Prince George's 91 .8 94 .5 93 .9 94 .5 

Howard 89.9 93.9 93.5 94.5 

Baltimore 91.3 94.5 94.3 94.3 

Queen Anne's 91 .9 93 .6 93 .9 94 .2 

Dorchester 92.4 94.6 94.4 94.2 

Charles 88.7 92.6 93.2 94.1 



County 1923 1931 1932 1933 

Carroll 88.7 93.4 92.8 93.9 

Worcester 91 .7 93 .5 93 .3 93 .7 

Calvert 93 .5 94 .8 93 .3 93 .7 

Garrett 90.2 93.2 92.4 93.7 

Harford 91 .2 93 .3 92 .5 93 .5 

Montgomery 88 .9 93 .8 93 .6 93 .5 

Kent 90.2 93.7 93.7 93.2 

St . Mary's 86 .8 91 .3 93 .1 93 .0 

Cecil 92.0 92.4 92.1 92.9 

Caroline 91.2 94.0 93.1 92.9 

Talbot 93.2 94.3 93.5 92.9 

Baltimore City ._ 91 .5 92 .9 93 .2 93 .0 

State Average 91 .6 93 .9 93 .8 94 .0 



For attendance in 1933 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VTI, page 291 . 

The average number belonging in the county white high schools 
was highest in October and lowest in May. The highest per cent of 
attendance, 97.1, was found in September and the lowest, 92 per cent, 
in December. (See Table 64.) 

TABLE 64 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White High 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1933 



Average Per Cent 
No. of 
Month Attend- Belong- Attend- 





ing 


ing 


ance 


September 


28,726 


29,578 


97.1 


October... 


28,600 


29,922 


95 .6 


November 


28,094 


29,702 


94 .6 


December 


27,078 


29,424 


92 .0 


January .. 


27,205 


29,062 


93 .6 


February 


27,013 


28,798 


93 .8 



Average Per Cent 
No. of 
Month Attend- Belong- Attend- 
ing ing ance 

March.... 26,778 28,415 94.2 

April 26,359 28,059 93.9 

May 26,145 27,606 94.7 

June *22,017 *22,688 97.0 

Average 

for Year 27,302 28,877 94.5 



* In three counties the schools close on May 31st and no pupils are enrolled in June. 



IMPORTANCE OF THE HIGH SCHOOL IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 

Another way of evaluating the extent to which advantage is being 
taken of high school opportunities is to determine the ratio between 
the average attendance in the high schools and the average at- 
tendance in the high and elementary schools combined. This ratio 
which has shown a steady increase since 1917 was 21.6 per cent for 
the counties in 1933, and 19 per cent for Baltimore City. (See Chart 
17.) 

If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four years 
of high school attendance by every elementary school graduate, the 



Per Cent of Attendance; Ratio of High To Total Attendance 



91 



maximum percentage that could possibly be enrolled in the four years 
of high school would be 33.3 per cent in counties having the 8-4 or 
6-3-3 plan, and 36.4 per cent in counties organized on the 7-4 plan. 
These percentages assume that there is a uniform number entering 
school each year which of course is not the case . 



CHART 17 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITI 
1917 - 1931 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931 
1932 
1933 



Maryland Coxmtles 



Baltimore City V77A 



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BEE 

[jsT 



's.3 "ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ. 



mm 



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w///////// ////////////////////////// 



In the individual counties the ratio of number belonging in high 
school to the number belonging in high and elementary schools 
combined, ranged from 17 per cent in Montgomery to 27.6 per cent 
in Talbot. Except for Somerset and Dorchester, the Eastern Shore 



92 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

counties have the highest proportion of high school pupils enrolled. 
The decreasing elementary enrollment in the Eastern Shore counties, 
however, partly explains this condition and makes it possible for 
these counties to appear to have a higher percentage than the grow- 
ing counties of the Western Shore. (See Table 65.) 

TABLE €5 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in White High Schools to "Number Belonging" in 
White Elementary and White High Schools Combined, by Counties 



County 1924 1931 1932 1933 



County Average 13 .3 19 .6 20 .2 21 .2 

Talbot 18.7 27.5 26.4 27.6 

Kent. 15.2 25.3 27.3 26.7 

Caroline 18.8 25.4 26.5 26.3 

Worcester 18.9 25.1 25.2 26.2 

Charles 5.5 23.2 23.7 25.6 

Cecil 14.3 23.5 24.3 25.4 

Wicomico 19.9 23.9 24.8 25.4 

Queen Anne's 18 .3 22 .6 23 .9 24 .5 

Carroll 13.7 21.1 21.8 23.8 

Harford 14 .8 21 .6 22 .5 23 .5 

St . Mary's 3 .0 18 .8 21 .5 23 .4 

Somerset 15.2 22.5 22.6 22.5 



County 1924 1931 1932 1933 



Calvert 


15 


.5 


20 


.0 


18 .6 


21 .7 


Allegany 


13 


.5 


18 


.0 


19.2 


21 .2 


Anne Arundel 


10 


.2 


15 


.7 


16.0 


21 .0 


Dorchester 


16 


.7 


21 


.6 


21 .4 


20 .4 


Frederick 


14 


.9 


20 


.4 


19.9 


20 .4 


Prince George's 


11 


.6 


19 


.0 


19.8 


19.9 


Baltimore 


11 


.0 


17 


.0 


18.3 


19.9 


Howard 


12 


.7 


18 


.6 


19.0 


19.4 


Garrett 


8 


A 


17 


.7 


18.4 


19.2 


Washington 


11 


.1 


16 


.8 


17.4 


17.7 


Montgomery 


13 


.9 


19 


.6 


18.8 


17.0 


Baltimore City 


9 


.7 


16 


.1 


17.5 


18.6 


State Average 


11 


.8 


18 


.2 


19.1 


20 .2 



91 WHITE BOYS ENROLLED IN HIGH SCHOOLS FOR EVERY 100 GIRLS 

The constant increase in the proportion of boys enrolled in high 
schools which has been evident since 1922 continued in 1933 with 91.4 
boys enrolled for every 100 girls. In the individual counties the ratio 
of boys to girls ran from almost 73 to 102. All but 5 counties showed a 
higher ratio of boys to girls in 1933 than in the preceding year. In 
Baltimore City there were 114 boys in high school for every 100 girls 
making the ratio for the State 99 boys to every 100 girls. (See Table 
66.) 

FOUR- YEAR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES INCREASE 

There were 4,921 graduates from county white high schools in 
1933, of whom 2,114 were boys and 2.807 were girls, a total increase 
of 524 graduates over corresponding figures for 1932. (See Table 67.) 

In Baltimore City the 2,371 graduates in 1933 represented an in- 
crease of 204 graduates over the number reported in 1932. (See 
Table 67.) 

All counties except three on the Eastern Shore showed an increase 
in the number of graduates from 1932 to 1933. Among the counties 
the number of boys graduated from four-year high schools ranged 
from 12 to 305 and the girls from 24 to 293. (See Chart 18.) 

PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

By comparing the number of graduates with the first year enroll- 
ment of four years before, a rough estimate of the persistence to 



Ratio of High To Total Pupils, of Boys to Girls; Graduates 



93 



TABLE 66 

Number of Wh : te Boys in High School for Every 100 White Girls, for School 
Years Ending in June, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1932, and 1933 



COUNTY 


1922 


1924 


1926 


1928 


1930 


1932 


1933 


County Average 


74.3 


76.2 


78.6 


79.8 


82.7 


89.0 


91.4 


Baltimore. 


79.2 


87.4 


85.2 


84.3 


94.0 


100.0 


102.3 


Garrett 


76.5 


78.5 


75.7 


72.4 


78.2 


94.8 


100.8 


Allegany 


61.9 


67.7 


75.7 


71.9 


82.5 


92.5 


97.3 


Cecil 


85.0 


74.2 


69.4 


76.8 


85.0 


95.4 


97.2 


Prince George's 


74.8 


77.8 


80.2 


81.5 


85.2 


93.0 


96.3 


XT J 

Howard 


56.8 


63.1 


87.0 


89.6 


98.7 


95.4 


95.4 


Washington 


94.6 


87.6 


81.2 


78.0 


84.5 


91.2 


92.9 


Frederick 


85.5 


84.8 


89.9 


84.4 


85.4 


93.1 


91.9 


Montgomery.... 


63.7 


76.7 


90.9 


86.2 


80.6 


91.6 


91.3 


Calvert 


77.6 


71.8 


59.1 


62.0 


82.3 


81.0 


89.9 


Somerset 


82.1 


86.1 


74.2 


80.5 


84.5 


80.6 


89.4 


Carroll. 


72.0 


74.2 


83.8 


84.5 


82.8 


87.8 


88.1 


Worcester 


63.4 


67.3 


69.6 


80.5 


77.7 


77.9 


87.5 


Harford 


66.2 


84.8 


72.5 


80.2 


76.7 


85.2 


87.4 


Anne Arundel. 


75.5 


60.1 


82.6 


82.7 


82.7 


85.3 


86.7 


St. Mary's.. 




96.6 


68.5 


76.2 


94.5 


78.7 


85.1 


Charles 


82.8 


69.4 


89.6 


80.5 


88.0 


80.6 


84.3 


Wicomico 


72.5 


68.6 


66.3 


79.9 


80.9 


74.7 


83.6 


Talbot 


79.7 


78.0 


79.5 


86.1 


70.7 


82.6 


80.7 


Kent 


68.5 


75.7 


69.4 


76.4 


70.9 


75.3 


79.2 


Dorchester 


78.6 


71.7 


74.7 


80.4 


72.9 


76.8 


76.1 


Queen Anne's.... 


61.8 


68.0 


63.0 


66.9 


66.7 


73.0 


75.4 


Caroline 


68.0 


69.4 


68.2 


72.5 


74.5 


86.0 


72.8 


Baltimore City 


118.7 


96.9 


104.8 


104.9 


101.5 


108.7 


113.8 


State 


90.0 


83.6 


87.4 


87.8 


88.9 


95.4 


99.1 



TABLE 67 

Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1933 





23 COUNTIES 




Year 








Baltimore 




Boys 


Girls 


Total 


City 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 


653 


1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


698 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


1,167 


1924. 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


1,348 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


1,141 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


1,450 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1,528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


1,503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1,757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


1,775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1,970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2,167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2,371 



94 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 18 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

1953 

■■ Boys EZZ3 Girls 



County 


1932 


1935 


Baltimore 




OvO 


Allegany 


AKA 


C.AA 


We o Vl l ri rr "f rtn 
VI ci bii XII g, bvJIl 






Frederick 


0<do 


Oo4 


Pr« George's 




old 


Mori *f* crnrno Y*v 

... Uil U^vlllCjL 


254 


290 


Harford 


202 


245 


Carroll 


217 


258 


Anne Arundel 


139 


215 


Garrett 


130 


135 


Wicomico 


198 


170 


Cecil 


166 


168 


Caroline 


149 


158 


Dorchester 


164 


145 


Worcester 


130 


155 


Somerset 


109 


124 


Talbot 


131 


111 


Kent 


96 


106 


Charles 


73 


98 


Queen Anne's 


74 


85 


Howard 


53 


68 


St. Mary's 


55 


47 


Calvert 


26 


56 


Balto. City 


2167 


2571 




BE 5 




m 



High School Graduates and Persistence to Graduation 95 



graduation of those who entered high school may be obtained. Al- 
though the first year enrollment includes repeaters of the preceding 
year, this is almost balanced by the fact that the number of graduates 
also includes pupils who have entered after the first year. 



CHART 19 



PER CENT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 



County 



First Year 
Enrollment 
1950 1933 



Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 
■■Bqys CZZ3 Girls 



Total and 
Co. Average 




96 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 68 

Persistence to Graduation by County White High School Pupils 





First 


Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 


Year 


Year 




Four Years Later 






Enrollment 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38 .4 


51 .8 


1924 


6,311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6,772 


44 .2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38 .2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55 .0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42 .2 


56 .3 


1929 


8,587 


51 .2 


42 .9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54 .4 


47.1 


61 .6 



The average of 54.4 per cent in persistence to high school gradua- 
tion in 1933 increased 3.2 per cent from that reported in 1932 and 9.1 
per cent since 1926. The average per cent of persistence in 1933 was 
47.1 for boys and 61.6 for girls. (See Table 68.) 

The percent of persistence to high school graduation among the 
individual counties in 1933 ranged from 30.2 to 66.2 for boys and 
from 44.2 to 88.9 for girls. In all except nine counties, seven of which 
were on the Eastern Shore, there were higher percentages of persistence 
to graduation than were reported in 1932. (See Chart 19.) 

Decrease in the Number of High School Graduates Entering Normal Schools 

Of the total number of white county girls graduated in 1933, 74 
entered Maryland normal schools in September, 1933, compared with 
174 normal school entrants in 1932. These 74 girls represented 2.6 
per cent of the girls graduated in 1933, a decrease of 4 per cent under 
corresponding figures for the preceding year. Not more than 12 girl 
graduates or 8 per cent of the girls graduated in 1933 entered the 
normal school from any county in the fall of 1933. In 6 counties a 
larger number of girls entered Maryland normal schools in 1933 than 
in 1932. In Baltimore City the number of girls who enrolled at the 
Towson Normal School dropped from 57 in 1932 to 19 in the fall of 
1933 and the percentage of normal school entrants decreased from 



TABLE 69 

Boy Graduates from White County High Schools Entering Maryland 
Normal Schools, 1933 





Total 


Boy Graduates Entering 


County 


Number 


Maryland Normal 


White 


Schools 




Boy 








Graduates 










Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County Average 


2,114 


11 


.5 


Allegany 


257 


4 


1 .6 


Washington 


206 


3 


1.5 


Baltimore 


305 


4 


1.3 



Persistence to Graduation; 1933 Normal School Entrants 



97 



4.8 to 1.5 per cent. The fact that a number of recent normal school 
graduates, especially in the City, failed to secure positions, the re- 
cently established charge of $100 for tuition, and the raising of the 
dormitory fee from $5 to $6 a week are probably the chief factors 

CHART 20 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENTERING MARYLAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 
1932 and 1933 



County- 
Co. Average 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Washington 

Charles 

Frederick 

Kent 

Caroline 

Howard 

Montgomery 



Number 
1932 1933 

174 



12 
36 
2 
18 
3 
4 
1 
5 

2 
3 



Per Cent 
1932 1953 



Somerset 6 

Worcester 1 

Pr. George's 5 

Cecil 3 

Allegany 37 

Talbot 2 

Dorchester 4 

Anne Arundel 9 

Carroll 5 

Harford 15 

Queen Anne 1 s 2 

St. Mary's 1 

Balto. City 57 




State 



231 



93 



98 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



which reduced to such small numbers the normal school entrants in 
September, 1933. (See Chart 20.) 

Only 11 white boys graduated in 1933 from high schools in Alle- 
gany, Washington, and Baltimore Counties entered Maryland nor- 
mal schools in the fall of 1933. These boys comprised .5 per cent of 
all county boys graduated in 1933. There is a need for men graduates 
of the normal schools. It is desirable to have at least one man on the 
staff in the larger graded schools. (See Table 69.) 

OCCUPATIONS OF 1932 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 



TABLE 70 

Occupations of 1932 Graduates as Reported by Principals of White County High 

Schools 





Number 


Per 


Cent 


OCCUPATION 












Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Continuing Education 


471 


820 


26.6 


31.2 


Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities ... 


236 


245 


13.3 


9.3 


Normal Schools 


20 


181 


1.1 


6.9 


Art and Music Schools 




OQ 


.5 


.9 


Engineering Courses 


20 




1.1 




ivieuicine, lyeniioLry, r narmacy, ±jaw, 






Agriculture and Ministry 


12 


4 


.7 


.1 


Physical Education, Home Economics, 










and Kindergarten Training Schools 




8 




o 


Army and Navy Academies 


6 




.4 




Commercial Schools 


93 


162 


5.3 


6.2 


Post-Graduate High School Courses 


46 


50 


2.6 


1.9 


College Preparatory Schools 


29 


16 


1.6 


.6 


Hospitals for Training 




131 




5.0 


Staying at Home 


309 


837 


17.4 


31.9 


Working in Own or Others' Home 


186 


338 


10.5 


12.9 


Married 




146 




5.6 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and 






Saleswomen, Business 


243 


190 


13.7 


7.2 


Farming, Fishing, Forestry, Nurserymen.... 


279 




15.7 








Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 










Building, Mining 


91 


46 


5.1 


1.8 


Office Work and Banking 


28 


98 


1.6 


3.7 


Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur. 


31 




1.8 




Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 




.2 


and Telegraph Operators 


13 


6 


.7 


Army, Navy, Aviation 


17 




1.0 




Actor, Musician, Artist 


11 


4 


.6 


.1 


Barber Shop or Beauty Parlor. 


2 


8 


.1 


.3 


Miscellaneous and Unknown 


92 


133 


5.2 


5.1 


Total... 


1,773 


2,626 


100.0 


100.0 



Education Beyond High School 

There were 471 boys or 26.6 per cent of the boys graduated in 1932 
and 820 girls or 31.2 per cent of the 1932 girl graduates who continued 



Occupations of 1932 White High School Graduates 



99 



their education during 1932-33. The number and percentage of both 
boys and girls graduated in 1932 who continued their education 
beyond high school were lower than for the year preceding. Prob- 
ably the failure of recent college graduates to secure jobs, the in- 
creased costs of the schools and colleges together with decreased 
financial ability account for this reduction. (See Table 70.) 

Liberal arts colleges and universities enrolled the largest propor- 
tion of boys who continued their education beyond high school. 
Commercial schools enrolled 5.3 per cent, post-graduate high school 
courses, 2.6 per cent, and college preparatory schools, 1.6 per cent of 
the boys. For girls 9.3 per cent entered liberal arts colleges, 6.9 per 
cent enrolled in normal schools, 6.2 per cent were taking commercial 
courses, and 5 per cent entered hospitals as nurses. (See Table 70.) 

Activities Outside or Inside the Rome 
Due to the scarcity of openings in practically every field, many 
more boys and girls among the 1932 graduates were obliged to either 
stay at home or work at home than was the case for previous high 
school graduates. During 1932-33 there were 495 boys or 27.9 per 
cent of the boys graduated and 1,175 or 44.8 per cent of the girls 
graduated who were staying at home or working in their own or 
others' homes. In addition to these, 279 boys were farming or fish- 
ing, 243 were in business and 91 were working in shops or factories. 
Of the girls 146 married, 190 were employed in business, and 98 were 
doing office work. Miscellaneous occupations claimed the services 
of the remaining graduates. (See Table 70.) 

^ Higher Education of Graduates from Individual Counties 

In the individual counties the percentage of boys who entered 
2 colleges or universities ranged from 2.8 per cent in Cecil to 29.4 per 
<< cent in Howard. For girls the proportion enrolled in colleges ranged 
^ from none at all in Calvert and Howard and less than 4 per cent in 
u« Dorchester to 27.7 per cent in Kent. There were 212 girls enrolled in 
^ normal or teacher training schools, 8.1 per cent of the 1932 graduates, 
£ while only 29 boys or 1.6 per cent of the boys graduated entered 
^ these institutions. (See Table 71.) 

25 Approximately two-thirds of the boys and girls graduated in 1932 
^ who were enrolled in colleges or universities and college preparatory 
Z schools in 1932-33 were attending institutions located in Maryland. 

The availability of scholarships and the location of the colleges near 
~ their own homes were determining factors in choosing the college 
* attended. The largest numbers enrolled at the University of Mary- 
^ land, Western Maryland, and Washington College. Almost without 
exception each Maryland college drew the largest number of its 
county students from the county in which it was located or one 
adjacent. (See Table 72.) 

For individual counties the per cent of boys enrolled in com- 
mercial schools varied from in Calvert, Charles, Garrett, and St. 



100 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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102 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Mary's and .7 per cent in Frederick to 12.5 per cent in Worcester. 
For girls the percentages ranged from in Calvert and 1.2 per cent 
in Caroline to 13.2 per cent in Howard. (See Table 71.) 

The proportion of girls in the counties who entered hospitals as 
nurses varied from in Calvert and .7 per cent in Montgomery to 
10 per cent in Worcester. (See Table 71.) 

College preparatory schools and post-graduate high school courses 
attracted from to 17.7 per cent of the boys and from to 8.4 per 
cent of the girls who graduated in 1932. A few counties did not offer 
opportunities for post-graduate work in the public high schools. 
(See Table 71.) 

Staying at Home or Working in Own or Others' Homes 
More than one-fourth of the boys graduated in 1932 remained at 
home or were working in others' homes. In 3 counties there were no 
boys staying at home, while in the remaining counties the percentages 
varied from 5 per cent to 33.3 per cent. For boys working at home 
the proportion varied from to 54.5 per cent. The proportion of 
girls staying at home ranged from 11.5 to over 50 per cent in 3 
counties, while the percentage of girls working in their own or 
others' homes varied from to 53.9 per cent. In addition the pro- 
portion of girls married comprised from 1.9 to 17.8 per cent of the 
total number of girls graduated. (See Table 71.) 

Work in the Business Field in Individual Counties 

In the counties as a whole fewer positions in offices and stores were 
available to 1932 graduates than to graduates of previous years. The 
variation in graduates engaged as clerks or salespeople ranged from 
to 23 per cent for boys and from to 17 per cent for girls. The 
proportion of boys employed in office work or communication ranged 
from to 14 per cent and of girls employed in this type of work from 
to 16 per cent. (See Table 71.) 

Other Fields of Work 
Farming and fishing occupied the time of from less than 5 per cent 
of the boys graduated in 2 counties to 50 per cent or more in 3 
counties. Manufacturing, mechanical work and building became 
the occupations of 19.4 per cent of the boys in Allegany and 8.3 per 
cent of the girls in Calvert, while none of the boys in 5 counties and 
none of the girls in 12 counties engaged in these types of work. Trans- 
portation became the occupation of from 1 to 5 per cent of the boys 
in 14 counties. (See Table 71.) 

Occupations of Baltimore City Graduates 

Occupational data for Baltimore City are included in the State 
report for the first time this year. They are available for two thirds 
of the 967 boys and one half of the 1,190 girls who graduated from 
the Baltimore City white high schools in 1932. The reports showed 
that of the boys 27.9 per cent were enrolled in colleges or universities 
the year after graduation, 9 per cent entered teacher training in- 



Occupations of 1933 High School Graduates; Subjects Taken 1933 103 



stitutions, commercial schools, and college preparatory schools or 
were taking post-graduate courses in high school. In addition to these 
18.6 per cent were reported as staying at home, 9.3 were occupied 
with business or office work and the remainder of the two thirds were 
employed in miscellaneous occupations. 

Of the 1,190 girls graduated in Baltimore City in 1932, 6.7 per cent 
were reported as attending liberal arts colleges, 7 per cent were en- 
rolled in normal schools, and 10 per cent entered commercial schools, 
hospitals for training and college preparatory schools or were enrolled 
as post-graduates in the public high schools. Besides these 19 per 
cent were reported as staying or working at home or were married and 
9 per cent were employed as salespeople or in offices. But data re- 
garding occupations of nearly one-half of the Baltimore City girls 
graduated in 1932 were lacking. (See Table 71.) 

THE HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM IN 1933 



TABLE 73 

Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools by Subjects 
Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1933 















Per 


Cent of 




Number 






Number 


Total Enroll- 




Enrolled 


Per Cent 


of High 


ment Enrolled 


Subject 










Schools 


in 


Schools 










Offering 


which Offer 












Subject 


Each Subject 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 








Total 


14,488 


15,814 






149 




English.. 


14,358 


15,634 


99.1 


98.9 


149 




100.0 


Social Studies 


12,297 


13,034 


84.9 


82.4 


149 




100.0 


Mathematics 


10,824 


10,608 


74.7 


67.1 


149 




100.0 


Science 


10,510 


10,589 


72.5 


67.0 


149 




100.0 


Latin 


2,421 


3,713 


16.7 


23.5 


95 




82.9 


French.. 


1,989 


3,237 


13.7 


20.5 


120 




90.4 


Spanish 


46 


26 


.3 


2 


2 




4.0 


Industrial Arts 










81 




77.3 


General 


6,380 


8 


44.0 


.1 


80 




73.8 


Vocational. 


520 




3.6 




13 




19.0 


Home Economics. 








115 




87.6 


General 


4 


7,823 




49.5 


96 




80.8 


Vocational 




720 




4.6 


25 




13.3 


Agriculture... 


1,259 


1 


8.7 




42 




23.7 


Commercial 


3,060 


4,094 


21.1 


25.9 


67 




74.8 


Physical Ed. .. 


4,722 


4,387 


32.6 


27.7 


35 




46.4 


Music 


7,714 


9,128 


53.3 


57.7 


116 




89.7 


Art 


741 


737 


5.1 


4.7 


9 




9.6 



For enrollment by subject in individual high schools, see Table XXXIX, pages 328 to 333 . 



English courses required in each of the four years of the course 
were taken by almost the entire enrollment in the county white high 
schools in 1933. Approximately 84 per cent of the county high school 



104 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



pupils were enrolled in the social studies, and nearly three-fourths of 
the boys and over two-thirds of the girls were taking courses in 
mathematics and science. Every county white high school included 
English, social studies, mathematics and science in its program of 
studies. (See Table 73.) 

Latin which was offered in 95 schools was taken by 17 per cent of 
all county boys and 24 per cent of the girls, while French which was 
included in the curriculum in 120 schools was chosen by approxi- 
mately 14 per cent of the boys and 21 per cent of the girls. (See 
Table 73.) 

Courses in industrial arts were given in 81 county high schools and 
were taken by 48 per cent of the total number of boys enrolled. The 
majority of the schools offered courses in general industrial arts, but 
vocational courses in trades and industries were taught to 520 boys in 
13 schools. (See Table 73.) 

Home economics courses were available in 115 high schools which 
enrolled seven-eighths of all county high school girls. General home 
economics courses were taken by 50 per cent of all county girls, 
while vocational courses in home economics which were offered in 25 
schools attracted 720 girls. (See Table 73.) 

These figures do not mean that only 48 per cent of the county high 
school boys have training in industrial arts and 54 per cent of the 
girls in home economics. The actual percentages are nearer 77 per 
cent for industrial arts and 88 per cent for home economics. Since a 
number of schools offer these subjects in only the first and second 
years, many third and fourth year pupils would not be enrolled in 
these couises, having taken them in the earlier years. (SeeTable 73.) 

Courses in agriculture were offered in 42 high schools which en- 
rolled 24 per cent of all county high school boys. Nearly 9 per cent of 
all county high school boys were taking the course in agriculture. 
(See Table 73.) 

Commercial work was available in 67 county high schools in which 
75 per cent of all pupils were enrolled. These courses were elected by 
21 per cent of all county boys and 26 per cent of the girls. Since most 
of the commercial work is offered in only the third and fourth years, 
these latter figures, based on the total enrollment in the high schools, 
do not indicate the actual proportion of third and fourth year pupils 
enrolled in these courses. (See Table 73.) 

Physical education was offered in 35 schools which enrolled 46 
per cent of all county high school pupils. It was chosen by 33 per cent 
of all county boys and 28 per cent of all county girls enrolled. (See 
Table 73.) 

Courses in music were available in 116 county high schools attend- 
ed by 90 per cent of all county high school pupils. Music was taken 
by 53 per cent of the boys and 58 per cent of the high school girls. 
Like industrial arts and home economics, in many schools music was 
a required subject in only one or two years of the high school course. 



Enrollment by Subject in County White High Schools 



105 



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106 IS 33 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Art, offered in 9 schools, was taken by approximately 5 per cent of all 
county high school pupils. (See Table 73.) 

Enrollment by Subject in Individual Counties 
Social Studies, Mathematics and Science 

Over 95 per cent of the pupils enrolled in Cecil, Charles, and St. 
Mary's were enrolled in the social studies. This means that almost 
every pupil was required to have a course in the social studies each 
year in high school. Cecil and Charles offered little Latin and St. 
Mary's had neither French nor special subjects in the curriculum. 
On the other hand, Queen Anne's County which had about one-third 
of its pupils enrolled in Latin and French and offered vocational work 
in home economics and agriculture, had only 63 per cent of the boys 
and 59 per cent of the girls receiving instruction in the social studies. 
(See Table 74.) 

TABLE 75 

Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County White 
High Schools for Year 1932-1933 



COUNTY 



NUMBER OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN' 



Total 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 

Baltimore '.. 

Calvert.. 

Caroline 

Carroll.. . 

Cecil... 

Charles..... 

Dorchester 

Frederick.. 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. ... 

St. Mary's.. 

Somerset 

Talbot. 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 







>> 


tory 


EUROPEAN HISTORY 


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Economics 


World Histc 


Ancient His 


Ancient 

and 
Mediaeval 


Early 


Mediaeval 

and 
Modern 


Modern 


United Stat. 
History 

1 


Problems of 
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4,009 


338 


4,135 


2,529 


593 


407 


597 


3,440 


6,790 


3,741 


550 


255 


377 


313 








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420 


470 




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567 






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317 


171 




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223 


388 




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156 




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227 


131 


137 




129 


24 


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192 


77 


318 


274 


405 




288 




261 


138 


128 




85 
98 


80 








98 


129 


78 


241 


36 


49 








224 


93 


107 


47 


482 


269 
73 








153 


444 


268 


180 




223 








15 


279 


137 


16? 




193 


70 


41 


122 




122 


291 


219 


lie 




24 


119 


28 




52 


122 


113 


48 




190 


25 






134 


97 


196 




313 


180 








31 


400 


175 


343 




201 


132 


48 


42 




300 


445 


157 


50 




108 




93 
68 


72 


78 




52 






95 




51 


196 












113 


147 


112 


14C 




105 


75 








91 


162 


98 


46 




146 


246 








656 


552 


389 


127 




35 


32 




243 




229 


271 


176 


13E 




31 






108 


33 


201 


P0 













* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, death or commitment to institution . 



Enrollment in Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, Languages 107 



The distribution of the enrollment in the various branches of the 
social studies shows that every county included American History 
and Problems of Democracy in its high school program of studies. 
Many of the small county high schools taught combined classes of 
third and fourth year pupils in American History and Problems of 
Democracy in alternate years. Civics was taught in all but 2 counties. 
World history or combinations of ancient, medieval, and modern 
history were given in all except one county. In this one county, 
modern history was the only history other than that of the United 
States offered. Three counties offered courses in economics. (See 
Table 75.) 

A large number of the high school pupils in Cecil, Harford, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's were enrolled in mathematics, while a 
considerably smaller number of the pupils in Carroll, Dorchester, and 
Frederick received instruction in this subject. In these latter counties 
many other electives were available which the students chose instead 
of mathematics. (See Table 74.) 

The distribution of the high school enrollment in the various 
branches of mathematics indicates that Algebra I and II were in- 
cluded in the curriculum in every county, while plane geometry was 
taught in all but one county. A course in trigonometry was a part of 
the mathematics program in 20 counties, mathematics review in 17 
counties, and solid geometry in 14 counties. General mathematics 
was a subject of instruction in 11 counties, the enrollment in Balti- 
more County being very heavy. Vocational mathematics was given 
in four counties. (See Table 76.) 

Courses in science were taken by seven-eighths of the pupils in 
Cecil, but by only slightly more than half the pupils in Caroline and 
Dorchester. General science, offered usually in the first year, and 
biology, given in the second year, were included in the curriculum 
in every county. Chemistry which is taught in the third or fourth 
year, or in some cases is alternated with physics in the third or fourth 
year, was part of the program of studies in every county. Four 
counties did not offer physics in 1932-33. (See Tables 74 and 76.) 

Foreign Languages 

Courses in Latin were offered in at least one school in every county. 
At least one-fourth of the boys in Caroline, Kent, and Queen Anne's 
and St. Mary's and one-third of the girls in Caroline, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, and Washington elected Latin. On the other hand, Cecil and 
Calvert, which offer only beginning Latin in one high school, enrolled 
a very small proportion of their high school pupils in this subject. 
(See Table 74.) 

St. Mary's was the only county which offered no courses in French. 
At the opposite extreme, over one-half of the pupils in Calvert chose 
French as part of their high school program, but it must be noted that 
little Latin was available in Calvert County. A large proportion of 
the boys in Kent and Queen Anne's and the girls in Garrett, Kent, 



108 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Enrollment in Science, Mathematics and Special Subjects 109 



Queen Anne's, Washington, and Worcester also elected French 
courses. (See Table 74.) 

Industrial Arts, Home Economics, Agriculture and Commercial Subjects 

Calvert and St. Mary's were the only counties in which courses in 
industrial arts or agriculture were not available for the boys or work 
in home economics was not offered to the girls. Garrett and Howard 
offered courses in agriculture to the boys but gave no work in in- 
dustrial arts. Courses in industrial arts were taken by at least one- 
half of the boys in 10 counties, and courses in agriculture were chosen 
by more than one-fourth of the boys in 3 of the 15 counties which 
offered the subject. Howard was the only county in which all the 
home economics work was on a vocational basis. In counties offering 
home economics the per cent of girls taking it ranged from 32 in 
Montgomery to 80 per cent in Carroll. In some counties home 
economics was offered in the first or first and second years only, 
while in other counties the old plan of giving it two periods a week 
throughout the course was carried out. (See Table 74.) 

Commercial courses available to high school pupils in every 
county, except Calvert, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's, were taken 
by over half the pupils in Carroll County. Somerset, Washington, 
Howard, and Dorchester had over one-fourth of their enrollment 
taking commercial work. Every county which included commercial 
courses in its curriculum gave instruction in stenography, typewriting 
and bookkeeping to third and fourth year pupils. Many counties 
offered commercial arithmetic and junior business training to first 
and second year pupils electing the commercial course. Carroll and 
Howard gave instruction in typing in the second year. Salesmanship 
was offered in Frederick and Montgomery. (See Tables 74 and 77.) 

Physical Education and Music 

In the 12 counties in which physical education was offered from 9 to 
97 per cent of the boys and from 5 to 90 per cent of the girls were 
enrolled. Baltimore County which enrolled the largest proportion of 
pupils in physical education engaged the staff and services of the 
Playground Athletic League for this purpose. Allegany, Wicomico, 
and Dorchester scheduled regular physical education instruction on 
the high school program in their larger high schools. (See Table 74.) 

Cecil was the only county which did not give courses in high school 
music. Music was taken by over 90 per cent of the pupils in Carroll, 
while only one-fourth of the pupils in Queen Anne's had instruction 
in music. (See Table 74.) 

Data regarding enrollment by subject in each high school are given 
in detail in Table XXXIX, pages 328 to 333. 

ENROLLMENT IN ENGLISH DISTRIBUTED BY YEARS 
Of the 30,298 county white high school pupils in 1932-33 who were 
enrolled in English, 34 per cent were in the first year, 25 per cent in 
the second year, 23 per cent in the third year, and 18 per cent in the 



110 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Enrollment in Commercial Courses and English 111 



fourth year. With the number of high school entrants constantly 
increasing there will naturally be a somewhat larger enrollment in the 
earlier than in the later high school years. In addition, however, the 
losses of pupils from year to year due to inability to do or lack of in- 
terest in the kind of work offered, withdrawals for employment, sick- 
ness, etc., also account for the decline in the percentage from the 
first to the fourth year. (See Table 7 '8.) 

TABLE 78 

County White High School Enrollment in English Distributed by Year of 



English Taken 

Year Number Per Cent 

Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls 

1 10,417 5,327 5,090 34.4 36.5 32.4 

II 7,729 3,667 4,062 25.5 25.1 25.9 

III 6,855 3,270 3,585 22.6 22.4 22.8 

IV 5,297 2,327 2,970 17.5 16.0 18.9 



Total 30,298 14,591 15,707 100.0 100.0 100.0 



In the individual counties the percentage of high school pupils 
enrolled in first year English ranged from 25 per cent in Montgomery 
to over 40 per cent in Anne Arundel and Calvert. The first year en- 

TABLE 79 

Per Cent of Enrollment Taking Engish in Each Year of High School, 1932-33 



COUNTY 


Number 
Enrolled 
in 

English 


Per Cent Enrolled in Engish in 


Years 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Total and Average .... 


30,298 


34 .4 


25.5 


22 .6 


17.5 


Allegany 


3,461 


35.5 


25 .2 


22 .4 


16.9 


Anne Arundel 


1,726 


43.9 


23 .3 


18.1 


14 .7 


Baltimore 


4,319 


36.6 


25.9 


22 .8 


14 .7 


Calvert 


249 


42.6 


19.3 


21 .3 


16.8 


Caroline 


807 


28 .3 


26.8 


24 .5 


20 .4 


Carroll 


1,588 


34 .9 


26.9 


21 .7 


16.5 


Cecil 


1,140 


34.7 


27 .0 


22 .7 


15.6 


Charles 


521 


33 .4 


25.1 


21 .7 


19.8 


Dorchester 


814 


31 .0 


26.5 


23 .0 


19.5 


Frederick 


2,010 


33 .1 


24 .4 


23 .0 


19.5 


Garrett 


982 


31 .8 


26.3 


22 .1 


19 .8 


Harford 


1,344 


31 .9 


26 .3 


22 .5 


19 .3 


Howard 


492 


36.4 


27 .2 


21 .3 


15.1 


Kent. 


543 


27.6 


27 .1 


25 .4 


19 .9 


Montgomery.. . 


1,521 


25.4 


27 .0 


26.8 


20.8 


Prince George's 


2,033 


34.1 


25 .8 


23 .1 


17 .0 


Queen Anne's 


517 


34 .8 


25.0 


23 .0 


17 .2 


St . Mary's.. 


333 


38 .2 


28.5 


18.6 


14.7 


Somerset. 


714 


37 .1 


22 .3 


22 .7 


17.9 


Talbot 


720 


35.0 


24 .0 


23 .9 


17 .1 


Washington 


2,443 


32 .1 


25.8 


22 .8 


19 .3 


Wicomico 


1,204 


37 .4 


22 .4 


22 .2 


18.0 


Worcester 


817 


32 .3 


26 .9 


23 .2 


17.6 



112 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



rollment in Anne Arundel is abnormally high because of the in- 
auguration of the seven-grade elementary course. Not only eighth, 
but many seventh grade pupils were enrolled in the first year of high 
school. The per cent enrolled in the fourth year varied from less than 
15 in three counties to 21 in Montgomery. (See Table 79.) 

WITHDRAWALS AND NON-PROMOTIONS IN COUNTY WHITE 
HIGH SCHOOLS 

Withdrawals from county white high schools in 1933 for causes 
other than removal, transfer, death or commitment to institutions, 
were higher for all subjects than in 1932. Increases in number and 
per cent not promoted were found in English, mathematics, science, 
and French. (See Table 80.) 

TABLE 80 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools bv Subject, for Year Ending July, 1933 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 




























c 




c 




a 




s 




c 




c 


























ii 






OS 


g 


OS 


0) 




O) 


eS 


a> 


2 


<D 


Sj 






t+ 
TJ 


O 


-o 


O 


s~ 
T3 


O 


•S 


"o 




O 


TJ 


O 




J3 


s 


JS 


s 


J3 


. s 




S 




. £ 


JS 






Wit 


Not 
Pro: 


Wit 


Not 
Proi 


Wit 


Not 
Pro 


Wit 


Not 
Por 


Wit 


Not 
Pro 


Wit 


|2 


English 


2,777 


2,487 


1,703 


1,786 


1,074 


701 


9.2 


8.2 


11 .7 


12 .2 


6.8 


4.5 


Mathematics 


2,017 


2,402 


1,257 


1,494 


760 


908 


9 .1 


10.9 


11 .1 


13.2 


7.0 


8.4 


Social Studies 


2,441 


2,070 


1,490 


1,244 


951 


826 


9 .3 


7.9 


11 .7 


9 .8 


7.1 


6.1 


Science 


2,068 


1,525 


1,268 


966 


800 


559 


9 .7 


7.1 


11 .9 


9.0 


7 .5 


5.2 


Latin. 


306 


615 


138 


343 


168 


272 


4.9 


9.9 


5.6 


14 .0 


4 .5 


7.2 


French and Spanish... 


291 


434 


161 


285 


130 


149 


5.5 


8.2 


7.9 


14 .0 


4 .0 


4.6 


Commercial 


1,437 


1,224 


704 


645 


733 


579 


10.2 


8 .7 


12 .5 


11.5 


8.7 


6.8 


Agriculture 


191 


34 


191 


34 






15.1 


2.7 


15.1 


2.7 























For boys increases in the per cent withdrawn were reported for 
every subject except Latin, while a higher percentage of failures was 
found in English and French oyer corresponding figures for the 
preceding year. For girls a higher percentage of withdrawals was 
shown in every subject from 1932 to 1933, while the proportion of 
failures was greater in all but the commercial subjects. (See Table 80.) 

The average per cent of withdrawals for causes other than removal, 
transfer, death or commitment to institutions, ranged from 5 in 
Latin to 15 in agriculture, and for non-promotions the variation was 
from 3 per cent in agriculture to 11 per cent in mathematics. For 
boys the range in withdrawals and non-promotions were the same as 
for boys and girls combined, except that the maximum percentage of 
non-promotions appeared for the foreign languages, Latin and 
French, which averaged 14 per cent. For girls, the smallest propor- 
tion, 4 per cent withdrew from French classes and the highest, 9 
per cent, from commercial subjects. The per cent of failure for girls 
was lowest in English and French, under 5 per cent, and highest in 
mathematics, 8. In every subject there was a higher percentage of 



Withdrawals and Non-Promotions in White County High Schools 113 



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^inoosincocMcoco-^ < orj'incccMinocoo i OoocMt- 

OONHCOMOOOHHHMONHrtiCHMmOWOO 





iris 


Ph' 


oo m 

O rH 

osoo 


t- 
00 t- 


osost>coot>o^inoococMcjst-inc>;-^<cococMooincM 
cot-oo-^t-cococ-xco^j"cocMCM'*oo-HTj<inocoost- 

H rH CM H 1—* CM 


Mathematics 






O OS 

co o 

c- fc- 


O t- 
t- CO 


rfOOOt--^-^fOrH^HCMinTj<t-COCOO-<l , COCOt-COCOCO 

inosoOHcot-ooco«oscot-Tj<-*inoseocot-eoininco 


CO 

>> 


Ph' 


1,494 
1,467 


13.2 
13.9 


coinTHcoeoosooososcooTj<t-OT}<Ti<mcoosr-icoin 

rHfCOCMHTfCOCMOWCOincMCOOHCOHOOt-t-Tt 

i-l -1 iH CO -H ^H rH <M HN H^H^H^HCMiH i— < CO 


Bo 


► 


1,257 
1,042 


11 .1 

9.9 


c^inint-inoocMOt-coTf-^oosoO'S'CMCMcocot-t- 

OC10iO'HNHO>HifHNOTfrtniOIMWNt-HJC( 



in oq cq in cm oo co_ oo_ in cm cq ^ tj< o cm t-; cq tj< tj« os in rH ^< tj< 
Tfeo Tj«Tf-H/ cm tj< mcoos CMOS co tt oo co os co co m co 



llrtOlCOTfXCDOt-rHX'^COl 



1 1— oc m co ^ 



oo m 

t- 1- 

o os coco m os oo os m t- t- os t- m m oo m in t- co co w co m co t- 



COOO CM-h OOSOS-^CO^HOO^Hrf<osCN , ^"CO^--uOC<lcM050CMeO 
00 CM * " 

t- co cm cm co -^r cm t- t- m m cm co o co cm t- tj< o cm o co -< « co co t- 



CO CM 
O CO 

t- co 



t- rH in cq os cm cm t- « cq rH cm oq cq cq o cq oq cn in cm oq t> 

— H O O h CO CM -h O 00 O -H CM CM — < — CM CM CO CO H CMOS in O 



> 3 OS i 

'o Hl 



. i cj 



^ Si- ; 

S o c a, ■ 
pic-. 



l8'Jj 

Eg £ 



114 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

withdrawals and non-promotions for boys than for girls. (See Table 

80. ) 

Withdrawals and Non-Promotions in Individual Counties 
English, Mathematics, Social Studies and Science 

In English, the range of withdrawals of boys varied among the 
counties from 7 to 21 per cent, while the range for failures of boys ran 
from 4 to 27 per cent. For girls the corresponding variations in with- 
drawals were from 3 to 10 per cent and in non-promotions from less 
than 1 per cent to 10 per cent. The combined percentage withdrawing 
and failing ranged for boys from 15 per cent in Washington to over 
40 per cent in Calvert and Somerset, and for girls from 6 per cent in 
Kent and Garrett to 18 in Dorchester and Somerset. (See Table 81.) 

For mathematics, withdrawals of boys varied among the counties 
from 5 to 18 per cent and failures from 6 to 35 per cent. The per cent 
of girls withdrawn ranged from 3 to 12 per cent, and the proportion 
not promoted included from 3 to 27 per cent. (See Table 81.) 

In the social studies the per cent of withdrawals for boys ran from 
5 per cent to 22, while the failures ranged from 3 to 18 per cent. For 
the girls, withdrawals from the social studies varied from 3 to 10 per 
cent and non-promotions from nearly 3 to 14 per cent. (See Table 

81. ) 

The lowest county for boys withdrawn from science had 7 per cent 
and the highest 21 per cent, while corresponding figures for non-pro- 
motions ranged between 3.5 and 19 per cent. The minimum per cent 
of withdrawals from science for girls was 3 and the maximum 10 per 
cent. The per cent of failures for girls included from less than 1 per 
cent to 11 per cent. (See Table 81.) 

In the Foreign Languages 

Although there were no boys withdrawn from Latin in 6 counties, 
over 11 per cent withdrew from Latin in Somerset. Failures in Latin 
for boys ranged from in Carroll to one-third or more in Calvert and 
Talbot. The range of withdrawals from Latin for girls was from 
in 3 counties to nearly 8 per cent in Dorchester. With the exception 
of the unusually high percentage of 50 per cent not promoted in Cecil, 
which has a very small Latin enrollment, the per cent of failures for 
girls ranged from to 20 per cent. (See Table 81.) 

Withdrawals from French for boys were highest in Calvert and 
Dorchester, 31 and 21 per cent, respectively. Failures for boys ranged 
between 3 and 26 per cent. For girls the withdrawals and non- 
promotions in French were in general lower than for other subjects. 
(See Table 81.) 

In Commercial Subjects and Agriculture 

Withdrawals from the commercial subjects included from 5.5 to 24 
per cent of the boys and from 2 to 16 per cent of the girls. Non-pro- 
motions for boys in commercial subjects ranged from 3 to 22 per cent, 
while corresponding figures for girls included from 1 to 14.5 per cent 
who failed to meet the requirements for promotion. (See Table 81.) 



Withdrawals, Non-Fromotions and Number of Teachers by Subject 1 1 5 



The boys who dropped vocational agriculture ranged from 7 to 
26 per cent, while the non-promotions varied from to 20 per cent. 
Both withdrawals and non-promotions in agriculture were at their 
maximum in Somerset. (See Table 81.) 

THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 

In 1932-33 in the work of the last four years in the county white 
high schools a teaching staff equivalent to the full-time service of 
1,183 teachers was employed, 21 fewer than the preceding year. 
Except for French and commercial subjects, every subject had a 
smaller teaching staff on a full-time basis than in 1932. (See Table 82.) 



TABLE 82 

Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in 
White County High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



SUBJECTS 


Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 


Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 


Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


Approximate 
Number 
Different 

Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


Teachers 


Schools 


English 


203.9 
169.3 
152.4 
150.6 
54.3 
50.2 

98.4 
80.7 
a60.1 
43.6 
27.1 
24.4 
11.8 
2.7 

53.3 

1,182.8 


149 
149 
149 
149 
120 
95 

67 
115 
81 
116 
42 
35 
18 
9 








Social Studies 








Mathematics 








Science 








French and Spanish .. 
Latin 














Commercial 








Home Economics- 
Industrial Arts 


16 
cl4 
bc24 

7 


c5 
31 
69 
15 


107 

75 

73 
33 


Music 


Agriculture 


Physical Education. .. 
Library 








Art 








Administration and 
Supervision.... 








Total... 





















a Includes teachers of mechanical drawing and vocational industrial arts . 

b Includes an orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools which already have 
a regular music teacher, and a music supervisor in Frederick who teachers in 3 schools which have a 
regular music instructor . 

c Includes one teacher who instructs in both industrial arts and music in 2 schools . 



English, with 204 teachers on a full-time basis, had more teachers 
than any other subject. The number of teachers of social studies on a 
full-time basis was 169, while mathematics required 152 and science 
151 teachers. French and Spanish required over 54 teachers, 2 more 
than the year before and Latin had 50 teachers on a full-time basis. 
(See Table 82.) 

The full-time equivalent of 98 teachers was required for instruction 
in the commercial subjects, 1 more than in 1932. Home economics 
with 81 teachers on a full-time basis, actually required the services of 



116 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



107 different teachers instructing in 115 schools. Industrial arts and 
vocational work in trades and industries with a full-time staff of 60 
teachers included 75 different teachers who taught in 81 schools. 
(See Table 82.) 

Music with 44 teachers on a full-time basis was taught in 116 
schools by 73 individuals. There were 27 full-time teachers of 
agriculture, but actually 33 individuals gave instruction in 42 schools. 
Physical education required the services of 24 teachers on a full-time 
basis, and the art courses were given by the equivalent of 3 full-time 
instructors. (See Table 82.) 

Eighteen schools employed the services of 12 librarians or teacher- 
librarians on a full-time basis. Administration and supervision re- 
quired on a full-time basis 53 principals and vice-principals. The 
principals in 8 large county high schools who devoted all their time to 
administrative and supervisory work did no teaching. (See Table 
82.) 

Five counties employed clerks in 15 large high schools at an annual 
salary cost of $9,251. The average salary of $617 is much lower than 
that paid a teacher, and the principal is relieved of many clerical 
and routine duties making it possible for him to devote his time to 
constructive professional supervision. (See Table 83.) 

TABLE 83 

Number of Clerks in County White High Schools, 1932-33 

Average 

No . of Total Annual 



County Clerks Salaries Salary- 
Total 15 $9,251 $617 

Allegany 7 4,389 627 

Montgomery 3 2,250 750 

Baltimore 3 1,531 510 

Anne Arundel 1 581 581 

Frederick. 1 500 500 



CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

Of 843 principals and teachers employed in regular and senior 
white high schools in all counties except Montgomery in October, 
1933, 97.5 per cent held regular principals' and high school assistants' 
certificates. The 21 high school instructors holding provisional cer- 
tificates or employed as substitutes are a reduction of 14 under the 
number employed in October, 1932, and the 2.5 per cent reported 
this year is 1.1 lower than for the preceding year. Of 399 principals 
and teachers in junior-senior high schools of seven counties, 88 per 
cent held regular principals' and high school teachers' certificates, 
8.5 per cent had regular first grade certificates, and 3.5 per cent were 
substitutes or held provisional certificates. Of 114 principals and 
teachers in junior high schools of four counties, 65.8 per cent were 
certificated as principals or regular high school assistants, 31.6 per 
cent as holding elementary first grade certificates, and 2.6 per cent 
were substitutes or provisionally certificated. Similar data for in- 
dividual counties are given in detail in Table XIII, page 297. 



Teachers by Subject, Clerks, Teacher Certification, Summer 117 
School Attendance 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
Of the teachers employed in county white junior, junior-senior and 
regular and senior high schools in October, 1933, 357 or 26.3 per cent 
attended summer school in 1933. (See Table 84.) This is a lower per- 

TABLE 84 

White High School Teachers Who Were 
Summer School Attendants 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


232 


31 .0 


1925 


280 


32 .3 


1926 


281 


30 .7 


1927 


319 


32 .7 


1928 


296 


28 .4 


1929 


367 


33.5 


1930 


410 


34 .3 


1931 


448 


36.1 


1932 


*472 


35 .1 


1933 


*357 


26 .3 



* Includes teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools . 



centage than was reported in any year since 1924 but can be attri- 
buted to the special regulations for summer school attendance in 
1933 and 1934 passed by the State Boaid of Education in May, 1933. 
The special regulations for 1933 read as follows: 

On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1933 may, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school 
attendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1935 for 
four years on the basis of summer school credits. If, on the other hand, 
summer school credits are presented in 1933, the renewal will extend over 
six years. 

It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be re- 
newed for the first time in 1933 present summer school credits for the 
renewal. 

In the individual counties the per cent of high school teachers who 
attended summer school varied from 12.5 in Kent to 48 per cent in 
Howard. In seven counties, Howard, Charles, St. Mary's, Washing- 
ton, Calvert, Worcester, and Wicomico, the same or a higher percent- 
age of white high school teachers in service in October attended sum- 
mer school in 1933 as or than in 1932. In addition to the number of 
teachers attending summer school, 27 teachers employed in the 
junior high schools in Allegany and Washington Counties and 23 high 
school teachers in Allegany, Carroll and Frederick completed ex- 
tension courses given under the jurisdiction of Western Maryland 
College during the school year 1932-33. (See Table 85.) 

More than one-third of the summer school attendants from the 
Maryland counties, 125, attended the University of Maryland, 55 
were em oiled at Johns Hopkins University, 39 took courses at Colum- 
bia University, while Western Maryland College attracted 25. The 
remaining teachers attended various summer schools throughout 
the country. (See Table 85.) 



118 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 85 

County Wh'te High School Teachers in Service in October, 1933, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1933 



County 



Total 

Howard 

Charles 

St . Mary's 

Washington 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Prince George's. 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's ... 
Anne Arundel.. 
Kent 



Teachers Employed 

Oct., 1933, Who 
Attended Summer 



School 


n 1933 


Number 


Per Cent 


357 


26 .3 


12 


48 .0 


10 


41 .7 


4 


40.0 


43 


36 .8 


3 


33 .3 


12 


33 .3 


10 


30.3 


33 


30.3 


9 


30.0 


26 


29.2 


23 


28 .4 


13 


27.7 


13 


26.5 


14 


25.9 


10 


25.0 


38 


24.7 


8 


21 .1 


8 


20.5 


16 


19.8 


36 


19.5 


4 


18.2 


9 


15.0 


3 


12.5 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Teachers College, Columbia Un . .. 

Western Maryland College 

George Washington University 

University of Virginia 

Pennsylvania State University 

University of Chicago 

Duke University 

Ohio State University 

University of Pennsylvania 

Temple University 

University of West Virginia 

Indiana State University 

University of North Carolina 

Cornell University 

Bowling Green. 

University of California... 

University of Southern California 

Bradley Institute 

All Others and Travel 



GROWTH OF TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR AND 
JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



TABLE 86 

Teachers in County White Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools 



October 


Total 


Alle- 
gany 


Mont- 
gomery 


Prince 
George's 


Wash- 
ington 


Fred- 
erick 


Caro- 
line 


Balti- 
more 


1926 


125 
155 
175 
179 
217 
334 
362 


125 
134 
138 
137 
138 
146 
151 














1927. 


21 
37 
42 
51 
96 
101 












1928 












1929 












1930 


28 
33 
33 










1931 


44 
44 


15 
15 






1932 


13 


5 



The number of teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools 
has grown from 125 employed in Allegany County in October, 1926 
to 362 in seven counties in October, 1932. Allegany still has the 
largest number, 151, and Montgomery which was the second county 
to change to this type of organization has 101 teachers in junior- 
senior high schools. Caroline with the junior-senior high school at 
Denton and Baltimore County with the junior high school at Ran- 
dallstown are the new schools appearing for the first time in October, 
1932. (See Table 86.) 



Summer School Attendance; Junior, Junior-Senior High 119 
School Staff; Resignations 



RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
There was a considerable reduction in the number of resignations 
from county white regular and senior high schools for the school 
year 1931-32 under any of the four years preceding. In 1928-29 there 
were 166 resignations, while in 1931-32 the number was reduced to 
107. (See fourth from last column in Table 87.) 

TABLE 87 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County Regular and Senior White High Schools and from Junior and Junior-Senior 
High Schools Between October of One Year and October of the Following Year 



YEAR 



S3 c 

■i-a B 

>fc £ 

O u 3 

2- c y. 



0£ 



ges C 



c < p_ 



<- C ci 
0+= 



Xj: o 

C OrN 

u c E 

=- y. 7i 



White Regular and Senior High Schools 



1927-1928 


20 


41 


2 




19 


37 


5 


2 


2 


5 




2 


13 


148 


7 


36 


6 


1928-1929 


19 


44 


7 




19 


53 


3 


5 




10 




2 


4 


166 


17 


50 


7 


1929-1930 


17 


43 


6 




17 


50 


4 


5 


2 


2 




2 


15 


163 


9 


37 


22 


1930-1931 


29! 


36 


11 




16 


33 


4 


4 


3 


1 




1 


9 


147 


4 


27 


63 


1931 -1932 


26| 


22 


11 


9 


7 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 




14 


107 


7 


15 


26 



White Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools 



1927- 1928 

1928- 1929' 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1932, 



The number of resignations from junior and junior-senior high 
schools was 26 for the school year in 1931-32. This number was not 
very different from the number in preceding years. (See lower part of 
Table 87.) 

Inefficiency was reported as the chief cause of resignation, 26 hav- 
ing withdrawn for this reason from the regular and senior high schools. 
There were 22 teachers who left these schools because they were 
married. This was fewer than for any preceding year reported partly 
because fewer married, but also because more who married stayed in 
the service. Provisional certificates or failure to attend summer school 
brought about 11 resignations and 9 were due to abolished positions 
resulting partly from the retrenchment program. Work other than 
teaching and teaching positions outside the counties drew 11 teach- 
ers, fewer than for any preceding year reported. (See upper part of 
Table 87.) 

Marriage and provisional certificates or failure to attend summer 
school were given as the causes for withdrawal of 14 of the 26 teachers 
who resigned from junior and junior-senior high schools. (See lower 
pait of Table 87.) 



120 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The last column which shows transfers to other types of schools 
in the same county in a number of cases is the place where teachers 
who transferred from regular to junior or junior-senior high schools, 
or vice versa are included. (See last column Table 87.) 

LOWER TURNOVER IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of white teachers new to the county white 
regular and senior high schools decreased from 282 in 1930-31, 25 per 
cent of the number in service, to 108 or 11 per cent in 1932-33. The 
turnover in county white junior and junior-senior high schools of 58 
or 8 per cent in 1932-33 was lower than the percentage two years 
before which was 22, and of one year before which was 20 per cent. 
(See Table 88.) 

For the first time since the unprecedented growth in high school 
enrollment there was a net decrease in the number of teaching posi- 
tions in county white high schools. From October 1931 to 1932 there 
was a net decrease of 15 positions because many of the counties 
did not fill vacancies which occurred, but instead arranged for larger 
classes or heavier teaching schedules. (See Table 88.) 

Of the 166 teachers new to the county white high schools of all 
types during 1932-33, there were 81, nearly one-half, who were in- 
experienced teachers, 23 who were experienced from other states, 21 
who were formerly teachers in the counties but out of service in 1931- 
32, and 8 substitutes. In the regular and senior high schools there 
were 4 teachers, and in the junior and junior-senior high schools 
there were 29 teachers, who were teaching in the county the pre- 
ceding year, but were classified as in schools of another type. In 
addition there were 16 teachers who transferred from one county to 
another. (See upper portion of Table 88.) 

The teachers new to the individual county high school teaching 
staffs varied from 2 per cent in Harford which employed only one 
new high school teacher to 25 per cent or more in Anne Arundel, 
Calvert, and St. Mary's. (See Table 88.) 

Carroll, Garrett, and Prince George's reduced the number of high 
school teaching positions from October, 1931 to 1932 by 7, 5, and 5 
respectively. But Montgomery, Allegany, Cecil, and Wicomico 
found it necessary to add from 5 to 2 teachers to their high school 
staffs. (See Table 88.) 

Anne Arundel employed the largest number of inexperienced teach- 
ers, 12, Carroll and Allegany each employed 8, Washington and 
Frederick each 7. (See Table 88.) 

In Baltimore City the turnover of 28 in senior high schools and 108 
in junior high schools represents 7 and 18 per cent of the staff respec- 
tively. There was a decrease in the staff of 22 in senior and 8 in junior 
high schools. The inexperienced teachers placed in service in Balti- 
more City included 11 in senior and 16 in junior high schools. The 
chief source of teachers new to the Baltimore City senior or the junior 
high schools came from assignment of teachers who had been in ser- 



Turnover in White High Schools 



121 



vice in types of schools other than senior or junior high schools 
respectively or who had been in administrative or supervisory ser- 
vice. For senior high schools there were 12 and for junior high schools 
there were 85 whose assignments had been in a different type of school 
or in administrative or supervisory work prior to their new assign- 
ment. (See Table 88.) 

TABLE 88 

Number and Per Cent of White Regular and Senior High and Junior and Junior- 
Senior High School Teachers* New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1932-33 



County 



Total and 
Average 

1930- 31* / 

1931- 32* f 

1932- 33* ) 



Harford... 

Talbot 

Somerset 
Allegany* 



Montgomery") - .. ... 

Charles 

Cecil 

Washington* .. / 



Worcester.. 
Wicomico . 

Kent ..... 

Baltimore* 



Carroll 

Caroline*. 



Queen Anne's. 
Frederick* 



Prince 

George's* 

Dorchester... 

Garrett 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

St . Mary's 



Baltimore 
City* 

Entire 
State .... 




Number New to County High Schools Who Were 



Experienced 



but 

New 

to 
State 



in Counties 
but not 

in 
Service 
Preceding 
Year 



From 



other 
County 



From 
Other 
Types of 
Schools 
in Same 
County 



16 



L3 



12 



16 
114 



Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 
and 
others 



* Top row of figures includes teachers in regular and senior high schools, bottom row represents 
teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools. 

t All secondary schools in Montgomery are organized as junior-senior high schools . 

I In computing percentage of turnover in junior and junior-senior high schools teachers who have 
been transferred from regular high schools in the same countv have been excluded 
Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 



122 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
COLLEGES ATTENDED BY INEXPERIENCED TEACHERS 

Of the 81 inexperienced teachers appointed in county high schools in 
1932-33, there were 61 who were graduates of Maryland colleges. 
Western Maryland trained 27, the University of Maryland 12, Hood 
College 10, and Washington College 7. Anne Arundel and Carroll 
each appointed 7 of the graduates from Western Maryland College. 
Ohio and Pennsylvania colleges each trained 5 of the inexperienced 
teachers appointed, while Virginia trained three. (See Table 89.) 

TABLE 89 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperienced 
White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Regular and Senior High 
Schools; Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teaching Experience 
in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland Counties, for School Year 

1932-33 









3i 

-a 


























>> 


rge's | 


o 

0! 








C 






STATE OF 






c 
3 


0) 












u 

9) 


M 










Z 
£ 


o 

01 


a 
c 


JD 
V. 









o 


u 


COLLEGE 








s 




V 








DO 


o 




TS 






a 


a 


< 




i 




& 




0- 


attended 


Total 


c 

< 


Anne A 


Baltim. 


s 
> 

o 


Carolir 


Carroll 


Cecil 


8 

r3 
-C 




Dorche 


Frederi 


Garreti 


Harfor 


Howar 


Kent 


Montg. 


Prince 


Queen 


as 
CO 


Somers 




33 


Washir 


Wicom 


Worces 



Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1932-1933 



Total 


§81 


a8 


12 


t3 




4 


8 


2 


2 


2 


{7 


4 




2 


1 


+ 1 


t3 


2 


3 


2 


1 


°7 


4 


2 




Maryland 


61 

J27 
U2 
xlO 


5 

*1 
1 

*3 


9 

7 
1 


2 


l 
l 


2 

1 
1 


8 

7 
1 


1 




2 
1 


5 


4 

3 




2 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 

1 
1 


2 
2 


1 


4 
t2 


4 

1 

2 

"i 




Western Maryland 


University of Md 




1 




*1 


t3 




Hood 


1 




"l 


t3 


i 








t2 


Washington 


7 
1 
1 
*1 
1 
1 

t5 
t5 
3 

V 












1 






2 






1 


Goucher 


















Johns Hopkins Univ 


1 










































Notre Dame 














*1 




























Peabody 






1 








































St . Joseph's 


















1 




























Ohio 


*1 
1 

*1 


2 
1 






1 






























*1 




i 
i 


Pennsylvania 










2 






















Virginia 




























1 










7 Other States 






1 






2 






















t2 




















t 















Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 1932-1933 



Total 


®23 


*3 


3 
















2 


1 






2 


*4 


°6 














1 




























Maryland 


4 
t2 
*2 

2 
*2 
t2 
x9 


*i 


2 
















2 




























Kentucky 


1 








































N . Carolina 


























*2 
















Tennessee 




1 
























1 










































*1 


*1 
















West Virginia 


*i 
*i 


























1 
















9 Other States 




















1 






*3 


t3 














1 









































§ Includes 15 teachers in junior or junior-senior bigh schools . 
* Teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools . 
t Includes one teacher in junior or junior-senior high school . 
t Includes two teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools 
° Includes four teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools 
x Includes five teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools 
a Includes six teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools . 
® Includes 11 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools . 



Preparation and Assignment of Inexperienced Teachers 



123 



Of the 23 teachers who were appointed in Maryland counties after 
having had experience in other states, 4 had had their training in 
Maryland colleges. Prince George's, Montgomery, Allegany, and 
Anne Arundel employed 16 of the teachers experienced in other 
states. (See Table 89.) 

APPOINTMENTS COMPARED WITH NUMBER OF GRADUATES OF 
MARYLAND COLLEGES ELIGIBLE FOR HIGH SCHOOL 
TEACHING CERTIFICATES 

A comparison of the number of 1932 county and city graduates of 
Maryland colleges eligible for high school teachers' certificates with 
the number who received positions indicates that about 40 per cent 
of the eligible county graduates received positions in the Maryland 
counties in 1932-33. (See Table 90.) 

TABLE 90 

Maryland Students Who Completed, in June 1932, at Colleges Indicated, the Edu- 
cation Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the Number of 
Graduates Who Took Positions in the County High Schools 
in the Fall of 1932 

Number of Graduates 
Who Met Requirements 
for Certification from Who Received 





Maryland 


Baltimore 


County High 


College 


Counties 


City 


School Positions 


Western Maryland 


49 


2 


27 


University of Maryland 


40 


7 


12 


Washington 


17 






Goucher 


3 


13 




Notre Dame 


8 


8 




St. Joseph's 


8 


4 




Johns Hopkins University.. 




5 




Total 


125 


39 


50* 



* This total excludes 10 graduates from Hood and 1 from Peabody, because the number eligible 
for certification was not reported. 



SUBJECTS STUDIED AND TAUGHT BY INEXPERIENCED TEACHERS 

The subjects in which inexperienced high school teachers who were 
appointed in 1932-33 were certificated and which they taught show 
that the high schools are approaching the point where no teacher is 
giving instruction in subjects in which she is not certificated. Eng- 
lish and history seemed to be the combination of subjects in which 9 
teachers were certificated and 8 received assignments. Six teachers 
received assignments to teach only commercial subjects, and only 
English, while five taught science only, mathematics and science, 
and English and music. There were four assignments to music only, 
mathematics only, history only, history and Latin, and home econ- 
omics only. There were three appointments to teach industrial arts 
only, and English and French. (See Table 91.) 



124 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 91 



Subjects in Which Certificated and Subjects Taught by 81 Inexperienced White 
County High Schoal Teachers in Service October, 1932 



■ — 

SUBJECTS 


Number of In- 
experienced High 
School Teachers 


ottt> TT?rrro 

SUBJECTS 


Number of In- 
experienced High 
School Teachers 


Certifi- 
cated to 
Teach 


Teaching 
Oct. 
1932 


Certifi- 
cated to 
Teach 


Teaching 
Oct. 
1932 




2 




French, History, Latin 




1 


Agriculture, English, Science. 
Agriculture, Math ., Science 


1 
1 
1 
6 


French, History, Math 

French, Latin 


1 
1 


Art 


1 

5 
1 
4 
3 
6 

1 

1 
1 
1 
9 
1 




1 

4 
1 
4 

1 




French, Math ., Phys. Ed . 
Science 


1 


Commercial, History 


English 


6 

3 


French, Science „ 




History 


3 

r 

i 
i 
i 

5 
2 
3 


English, French, History 


History, Home Ec ., Science 
History, Latin... 


English, French, History, 




History, Latin, Science 


English, French, History, 




History, Math . Science 


History, Science 


English, French, Latin 




Home Economics 


4 
2 
3 
1 


English, French, Music 




Home Economics, Science.... 
Industrial Arts 


English, History 


8 
1 
1 


English, History, Latin 

English, Home Economics 


Ind . Arts, Math ., Science .. 
Latin 


1 


English, Latin 


1 


2 
1 
4 
5 
4 
5 


English, Mathematics 


1 


Latin, Math ., Music 


1 
1 

9 

3 
3 


English, Mathematics, Science 
English, Music 


1 
1 


Mathematics., 


5 
1 
1 
1 


Mathematics, Science 


English, Science 


Music 


French.. 




Science 


French, History 


4 







EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

Of the 513 teachers in service in Maryland county white junior 
and junior-senior high schools in October, 1933, the median teaching 
experience was 7 years. The largest numbers of these teachers were 
found for the groups having from two to six years of experience, 46 
having had 4 years of experience, and 45 having had 3 years of teach- 
ing experience. Allegany which has a junior or junior-senior high 
school system in a large part of the county reported 8.8 years as the 
median experience of the teachers, while Frederick with only one 
junior-senior high school established 2 years ago reports 3.8 years 
as the median experience of these teachers. (See Table 92.) 

For 843 teachers employed in the white regular and senior high 
schools in October, 1933, the median teaching experience was 6.1 
years. Of these teachers there were 100 with three years of experi- 
ence, 81 with two years and 72 with four and five years of experience. 
In the individual counties the median years of experience ranged 
from 1.8 years in St. Mary's to 10.5 years in Kent. (See Table 92.) 

MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

During the year 1932-33 the 430 men employed in Maryland 
county white high schools included 36.3 per cent of the total teach- 



Preparation and Assignment of Inexperienced Teachers; Experience 125 



C CO 

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uo:>3utqsB^ »h tJ 






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m -h cm cm co m 

eo 

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laaiauiog 1 


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CM 


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CO 

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s.auuy uaariQ J 


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t- 


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co —t co m o oo c- oc co o x o co t- co oo m 



126 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ing staff. This is the highest percentage of men employed in any year 
since 1923 when the per cent was 36.9. (See Table 93.) 

TABLE 93 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 



1923 253 36 .9 

1924 271 36 .2 

1925 283 35 .1 

1926 303 35 .0 

1927 307 33 .7 

1928 333 34 .3 



Year Number Per Cent 



1929 348 34 .4 

1930: 365 34 .0 

1931 416 35.9 

1932 430 35 .7 

1933 430 36 .3 



In the individual counties the proportion of men employed in the 
high schools ranged from approximately one-fourth in Baltimore to 
over one-half of the high school teaching staff in Garrett. It is evident 
that with the exception of Carroll the counties adjacent to the City 
of Baltimore and Washington, D. C. have employed the smallest 
percentage of men. (See Table 94.) 

TABLE 94 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31. 1933 



Men Teaching 


Number 


Per Cent 


429 .8 


36.3 


32 


25 .2 


16.4 


27 .2 


22 .6 


27.7 


22 


32 .0 


8 


32.9 


3 


33 .3 


17.2 


33.4 


17 


34 .3 


10.8 


34 .5 


.9 


36.0 


16.9 


36 .9 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Baltmore 

Anne Arundel 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Calvert 

Harford 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Kent 

Cecil 



COUNTY 



Dorchester 

Queen Anne's 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Charles 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Washington... 
St . Mary's.... 

Worcester 

Garrett 



Men Teaching 



Number 



15 
9 

30.5 

45 

33 

10 

13 

16 

39 

4 .4 
20 
20 



Per Cent 



37.7 
38.1 
38 .4 
38 .4 
41 .4 
41.7 
41.9 
42 .8 
44 .7 
44 .9 
49 .4 
51.3 



NUMBER OF APPROVED WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number of county white high schools decreased from 152 in 
1932 to 149 in 1933. Of these schools 136 were classified as first 
group, and 13 as second group. The number of schools classified as 
second group includes junior high schools as well as those schools 
which offer less than four years of high school work. (See Table 95.) 

The first group school at Huntingtown in Calvert County was 
closed and the pupils transported to the Prince Frederick High 
School. The first group school at Pleasant Valley in Carroll County, 
and the Fairland and Dickerson High Schools in Montgomery County 
were closed and the pupils transferred to nearby schools. (See Table 
95 and Chart 21.) 



128 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Two one-year high schools were organized in Baltimore County 
in connection with the newly established Fifth and Seventh District 
consolidated schools. The second group school at West Friendship 
in Howard County was not reopened in the fall of 1932. (See Table 
95 and Chart 21.) 

TABLE 95 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



Total 



82 

148 
150 
152 
153 
151 
152 
153 
152 
149 

12 
4 

12 
2 
5 

10 
8 



Group 



*69 

*130 
*136 
*137 
141 
141 
142 
144 
140 
136 

y 

4 
6 
2 
5 
10 



tl3 
118 

M4 

tl5 
12 
10 
10 
9 
12 
13 

t«3 



t6 



County 



Charles 

Dorchester ;.. 

Frederick... 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's.... 

St . Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



Group 



155 



8 
4 
4 
7 
10 
5 
2 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 

6 

142 



9 First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 
15, an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County giving a one-year 
course are classified as second group schools . 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928 . 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928 . 

t Each X represents one junior high school. ° Includes 7 junior high schools . 

There were 12 white high schools in Allegany and in Baltimore 
County, of which 9 and 6 were first group schools in the respective 
counties. Prince George's had 11 and Carroll 10 white high schools, 
all of which were first group schools, except one in Prince George's. 
Calvert and St. Mary's each had 2 first group schools. The remaining 
counties had from 4 to 8 high schools. (See Table 95 and Chart 21.) 

The distribution of high schools of the various types in the in- 
dividual counties is shown gi aphically with approximate location on 
the map appearing as Chart 21. 

SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1932-33 the median county white high school had a teaching 
staff of 6 including the principal. The schools varied in size from 6 
having one teacher, including the last year of two junior high schools 
in Allegany and four second group schools, to three schools having 33, 
35, and 36 teachers. The Frederick High School had the largest coun- 
ty high school teaching staff, while the Hagerstown Senior High 
School with 35 teachers and the Catonsville High School with 33 
teachers, ranked second and third, respectively, in size of teaching 
staff. (See Table 96.) 



County High Schools, Number and Distribution by Size of Staff 129 



TABLE 96 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County White High Schools, 
Year Ending July 31, 1933 



Number of Teachers* 


Total No . Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne'" 


| St . Mary's 


Somerset 


| Talbot 


Washington ** \ 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total.. . 


149 


al2 


4 


12 

3 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


7 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


b8 


7 


5 


1 


6 


2 
















1 


















2 


13 








1 










1 




1 


1 




1 




2 






1 


2 




2 




3 


j I 






I 






\ 


1 


I 








1 




i 






1 




2 




4 


25 






2 




"i 


"l 


1 


2 


2 


i 






"i 


T 


1 


3 


3 


i 




1 




T 


2 


5 


18 


2 


2 






1 


1 


2 




l 


3 




l 


i 


1 


1 












i 




6 


13 


1 












i 




l 


1 


2 


i 




1 




1 






3 






7 


13 






1 






5 


1 


l 




l 










1 








1 


1 






8 


4 










1 


1 












l 
















1 






9 


11 










2 


1 






1 


l 




1 




1 


1 


1 








2 






10 


4 


1 








1 




































2 


11 


2 


































1 










12... . 


5 














1 






l 


















1 


1 






1 


13 


2 


1 






























1 


















2 




1 






















l 




















15 


3 






1 
















1 








1 


















16 


3 


1 




















"i 






1 


















17 






























1 


















18 


2 












1 






1 






























19 


1 






1 










































20 '. 


1 


1 














































21 


1 




1 












































25 


2 






1 


























1 
















27 




1 














































29 


2 




1 








































i 




33 


1 






1 










































35 


1 








































1 






36 


1 




















l 













































































* Midpoint of interval . 

a Includes only the ninth grades of Greene St ., Cresaptown and Midland Junior High Schools . 
b Includes only the ninth grades of South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High Schools . 
For individual high schools, see Table XXXVIII, pages 322 to 327. 



SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The median county white high school had an average enrollment of 
119 pupils. The schools varied in average enrollment from 3 with 
fewer than 25 pupils to one with over 1,100 pupils. Only 7 county 
high schools had an average enrollment of over 700 pupils. In size 
of average enrollment Catonsville High School ranked first, Hagers- 
town second, and Frederick third. (See Table 97.) 

RATIO OF PUPILS TO TEACHERS IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were on the average 24.4 pupils belonging per white county 
high school teacher and principal in 1932-33, an increase of 2.1 over 
corresponding figures for the preceding year. The range in ratio of 
pupils to teachers among the counties ran from 18.9 in Carroll to 
32.3 in St. Mary's. Except in Somerset and Kent where the ratio re- 
mained the same, and Wicomico, Queen Anne's, and Dorchester in 



130 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 97 



Size of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1933 



A V£» r cro "WiiTYiViAP 

fl vci 05C i\ UIUUCI 


Total No . Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St . Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total 


149 


al2 


4 


12 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


7 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


b8 


7 


5 


than 25 


3 


1 




1 
















1 
















26- 40 




1 




2 


1 










1 










1 




1 






1 






1 




41- 50 


2 


1 
















1 
























51- 75 


28 
















q 

d 


Q 
O 






1 


1 


2 


2 


2 






4 







2 


76- 100 


17 


2 


1 


1 




1 


1 








2 


T 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 




"i 






1 


101- 125 




1 
1 




2 






4 





1 






Q 
O 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 










2 




126- 150 


10 


"i 








2 










1 








1 




1 




1 


2 






151— 175 


7 










1 












1 






1 


1 








2 






176- 200 


12 








1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 












1 


1 




1 










2 


201- 225 


4 
















1 
















2 






226- 250 


1 










1 




































251- 275 


5 






















1 






1 








2 








1 


276- 300 


4 


2 






































1 


1 






301— 39^ 


2 














1 














1 


















326- 350 


1 
































1 
















3*11— 3.7K 


3 












1 








1 










1 


















401— 425 


2 


1 
















1 






























426- 450 


2 






















1 








1 


















451— 475 


2 






1 


















i 






















476- 500 


2 


1 




1 








































576- 600 


1 


1 














































601- 625 


2 




1 












































626- 650 


1 
































1 
















701- 725 


1 












































1 




801- 825 


3 


1 


1 


1 










































926- 950 


1 
















1 




























1051-1075 


1 










































1 






1101-1125 


1 






1 





























































































a Includes only the ninth grades of Greene St ., Cresaptown and Midland Junior High Schools . 
b Includes only the ninth grades of South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High Schools . 
For individual high schools, see Table XXXVIII, page 322 to 327. 



which the ratio decreased slightly, the number of pupils per teacher 
was higher in 1933 than in 1932. The greatest increases in size of 
class were made in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Garrett Counties. 
The considerable variation among the counties can be explained in 
part by the size of enrollment in each year, the size of sections, the 
number of courses given, the number of electives and special subjects 
offered, the use of alternation of classes, and the number of periods 
teachers are assigned to actual instruction. (See Chart 22.) 

Due to a cut in the Baltimore City budget effective in January, 
1933, the number of teachers employed was materially reduced in 
February. For the first semester the average number of pupils per 
teacher and principal in the Baltimore City white senior high 



County High Schools by Enrollment; Pupils per Teacher 



131 



schools was 27.3 pupils, while for the second semester this increased 
to 29.4 pupils belonging per teacher. (See Chart 22.) 

CHART 22 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH. SCHOOLS 
County 1931 1932 1933 



Co. Average 21.9 22.3 



St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Washington 

Calvert 

Harford 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Pr. George's 

Talbot 

Queen Anne ' s 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Charles 

Kent 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Honard 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Balto. City 
State 




* Senior high schools only. The upper row represents the first term and the lower row the second term 
The average number per teacher and principal was 28.4 for the year. 

AVERAGE SALARY PER HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 
The average salary per white high school teacher and principal in 
1933 was $1,525, a decrease of $46 under the average salary in 1932, 



132 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

and lower than the average for any year since 1926. This is the first 
time" the average salary for the counties has shown a decrease since 
1917. '' (See Table 98.) 

TABLE 98 

Average Salary Per County White High School Teacher, 1917-1933 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$ 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 
1,436 
1,477 
1,485 


1926 


$1,517 
1,534 
1,544 
1,557 
1,550 
1,559 
1,571 
1,525 


1918 .... 


1927 


1919 


1928 _ 


1920 - 


1929 


1921 _ 


1920 . 


1922 


1931 


1923 


1932 


1924 


1933 


1925 





Among the counties the average salary per white high school 
teacher and principal ranged from $1,339 in Carroll to $1,771 in 
Baltimore County. Only six counties, Montgomery, Cecil, Kent, 
Garrett, Somerset, and Worcester, reported higher salaries than for 
1932 due chiefly to additional experience and more teachers holding 
regular instead of provisional certificates. (See Chart 23.) 

The reduction in average salary in Frederick was $134; in Carroll, 
$120, the salaries being brought to the minimum State schedule; in 
Calvert $116, accomplished through eliminating the principal's 
salary at Huntingtown; in Anne Arundel $98, through a reduction in 
the county salary schedule; in Talbot $82 through decrease in salaries 
which had been above the State minimum schedule; in Baltimore 
County, $74, through a 10 per cent reduction in salaries effective in 
January, 1933. Washington, Caroline, Queen Anne's, and Howard 
also had reductions of from $40 to $70 in average salary. (See Chart 
230 

The average salary per white high school teacher in Baltimore City 
decreased from $2,334 in 1932 to $2,196 in 1933. Most of this de- 
crease of $138 can be accounted for by the increase of the 6}4 per 
cent contribution to the City Treasury required of each Baltimore 
City teacher beginning January, 1932, to 10 per cent in January, 
1933. (See Chart 23.) 

Distribution of Salaries in October, 1933 

A distribution of the salaries of 478 teachers in the white county 
junior and junior-senior high schools in October, 1933, showed a 
median salary of $1,250 as compared with $1,350 the preceding year. 
Salaries for full-time teachers ranged from $900 to $2,500. The med- 



Average Salary per White High School Teacher 
CHART 23 



133 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1930 1931 1932 1935 
Co.Av. $1558 $1568 $1571 



Balto. 


1865 


1857 


1845 


All. 


1683 


1701 


1670 


Mont. 


1541 


1541 


1573 


Q. A. 


1585 


1619 


1665 


Wash. 


1601 


1640 


1663 


Harford 1534 


1558 


1558 


Garrett 


1527 


1567 


1516 


Pr.Geo. 


1455 


1470 


1522 


Cecil 


1483 


1465 


1496 


Dorch . 


1425 


1495 


1487 


Calvert 1480 


1525 


1579 


Somer. 


1450 


1443 


1451 


Talbot 


1506 


1541 


1534 


Charles 


1534 


1479 


1461 


Howard 


1459 


1495 


1483 


Kent 


1412 


1420 


1425 


Fred. 


1595 


1591 


1568 


A. A. 


1611 


1609 


1611 


Wore. 


1422 


1425 


1401 


St. M. 


1412 


1427 


1415 


Caro. 


1497 


1493 


1457 


Wico. 


1381 


1401 


1401 


Carroll 


1492 


1452 


1459 


Balto. 
City* 


2553 


2501 


2334 


State 


1823 


1818 


1780 




* Senior high schools only. 

ian salary for a principal employed in a junior or junior-senior high 
school was $2,600 in 1933, $100 lower than in 1932. (See Table 99.) 

In October, 1933, the median salary for 729 assistant teachers em- 
ployed in county white regular and senior high schools was $1,200, a 



134 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



decrease of $150 under the median salary for the preceding year. 
The range of salaries of full-time teachers was from $950 to $2,500. 
The highest salaries in general are paid to teachers of vocational 

TABLE 99 

Distribution of Salaries of White Junior and Junior-Senior and of Regular and 
Senior High School Teachers in Service, October, 1933 



ASSISTANT TEACHERS 


PRINCIPALS 






No. of 




No. of 


No. of 


Prin- 




Salary Teachers 


Salary Teachers 


Salary cipals 


Salary 



No. of 
Prin- 
cipals 



JUNIOR AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



$800 or less 


t6 


$1,550 


22 


$1,950 


1 


900 


1 


1,600 


35 


2,050 


5 


950 


1 


1,650 


8 


2,100 


1 


1,000 


4 


1,700 


4 


2,200 


1 


1,050 


24 


1,750 


7 


2,250 


5 


1,100 


49 


1,800 


43 


2,350 


1 


1,150 


67 


1,850 


1 


2,450 


2 


1,200 


37 


1,900 


2 


2,500 


1 


1,250 


57 


1,950 


1 


2,600 


3 


1,300 


18 


2,000 


2 


2,700 


3 


1,350 


38 


2,100 


2 


2,750 


4 


1,400 


17 


2,150 


4 


2,900 


1 


1,450 


25 






3,050 


1 


1,500 


2 


2,500 


"I 


3,150 


6 


Total 




478 


Total 




Median 






$1,250 


Median 











" 35 
$2,600 



REGULAR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



$900 or less 


*9 


$1,550 


17 


$1,350 


2 


$2,150 


3 


950 


6 


1,600 


11 


1,400 


2 


2,200 


6 


1,000 




1,650 


7 


1,450 


1 


2,250 


7 


1,050 


153 


1,700 


3 


1,550 


5 


2,350 


1 


1,100 


92 


1,750 


10 


1,600 


2 


2,400 


2 


1,150 


92 


1,800 


7 


1,650 


3 


2,450 


2 


1,200 


112 


1,850 


1 


1,700 


10 


2,500 


4 


1,250 


28 


1,900 


2 


1,750 


14 


2,550 


1 


1,300 


34 


1,950 


1 


1,800 


11 


2,700 


3 


1,350 


55 


2,000 


5 


1,900 


6 


2,750 


2 


1,400 


30 


2,100 


1 


1,950 


5 


2,850 


1 


1,450 


20 


2,150 


2 


2,000 


7 


3,050 


2 


1,500 


30 


2,500 


1 


2,050 


5 


3,200 


1 






2,100 


5 


3,300 


1 


Total 






729 


Total 




114 


Median 






$1,200 


Median 






$1,950 















t Includes one part-time teacher receiving a salary of $517 .50 . 
* Includes all part-time teachers receiving salaries less than $900 . 



Distribution of Salaries October, 1933 



135 



agriculture, whose salaries are on a 12-month basis, and to vocational 
teachers in industrial arts. These salaries are subsidized from 
federal funds. Whenever travel between 2 or more schools is required 
of these teachers the expense of such travel is paid from the salary 
received. The median salary for the 114 principals of regular and 
senior high schools decreased from $2,200 in October, 1932, to $1,950 
in October, 1933. The range of principals' salaries ran from $1,350 
to $3,300. (See Table 99.) 

The decrease in the median salaries is due to the legislation en- 
acted in Chapter 224 of the laws of 1933 whicl provided for reductions 
over a two-year period beginning in September, 1933, of 10 per cent 
in salaries under $1,200, of 11 per cent in salaries from $1,200 to 
$1,799 and of 12 per cent in salaries from $1,800 to $2,399, and no 
increases to be paid to teachers and principals because of additional 
experience. Every county put into effect some plan for salary re- 
duction in 1933. In some counties a flat ten per cent reduction was 
made, but in other counties the percentage reductions as scheduled in 
the State salary legislation were applied to all teachers' salaries. (See 
Table 99.) 

The following table shows the minimum State salary schedule for 
white high school teachers holding regular certificates in effect from 
September, 1922, to June, 1933, and the reduced salaries which apply 
from September, 1933, to June, 1935. 

TABLE 100 

Minimum Salary Schedule for White High School Teachers in Effect 
Since September, 1922 

Reduced Salaries jor the Period September, 1933, to June, 1935 
Are Shown in Italics 



Grade of 
Certificate 

Assistant 


0-1 
$1,150 
1,035 


Years of 
2-3 
$1,200 
1,068 


Experience 

4-5 
$1,250 
1,112.50 


6-7 
$1,300 
1,157 


8+ 
$1,350 
1,201.50 


Principal 

2nd Group School 


1,250 
1,112.50 


1,300 
1,157 


1,350 
1,201.50 


1,400 
1,246 


1,450 

1,290.50 


1st Group School 


1,550 

1,579.50 


1,650 
1,468.50 


1,750 
l r 5 57.50 


1,850 
1,628 


1,950 
1,716 


5 Assistants, 
100 A. D. A.* 


1,750 
1,557.50 


1,850 
1,628 


1,950 
1,716 


2,050 
1,804 


2,150 
1,892 


9 Assistants, 
200 A. D. A.* 

* A. D. A. — Average Daily 


1,950 
1,716 

Attendance. 


2,050 
1,804 


2,150 
1,892 


2,250 
1,980 


2,350 
2,068 



It will be noted that the maximum salary for a high school teacher 
provided for in the reduced schedule is only $1,201.50 and this to be 
paid to a college graduate with at least seven years of experience. 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Growth in Enrollment, Staff, Salaries; Cost per Pupil 



137 



GROWTH IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF 

AND SALARIES 

A comparison of the county white high school enrollment, number 
of teachers and expenditures for salaries for the years ending in 
June, 1920, 1925, 1930, 1932, and 1933 shows the tremendous growth 
which has occurred in every county in the State. (See Table 101.) 

In 1933 there were 30,778 pupils enrolled in the county white high 
schools with 1,183 teachers, at a salary expenditure of $1,798,000, as 
compared with 9,333 pupils on roll in 1920, for whom 482 teachers 
were employed at a salary cost of $490,000. From 1932 to 1933 
despite an increased high school enrollment of 2,231, the teaching 
staff decreased by 21 and the salary expenditures by $93,000. This 
was done chiefly by not filling vacancies which occurred, if the work 
could be carried by enlarging classes or heavier teaching schedules. 
The high school enrollment decreased slightly from 1932 to 1933 in 
three counties, Caroline, Dorchester, and Montgomery. Although 
from 1932 to 1933 the high school enrollments increased, there was a 
decrease in the teaching staff and salary expenditures in Baltimore, 
Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Howard, Prince George's, and Talbot 
Counties. (See Table 101.) 

COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 

The current cost of instructing the average county white high 
school pupil, exclusive of general control and fixed charges, decreased 
by $12.43 from $94.78 in 1932 to $82.35 in 1933. Costs ranged from 
$67 in Baltimore County to over $100 in Queen Anne's, Worcester, 
Charles, Dorchester, and Calvert. Dorchester was the only county 
which had a higher cost per high school pupil in 1933 than for the 
preceding year. In Baltimore City the cost per white high school 
pupil was $95, a decrease of $20 under the cost in 1932. Ten counties 
exceeded the Baltimore City cost per senior high school pupil in 1933, 
although until 1932 no county in the State spent as much per pupil 
as Baltimore City did. (See Chart 24 and Table 102.) 

All the items which made up the current expense cost per pupil in 
white high schools were lower in 1933 than in the preceding year. 
The cost per county white high school pupil for salaries of teachers, 
principals, and county supervisors of $62.26 in 1933 was $8.22 lower 
than in 1932. (See Table 102.) 

In the counties as a group, the $4.12 spent for each high school 
pupil for books, supplies and "other costs of instruction" represented 
a reduction of $1.87 from the amount spent the preceding year. Costs 
for operation amounted to $5.45 per pupil belonging, $.75 lower than 
in 1932, and for maintenance, $1.88 per high school pupil, a decrease 
of $.77 under the corresponding figure for the year before. The cost 
per county white high school pupil for auxiliary agencies, a term cover- 
ing such items as transportation, libraries and health, was $8.64, 
$.82 under the cost in 1932. (See Table 102.) 



138 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 24 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1930 1951 1932 1933 

Co. Average $ 98 $ 99 $ 95 

Calvert 102 

Dorchester 104 

Charles 117 

Worcester 109 

Queen Anne's 104 

Carroll 115 

Montgomery 111 

Garrett 124 

Kent 102 

Howard 107 

Somerset 92 

St. Mary's 104 

Caroline 100 

Talbot 101 

Pr. George's 89 

Cecil 98 

Wicomico 83 

Allegany 101 

Anne Arundel 110 

Harford 95 

Washington 80 

Frederick 81 

Baltimore 93 

Balto. City* 130 127 115 



State 




107 107 101 



* Senior high schools only. 



In Baltimore City, just as in the counties as a group, the cost per 
pupil belonging in white senior high schools was materially reduced 
in every item of the current expense budget in 1933 under correspond- 
ing costs for the preceding year. (See Table 102.) 



Cost per White High School Pupil 



139 



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140 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Salary Cost per Pupil by Counties 

The salary cost per white high school pupil in the individual 
counties ranged from $43.43 in St. Mary's, where there were large 
classes and no special subjects other than music, to $76.49 in Mont- 
gomery, where many special teachers were employed and small 
classes and sections prevailed. Increase in salary costs per pupil 
over corresponding figures for 1932 were found in 3 counties, Dor- 
chester, Kent, and Somerset. (See Table 102.) 

Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost per Pupil 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government for one-half the 
salaries for instruction in vocational education was received by 16 
counties. In Howard, Garrett, and Queen Anne's the federal allow- 
ance per pupil, including all county high school pupils, amounted to 
$8.49, $7.51, and $6.89, respectively. (See Table 103.) 

TABLE 103 

Comparison of 1933 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and 
Exclusive of Federal Aid, for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



County 



1933 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil 

Rank Among 23 Counties Federal 
Excluding Including Excluding Aid Per 



Including 
Federal 
Aid 



Average for 23 Counties $62.26 

Montgomery 76.49 

Dorchester 75.10 

Worcester 73.52 

Queen Anne's 74.57 

Caroline 69.30 

Somerset 67.92 

Howard 74.72 

Charles 69.61 

Prince George's 64.60 

Harford 62.62 

Allegany 59.30 

Frederick 59.57 

Garrett 63.03 

Washington. 59.02 

Baltimore 52.46 

Anne Arundel 52.01 



Federal 
Aid 

$60.24 

73.55 
72.89 
72.23 
67.68 
67.28 
66.38 
66.23 
66.19 
62.51 
58.91 
57.81 
57.16 
55.52 
55.34 
51.54 
51.01 



Federal 
Aid 



1 
2 
5 
4 
9 

10 
3 
7 
12 
15 
17 
16 
14 
18 
21 
22 



Federal 
Aid 



1 

2 
3 
6 
7 
9 

10 
11 
13 
14 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



H.S. 
Pupil 

$2.02 

2.94 
2.21 
1.29 
6.89 
2.02 
1.54 
8.49 
3.42 
2.09 
3.71 
1.49 
2.41 
7.51 
3.68 
.92 
1.00 



By reporting the reimbursement per pupil from federal funds it is 
possible to show the effect of including or excluding this amount on 
the rank in salary costs for the 16 counties which offer vocational 
education. The greatest effect of federal aid on rank appears in 
Howard which would drop from third to sixteenth place, according 
to whether the federal aid were included or excluded. Garrett 
would change from fourteenth to nineteenth, and Charles, which 
is seventh when federal aid is included would stand eleventh were this 
amount excluded. (See Table 103.) 



Federal Aid Toward Salaries of Vocational Teachers 



141 



The expenditures for salaries of teachers of vocational agriculture, 
home economics, and industrial arts are derived from county, state, 
and federal sources. The federal and State vocational funds represent 

TABLE 104 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland County Day Schools 
For Year Ending July 31, 1933 



COUNTY 



Expenditures for Salaries of County 
Vocational Teachers from 



County 
Funds 
and Other 
State Aid 



State 
Vocational 
Funds 



Federal 
Funds 



Total 



AGRICULTURE 
White 

Garrett 

Frederick... 

Washington 

Harford 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Prince George's 

Somerset 

Charles 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel 

Colored 

Caroline 

Charles 

Prince George's 

Total 

HOME ECONOMICS 
White 

Garrett 

Howard 

Harford 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's 

Prince George's 

Caroline... 

Charles 

Anne Arundel.. 

Montgomery.. 

Colored 

Caroline... 

Charles 

Total 

INDUSTRIES 
All-Day Classes 

Washington 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Total All-Day ... 

Part-Time 

Washington 

Total Industries 

Grand Total 



$3,863.88 
3,409.23 
2,874.92 
2,792.20 
2,410.14 
2,129.80 
2,023.94 
1,864.39 
1,630.66 
1,600.83 
1,191.40 
938.40 
924.60 
920.00 
898.52 

505.96 
230.00 
193.19 



$336.00 
296.45 
250.00 
242.80 
209.58 
185.20 
175.99 
162.12 
141.80 
139.20 
103.60 
81.60 
80.40 
80.00 
78.14 

44.00 
20.00 
16.80 



$4,199.88 
3,705.68 
3,124.92 
3,035.00 
2,619.72 
2,315.00 
2,199.94 
2,026.49 
1,772.46 
1,740.02 
1,295.00 
1,020.00 
1,005.00 
1,000.00 
976.64 

549.96 
250.00 
210.00 



$8,399.76 
7,411.36 
6,249.84 
6,070.00 
5,239.44 
4,630.00 
4,399.87 
4,053.00 
3,544.92 
3,480.05 
2,590.00 
2,040.00 
2,010.00 
2,000.00 
1,953.30 

1,099.92 
500.00 
419.99 



$30,402.06 



$2,643.68 



$33,045.71 



$66,091.45 



$2,661.34 
2,032.73 
1,557.10 
1,242.00 
1,101.72 
845.24 
667.00 
645.84 
622.88 
552.00 

368.00 
309.13 



$231.43 
176.77 
135.40 
108.00 
95.78 
73.50 
58.00 
56.16 
54.17 
48.00 

32.00 
26.87 



$2,892.73 
2,209.50 
1,692.50 
1,350.00 
1,197.50 
918.75 
725.00 
702.00 
677.06 
600.00 

400.00 
336.00 



$5,785.50 
4,419.00 
3,385.00 
2,700.00 
2,395.00 
1,837.49 
1,450.00 
1,404.00 
1,354.11 
1,200.00 

800.00 
672.00 



$12,604.98 



$1,096.08 



$13,701.04 



$27,402.10 



$3,436.09 
1,656,00 
1,587.00 
1,416.12 
828.00 
828.00 
736.00 



$298.80 
144.00 
138.00 
123.14 
72 00 
72.00 
64.00 



$3,734.88 
1,800.00 
1,725.00 
1,539.24 
900.00 
900.00 
800.00 



$7,469.77 
3,600.00 
3,450.00 
3,078.50 
1,800.00 
1,800.00 
1,600.00 



$10,487.21 



$911.94 



$11,399.12 



$22,798.27 



$1,655.96 



$144.00 



$1,799.95 



$3,599.91 



$12,143.17 



$1,055.94 



$13,199.07 



$26,398.18 



$55,150.21 



$4,795.70 



$59,945.82 



$119,891.73 I 2,60'i 



142 1933 Rrport of Maryland State Department of Education 



specific aid paid towards the salaries of teachers doing vocational 
work. The amounts shown as county funds and "other State aid" 
make up the difference between this specific aid and the total salaries 
paid vocational teachers. "Other State aid" includes amounts 
allotted from the State high school fund toward salaries of teachers 
giving instruction in vocational education and from the State Equali- 
zation Fund in those counties which share in the latter Fund. The 
counties are ranked in Table 104 according to the total salary ex- 
penditure for each type of vocational work. 

Baltimore County added vocational work in industrial arts to the 
curriculum at the Sparks High School and Queen Anne's added 
vocational work in home economics as part of the program of the 
Church Hill High School. Courses in vocational agriculture were 
dropped from the curriculum of the Cambridge High School in 
Dorchester and Brandywine High School in Prince George's. Voca- 
tional courses in home economics were eliminated from the program 
of studies at Baden in Prince George's County. (See Table 104 and 
Table XXXIX, pages 328 to 333.) 

Cost for Books, Supplies and Other Costs of Instruction 

The aveiage expenditure per high school pupil for instructional 
costs other than salaries in the individual counties ranged from 
$2.70 to $7.08. From the State fund for free textbooks and supplies 
$.89 was available for each pupil. In addition counties sharing in 
the Equalization Fund received aid from the State for books and 
materials. Only 2 counties, Dorchester and Howard, reported higher 
expenditures per high school pupil for books and supplies than in 
1932. (See columns 2 and 9, Table 102.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance 

Operation which covers costs of heating and cleaning school 
buildings ranged in cost from $3.66 per high school pupil in Frederick 
to $8.89 in Worcester. Costs were higher in 1933 than in 1932 in 

5 counties. (See columns 3 and 10, Table 102.) 

Expenditures for maintenance per high school pupil, i. e., repair of 
buildings, repairs and replacement of equipment and rent, varied in 
the individual counties from $ .32 in Howard to $6.67 in Prince 
George's. Although maintenance costs per high school pupil were 
lower in 1933 than in the preceding year for the counties as a group, 

6 counties had higher costs in 1933 than in 1932. (See columns 4 
and 11, Table 102.) 

Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

Auxiliary agencies is a term used to describe transportation, 
library, physical education, and health activities. Since the funds 
required for transportation of pupils include 95 per cent of the total 
amount spent for auxiliary agencies, the county policy regarding 
transportation is a most important consideration in fixing the cost of 
auxiliary agencies. Seven counties had increases in cost per high 
school pupil for auxiliary agencies in 1933. The counties ranged in 



Analysis of Cost per County White High School Pupil 



143 



per pupil costs for auxiliary agencies from $ .43 in Harford to $37.91 
in St. Mary's. (See columns 5 and 12, Table 102, page 139.) 

10,209 County High School Pupils Transported at Public Cost of $234,331 

In 1933 expenditures by the public for transportation of 10,209 
county white high school pupils, totalling $234,331, brought an in- 
crease of 1,190 pupils and of more than $6,800 over corresponding 
figures for 1932. The average cost to the public per county high 
school pupil transported, less than $23 in 1933, was $2.40 less than in 
1932. Although the number of pupils transported at public expense 
increased in all but 4 counties, expenditures for high school transpor- 
tation decreased in 9 counties, and cost per pupil transported de- 
creased in all except four counties. (See Table 105.) 

TABLE 105 

Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools 
for School Yeai Ending July 31, 1933 



COUNTY 



Transportation 



Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
Expense 





Number 


Per 
Cent 


Total and 






Average ... 


10,209 


33.7 


St. Mary's.... 


329 


99.7 


Calvert 


228 


91.2 


Garrett 


650 


65.1 


Charles 


361 


69.7 


Somerset 


312 


44.0 


Kent 


291 


53.6 


Queen 






Anne's 


343 


66.3 


Worcester.... 


429 


53.1 


Dorchester 


400 


48.7 


Carroll 


845 


53.8 


Anne 






Arundel.... 


759 


44.3 


Caroline. 


439 


54.0 


Howard 


235 


47.5 


Talbot 


290 


40.4 


Cecil 


431 


37.7 


Wicomico .... 


494 


38.1 


Baltimore.. .. 


1,148 


26.9 


Montgomery 


444 


29.2 


Washington 


554 


22.7 


Prince 






George's .. 


383 


19.0 


Allegany 


560 


16.2 


Frederick 


209 


10.4 


Harford 


75 


5.6 



Amount 
Spent 
From 
Public 
Funds 



Cost 
Per 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



$234,331 

11,809 
8,049 
23,130 
10,597 
10,477 
7,482 

7,494 
10,165 
10,280 
18,533 

19,414 
8,604 
5,290 
7,290 
8,804 
8,219 

16,031 
7,487 
9,978 

7,651 
11,032 
6,211 
304 



$23 

36 
35 
36 
29 
34 
26 

22 
24 
26 
22 

26 
20 
23 
25 
20 
17 
14 
17 
18 

20 
20 
30 
4 



Libraries 



Total 
Expen- 
ditures 



Amount per 



$2,580 

9 
20 

155 
30 
10 

100 

48 
88 
102 
460 

15 



10 
137 

45 
150 
270 
180 
189 

20 
176 
118 
248 



School 



$17.31 

4.71 
10.00 
25.84 
6.00 
2.50 
24.90 

9.59 
17.61 
17.05 
46.03 

3.71 



Teacher 



2.00 
22.75 

5.60 
21.45 
22.50 
25.76 
23.61 

1.82 
14.64 
16.79 
31.05 



$2.18 

.96 
2.22 
3.98 
1.25 

.32 
3.98 

2.03 
2.17 
2.57 
5.77 

.25 



Health and 
Physical 
Education 



Total 
Expen- 
ditures 



Amount 
Per 
Pupil 



.41 
4.36 

.98 
3.03 
2.13 
2.62 
2.17 

.25 
1.50 
1.48 
4.82 



$9,850 
10 



35 



282 



7,822 



200 
489 



$ .34 
.03 



.06 
.11 



.07 



.17 



1.91 
.61 



.10 
.15 



Expenditures for transporting pupils to high schools varied in the 
individual counties from only $304 in Harford and less than $7,000 
in Frederick and Howard to more than $23,000 in Garrett. The 
amount spent by the public for transporting pupils to high schools 
was supplemented by the parents of the children in six counties, 
Howard, Baltimore, Montgomery, Prince George's, Frederick, and 
Harford. (See Table 105.) 



144 1933 Report of Maryland State Department op Education 

The cost per white high school pupil transported, which averaged 
$23 in 1933, ranged from $4 in Harford, where the parents pay the 
greater part of the transportation costs, and less than $20 in 4 other 
counties to $34 in Somerset, $35 in Calvert, and $36 in St. Mary's 
and Garrett. Increases in cost per high school pupil transported over 
corresponding figures for 1932 were found in 4 counties. A member 
of the staff of the State Department of Education is studying many 
of the phases of the transportation program used in the individual 
counties with the purpose of making available to all counties efficient 
programs found in any one county. (See Table 105.) 

Since expenditures for transportation form so large a portion of the 
auxiliary agencies, the two main factors determining the ranking of a 
county in the cost of its transportation program, cost to public per 
pupil transported and per cent of white high school pupils transported 
have been included in Table 105. 

The 10,209 pupils transported to county white high schools rep- 
resented over one-third of the total county white high school en- 
rollment. In the individual counties the per cent of white high school 
pupils transported at partial or total public expense ranged from 20 
per cent or less in Harford, Frederick, Allegany, and Prince George's 
to over 65 per cent in St. Mary's, Calvert, Charles, Queen Anne's, 
and Garrett. In St. Mary's nearly every high school pupil was 
transported and in Calvert over 90 per cent. Several important factors 
governing the number and per cent of pupils who are to be trans- 
ported are: denseness of population, the number of small high 
schools maintained, and the requirement that parents pay part of 
the cost of transportation. (See second column of Table 105.) 

County Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Expenditures for county high school libraries in 1933 amounted to 
$2,580, which allowed $17.31 for each school and $2.18 per teacher. 
Amounts raised by teachers, pupils or organizations in the schools 
are not included in these figures. The total county expenditure for 
high school libraries was approximately $4,000 lower than the amount 
spent in 1932. Caroline was the only county which spent nothing for 
high school libraries, while 10 other counties spent less than $100 for 
library books. Carroll County made the largest expenditure for high 
school libraiies, $460, which amounted to $46.03 per school and $5.77 
per teacher. (See Table 105.) 

COOPERATION FROM THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMISSION* 

The county white high schools borrowed 6,266 books from the 
Maryland Public Library Commission with offices at 517 North 
Charles Street in Baltimore. This number is 1,704 more than the 
corresponding number of volumes borrowed the year before. The 
counties reporting the largest increases in the use of these books from 
1932 to 1933 were Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Garrett, Harford, 
and Montgomery. (See Table 106.) 

* Data supplied by Adelene J. Pratt, Director of Public Libraries. 



Transportation and Library Service to County White High Schools 145 



Traveling school libraries are collections of books loaned for a 
period of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. The cost of transportation must 
be met and guarantee of reimbursement for lost or damaged books is 
required. 

TABLE 1C6 

Service of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to County White 
High Schools, School Year, 1932-1933 



County 



) 1931 
Total.... [ 1932 
J 1933 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel.. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline..— 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick..^ 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery... 
Prince George' 
Queen Anne's.. 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 



3,236 
4,562 
6,266 

all7 
bc48 
2,178 
279 
807 
145 
79 
bc201 
c49 
49 
831 
bc745 
76 



Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 



Number of 



Schools 
Supplied 



31 
31 
35 

al 
bcl 

7 
2 
5 
3 
2 
bcl 



1 

4 

bc2 
1 



Teachers 
Supplied 



47 
48 
45 

al 
bcl 

11 
2 

7. 
4 
2 

bcl 



1 

6 

bc3 
1 



Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 



77 
105 
148 

al 
bcl 

48 
9 

22 
4 
2 

bc5 



1 
23 
bcl9 
1 



Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 



Number of 



Schools 
Supplied 



27 
49 
47 

al 
bc2 

6 
2 
5 
4 
3 

bcl 

c2 
1 
2 

bc3 
1 



Teachers 
Supplied 



32 
54 
57 

a4 
bc2 

6 
2 
10 
4 
5 

bcl 

c2 
2 
2 

bc4 
1 



Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 



125 
189 
331 

a37 
bc7 
96 
7 
25 
10 
19 
bc4 
cl5 
2 
14 
bcl6 
14 



449 
6 



11 



d 

c69 
120 



c29 
12 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. In ad- 
dition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools and supplied 
other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no outside 
help. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up to 
meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual needs 
or professional reading of teachers. These are loaned to anyone living 
in Maryland who is without access to a public library. 

At their request, the Director of Public School Libraries assisted 
the following high schools to organize their libraries during 1932-33: 
Allegany High School and Greene Street Junior High School in Alle- 
gany County, Rising Sun in Cecil County. 



146 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Teachers from Cambridge High School, Greene Street Junior High 
School, Pittsville High School, Rising Sun High School, Saint Maiy's 
Seminary and McDonogh School attended the Library Institute held 
at Hood College under the auspices of the Maryland Library Com- 
mission in the summer of 1933. 

Expenditures for Health and Physical Education Activities for White High 
School Pupils 

A total of $9,850 or an average of 34 cents per county white high 
school pupil was spent for health or physical education in 9 counties 
in 1933. Nearly 80 per cent of this amount was used in Baltimore 
County for salaries of instructors furnished by the Playground 
Athletic League for physical education activities. The cost per pupil 
belonging for this purpose in Baltimore County was $1.91. Mont- 
gomery spent 61 cents per high school pupil for the health services 
of the county nurse. (See Table 105.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Capital outlay in the county white high schools amounted to ap- 
proximately $378,000 in 1933, a decrease of almost $538,000 under 
1932. In only 5 years since 1920 was the capital outlay smaller than 
in 1933. The aggregate investment in school buildings for county 
white high school pupils since 1920 has been almost $8,900,000. 
(See Table 107.) 

Anne Arundel was the only county in which the capital outlay for 
high school buildings exceeded $100,000 in 1933. Since 1920 Balti- 
more County has invested $1,822,455 and Allegany, $1,142,837, in 
high school buildings. On the other hand only $16,000 has been spent 
for high school buildings in the 13-year period since 1920 in Kent and 
Queen Anne's Counties. (See Table 107.) 

The average capital outlay per high school pupil in 1933 was 
$13.09 covering a range from in 4 counties and $ .01 in Queen 
Anne's to $110.55 per pupil in Anne Arundel. (See columns 7 and 
14, Table 102, page 139.) 

SUPERVISION OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

During 1932-33 supervision of high schools by the three men on 
the staff of the State Department of Education was continued for the 
western, central, and eastern sections of the State. Each of the super- 
visors was responsible for the supervision of approximately 300 to 
319 principals and teachers of academic and commercial subjects in 
fiom 40 to 55 schools in from 5 to 10 counties. With such a large 
number of teachers of course only a limited amount of time is avail- 
able for supervision of individual teachers. (See Table 108.) 

One of the effects of the reduction in the budget of the State 
Department of Education beginning October, 1933, was the retire- 
ment from the State staff of Mr. Samuel M. North, who was the 
first State supervisor of high schools and had been in continuous ser- 
vice since 1916. In consequence it was necessary for 1933-34 to 
divide the work of high school supervision between the two remain- 



Capital Outlay, Supervision for White High Schools 



1 t cm >o tt cm co c-- cgmt-no co^o^o^^o^co t-^co 
cm" ih eg co* *o c~* c-" t- -*r* of o» eo cT to © co* to" eo x* x i^oui 
—it-oo >-h co eo ^ eo •>* f-i co cm co cm t~ cm 



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cm io t~ oj 10 t-co 

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co oi 

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co" 



CO t> CO C- 
00 OS 

o ta 



TT IOCO CO 
^ <N 
OS CM 



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-I CM 



CO CO CO OS CO CM © ■ 

co io *a cm 

CO i-t 



rf -0 OS C- CO lO 



CM X CO VO CO »0 O OS 
C~ TfHCS t> CO t-i 
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:cm 



U3THOOCOCOOOt-TlllOCMOSlOTj(rHCOOSiHr-(COi-HU3C- 
00 OS C0H»HHrt O 00 CO C- CO L-O 




148 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ing supervisors, who had been appointed in 1921 and 1925, respec- 
tively. Unfortunately the untimely death of Mr. William K. Klinga- 
man in February, 1934, left Mr. E. Clarke Fontaine the sole remain- 
ing State high school supervisor. Considerable thought has been 
given to revised plans for State high school supervision which will 
be put in effect in the fall of 1934. 

TABLE 108 

Supervision of White High Schools by State High School Supervisors 

Number of Number of N imber of 



Section Counties Public High Teachers 

Schools 

1932-1933 

Western 5 40 f300 .1 

Central 8 55 f319 .0 

Eastern 10 54 |313 .3 

October 1933 

Western 8 67 *504 .8 

Eastern 15 82 *479 .2 



t Includes academic and commercial teachers . 

* Includes academic, commercial and music teachers . 

High school teachers of music, agriculture, home economics, and 
industrial arts during 1932-33 were supervised by the respective 
supervisors of these subjects on the State staff. Also because of the 
cut in the budget of the State' Department of Education, Mr. 
Thomas L. Gibson planned to retire on October 1, 1933. His sudden 
death shortly before the date of his retirement has meant that 
no special supervision could be given to high school music during the 
year 1933-34. 

Because there was need for more supervision of high school 
teachers than could be given by the State high school supervisors, 
Baltimore and Montgomery Counties employed full-time county 
high school supervisors, and a high school principal in Anne Arundel 
County was assigned to supervision of the remaining high schools 
of the county for part of his time. In each of the remaining 20 
counties any supervision of high schools supplementary to that given 
by the State supervisors was given by the county superintendent and 
(or) high school principals. 

The work of the State high school supervisors includes visits to 
schools to check on organization and administration, visits to 
classrooms especially of recently appointed teachers to make sug- 
gestions regarding improvement of instruction or to more mature 
teachers who need help according to the judgment of the principal, 
participation in conferences of teachers to advise and guide in 
curriculum construction, and in conferences of principals to discuss 
problems of administration and supervision. The State high school 
supervisors meet once a month to go over common problems and to 
determine high school aid. It is their function to stimulate principals 
and teachers to do the finest type of work of which they are capable 
so that the high school work offered will constantly fit more closely 
the needs of the boys and girls who attend. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED PUPILS 



1932 SCHOOL CENSUS OF COUNTY COLORED CHILDREN 

The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland counties 
in the fall of 1932 enumerated 43,254 colored children, five to eighteen 
years of age. This was an increase of 1,747 children over the previous 
census of 1930. The 3,563 enumerated at age 8 represented the peak 
for both boys and girls. The enumeration seemed to be most com- 
plete for the ages 6 to 12 years inclusive. Above 12 years there was 
a considerable drop from year to year. (See Table 109.) 

TABLE 1C9 

Census of Colored Children Under 19 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties 

November, 1932 





Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1930 


41,507 


20,969 


20,538 


1932 


43,254 


21,883 


21,371 


18 


2,103 


1,164 


939 


17 


2,439 


1,269 


1,170 


16 


2,715 


1,444 


1,271 


15 


2,756 


1,355 


1,401 


14 


2,967 


1,512 


1,455 


13 


3,052 


1,503 


1,549 


12 


3,477 


1,737 


1,740 


11 


3,491 


1,750 


1,741 


10 


3,467 


1,745 


1,722 


9 


3,500 


1,728 


1,772 


8 


3,563 


1,760 


1,803 


7 


3,324 


1,667 


1,657 


6 


3,428 


1,763 


1,665 


5 


2,972 


1,486 


1,486 



There was no consistent excess of colored boys over girls in each 
age group as was true of the white enumeration, although the total 
number of boys exceeded the girls by 512. (See Table 109.) 

Colored Children of Compulsory School Attendance Age 

Colored children of compulsory school attendance ages were 
found in greatest number in Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Charles, Somerset, and Montgomery Counties. (See Table 
110.) 

There was a larger number and per cent of county colored children 
of ages seven to fifteen years in public schools in 1932 than in 1930. 
There were 25,752, or 87 per cent, in public schools, 2.4 in private and 
parochial schools, and 10.6 per cent not in any school. St. Mary's 
had only two-thirds of its colored children in public schools but 
nearly 15 per cent were in private and parochial schools. Calvert, 
Howard, and Charles also had less than 80 per cent of their colored 
children of ages seven to fifteen years in public schools. The per 
cent not in any school ranged from less than 3 per cent in Queen 
Anne's to over 21 per cent in Calvert. (See Table 110 and Chart 25.) 



149 



150 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The census enumeration of children of ages seven to fifteen years 
inclusive showed an increase of colored children in the public schools 
in all counties, except Washington, Cecil, Howard, Frederick, and 
St. Mary's. The following counties, Queen Anne's, Allegany, Carroll, 
Talbot, Caroline, Washington, Kent, Montgomery, Dorchester, 
showed a decrease in the number of colored children not in any school. 
(See Table 110.) 

TABLE 110 



Number and Per Cent of Colored Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years, 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, 
November, 1932 







NUMBER 




PER CENT 




COUNTY 


In 
Public 
School 


In Private 

and In No 
Parochial School 
School 


Total 


In Private 
In and 
Public Parochial 
School School 


In No 
School 



Total and Average: 



1930 


24,804 


685 


3,098 


28,587 


86 .8 


2.4 


10.8 


1932 


25,752 


700 


3,145 


29,597 


87.0 


2 .4 


10.6 


Queen Anne's 


1,020 




30 


1,050 


97.1 




2.9 


Allegany 


305 




15 


320 


95.3 




4.7 


Carroll 


309 


7 


16 


332 


93.1 


2.1 


4.8 


Talbot 


970 


11 


61 


1,042 


93 .1 


1 .1 


5.8 


Caroline 


822 


3 


49 


874 


94 .1 


.3 


5.6 


Washington 


274 


2 


19 


295 


92 .9 


.7 


6.4 


Harford 


737 


8 


57 


802 


91 .9 


1 .0 


7.1 


Kent. 


837 




65 


902 


92 .8 




7.2 


Baltimore 


1,827 


20 


154 


2,001 


91 .3 


1.0 


7.7 


Prince George's 


3,228 


168 


308 


3,704 


87 .2 


4.5 


8.3 


Wicomico 


1,413 




133 


1,546 


91.4 




8.6 
9.3 


Anne Arundel 


2,647 


67 


279 


2,993 


88 .4 


2.3 


Somerset 


1,623 


3 


193 


1,819 


89 .2 


.2 


10.6 


Cecil 


427 


2 


52 


481 


88 .8 


.4 


10.8 


Worcester. 


1,444 


1 


196 


1,641 


88 .0 


.1 


11 .9 


Dorchester 


1,370 


3 


203 


1,576 


86.9 


.2 


12 .9 


Montgomery 


1,539 




237 


1,776 


86.7 




13.3 


Charles 


1,529 


109 


276 


1,914 


79.9 


5.7 


14.4 


Frederick 


790 


23 


140 


953 


82 .9 


2.4 


14.7 


Howard 


570 


41 


108 


719 


79 .3 


5.7 


15.0 


St . Mary's 


1,079 


232 


284 


1,595 


67.6 


14.6 


17.8 


Calvert 


990 




269 


1,259 


78 .6 




21.4 


Garrett 


. 2 




1 


3 


66.7 




33 .3 



Colored Children Out of School 

Of the 3,145 county colored children of ages seven to fifteen years 
not in any school 126 were physically and 86 were mentally defective 
and therefore excused from school attendance. Also there were 1,117 
children of ages fourteen and fifteen years who were employed who 
were eligible to be excused from school attendance. Of the remainder, 
some have undoubtedly completed the elementary school course. 
(See Table 111.) 

This means that 42 per cent of the colored county children not 
attending school could legally be excused, but that 826, or 26 per cent, 
who were between the ages of seven and thirteen years inclusive and 
990, or 32 per cent who were fourteen and fifteen years old who were 



The 1932 School Census of Colored Children 



151 



CHART 25 



PER CENT OF COLORED CHILDREN OF AGES 7-15 TEARS, INCLUSIVE, 

ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1932 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



County 



Total % 
No. of In 
Colored Public 
Children Schools 



?§^vf d 29,597* 



Q. A. 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Wash. 

Harford 

Kent 

Baltimore 

Pr. Geo. 

Wicomico 

A. A. 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Dorch. 

Mont. 

Charles 

Fred. 

Howard 

St. M. 

Calvert 



1,050 
320 
332 
874 
1,042 
295 
802 
902 
2,001 
3,704 
1,546 
2,993 
1,819 
481 
1,641 
1,576 
1,776 
1,914 
953 
719 
1,595 
1,259 



87.0 

97.1 
95.3 
93.1 
94.1 
93.1 
92.9 
91.9 
92.8 
91.3 
87.2 
91.4 
88.4 
89.2 
88.8 
88.0 
86.9 
86-7 
79.9 
82.9 
79.3 
67.6 
78.6 




% In Private 
and Parochial 
Schools i i 



8.3 
8.6 



9.3 



SI 



10.6 



io. e 
n.9 

12.9 
13.3 




2±4 BH 



14.7 
15.0 




17.8 



not employed should be provided with schooling, if the compulsory 
school attendance law were enforced. Each county should make a 
study of the individual non-school attendants and provide if pos- 
sible, for their school attendance. (See Table 111.) 



152 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 111 



Colored Children of Ages 7-15 Years Defective Physically and Mentally 
and Not Defective Non-School Attendants Employed and Not Employed 

November, 1932 





School 


Non-School 


Not Defective Non-School 




Attendants 


Attendants 




Attendants 






Defective 


Defective 


Employed 


Not 


COUNTY 














Employed 




















Phys- 


Men- 


Phys- 


Men- 


Ages 


Ages 


Ages 


Ages 




ically 


tally 


ically 


tally 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 




125 


68 


128 


64 


204 


1,306 


653 


743 




90 


67 


126 


86 


125 


1,117 


701 


990 




2 










1 


10 


4 


Anne Arundel 


2 


5 


6 


4 


5 


50 


81 


133 




4 


5 


5 


13 


9 


65 


25 


37 




3 


1 


7 


2 


8 


53 


125 


74 




6 




8 


4 


1 


24 


2 


10 




a 


7 
< 


i 

i 






11 


1 


3 


/-a ;i 


3 


3 


5 


2 


1 


15 


4 


25 




13 


7 


3 


4 


12 


63 


107 


87 




3 


5 


9 


5 


9 


70 


40 


70 




10 


8 


4 


7 


8 


45 


18 


58 
















1 




TTssrf rsrd 


2 


2 


1 




4 


34 


11 


7 




1 


1 


2 


1 


6 


61 


12 


26 




3 


5 


5 


2 


4 


27 




27 


Montgomery.^ 


3 


4 


9 


9 


17 


80 


73 


49 


Prince George's. 


4 


3 


26 


6 


8 


167 


25 


76 


Queen Anne's 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


3 


3 


20 


St. Marv's 


11 


1 


11 


6 


1 


72 


80 


114 


Somerset 


2 


5 


4 


7 


5 


63 


49 


65 








7 


1 




18 


7 


28 








2 


1 




10 


2 


4 


Wiccmico — 


3. 


2 


3 


10 


8 


103 


3 


6 


Worcester 


5 


2 


6 


1 


18 


82 


22 


67 



1933 COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT INCLUDES 

26,708 PUPILS 

There were 26,708 pupils enrolled in the county colored elementary 
schools in 1933, an increase of 150 pupils over those enrolled during 
1932, but a decrease of 4,362 from the 1923 enrollment. Eleven 
counties reported larger enrollments in the colored elementary schools 
in 1933 than in the preceding year, but only Anne Arundel, Prince 
George's, Baltimore, and Allegany Counties have increased their 
colored elementary public school enrollment since 1923. (See Table 
112.) 

In Baltimore City the enrollment in 1933 in the colored elementary 
schools included 23,343 pupils, an increase of 687 pupils over the 



School Census; Colored Elementary Enrollment; Length of Session 153 

TABLE 112 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, Excluding Duplicates, 
for Years Ending July 31, 1923, 1932 and 1933. 





Number Enrolled in 




Colored Elementary 


County 




Schools 






1923 


1932 


1933 


Total Counties 


T31.070 


t26,558 


t26,708 


Anne Arundel 


2,853 


2,875 


2,974 


Prince George's 


2,781 


2,886 


2,909 


Baltimore 


1,942 


1,974 


2,004 


Montgomery...- 


1,898 


1,750 


1,789 


Somerset 


2,255 


1,758 


1,734 


Charles _ 


1,803 


1,631 


1,639 


Worcester 


2,088 


1,532 


1,530 


Wicomico 


1,675 


1,450 


1,450 


Dorchester 


1,947 


1,406 


1,433 


St . Mary's 


1,405 


1,155 


1,170 


Calvert 


1,343 


1,150 


1,140 


Talbot 


1,373 


1,008 


1,023 



County 



Frederick 

Kent 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. 

Harford 

Howard 

Cecil _ 

Carroll 

Washington 

Allegany 



Baltimore City. 
State 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 


1932 


1933 


1,150 


899 


872 


1,188 


915 


854 


1,188 


869 


834 


1,093 


798 


814 


916 


771 


801 


848 


623 


605 


548 


460 


434 


440 


368 


384 


377 


312 


296 


267 


273 


269 


tl5,675 


t22,656 


t23,343 


T46.745 


t49,214 


T50.051 



t Total excludes duplicates . 

TABLE 113 

Length of Session in Colored Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



COUNTY 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline.__ 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick. 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St . Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City. 



School Year 1932-33 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 

of 
School 



9/5 
9/8 
9/7 
9/7 
9/19 
9/5 
9/8 
10/3 
9/19 
9/6 
9/14 
9/26 
*10/3 
9/13 
9/6 
10/3 
10/3 
9/12 
*10/3 
9/6 
9/12 
9/19 

9/6 



Last 
Day 

of 
School 



6/16 
t5/15 
6/23 
5/9 
5/19 
6/9 
6/9 
J5/31 
°5/19 
§5/10 
5/31 
5/26 
6/2 
5/19 
5/31 
5/31 
6/1 
5/19 
§6/2 
6/9 
5/12 
5/19 

6/16 



Average Days in Session 



COUNTY 



County Average 



Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Prince George's. 

Harford 

Somerset 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Caroline .._ 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel..... 

Frederick..... 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Charles 

St . Mary's„ 

Queen Anne's 

Calvert 

Kent 



Baltimore City. 
State Average.- 



Colored 

High 
Schools 



173 .0 



190 
187 
187 
184 
174 
179 
167 
168 



162 
162 
186 
184 
162 
181 
168 
180 



160 
161 
179 



189.5 
181 .3 



* High School, 9/2 . t High School, 6/1 . §High School, 6/9 . 

t High School, 6/16 . ° High School, 6/2 . 

For length of session for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, page 292 . 



154 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

enrollment in 1932, and of 7,668 over 1923. The increased colored 
elementary school enrollment in Baltimore City since 1923 and the 
decline in the enrollment in the county colored schools points very 
plainly to the shift of the negro population from the counties to the 
City. (See Table 112.) 

The colored enrollment in 9 Catholic parochial schools in the 
Maryland counties included 651 pupils, of whom 47 were enrolled in 
secondary schools. Baltimore City enrolled 1,050 pupils in its 
Catholic schools, 14 of whom were high school pupils. In addition 
there were 11 high school pupils enrolled at the Princess Anne 
Academy in Somerset County and 79 pupils enrolled in an elementary 
Lutheran school in Baltimore City. (See Table III-V, pages 286 to 
289.) 

COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN NEARLY 168 DAYS 

The dates for the opening of the colored schools in the counties 
extended from September 5 to October 3. Even greater variation was 
reported for the closing dates, from May 5 to June 23. Every county 
except Charles and Talbot held teachers' conferences prior to the 
opening of school. In all but 4 counties the session was longer in the 
colored high schools than in the elementary schools. The average 
length of session in the county colored elementary schools was 167.8 
days, .3 of a day less than for the preceding year. Since the Baltimore 
City colored schools were open 190 days, the average length of session 
in the State for colored elementary schools was slightly over 178.4 
days. (See Table 113.) 

In three counties, Kent, Calvert, and Queen Anne's, the colored 
elementary schools were open on the average fewer than 160 days, the 
minimum number required by law. The colored school sessions in 
Allegany and Baltimore included 190 and 193 days, respectively. 
(See Table 113.) 

In 1933 there were 32 schools in 6 counties which were open fewer 
than 160 days, the minimum number of days required by law, as 
against 12 schools in 5 counties the preceding year. This changed the 
record of a consistent decline in schools open fewer days than the 
required number noted for the past few years. All the Kent colored 
elementary schools except one were in session fewer than 160 days. 
(See Table 114.) 

TABLE 114 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer than 160 Days, 
the Number of Days Required by Law, by Year and by County, for 1933 







Year 


Number 


County- 


Number 


1929 




... 53 


Queen Anne's 


1 


1930 




41 




2 


1931 




34 


Anne Arundel 


3 


1932 




12 


Charles... 


3 


1933 




32 


Calvert. 


4 








Kent 


19 



Colored Enrollment; Length of Session; % of Attendance 



155 



PER CENT ATTENDANCE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average per cent of attendance in the colored elementary 
schools in 1933 was 86 per cent, just .6 per cent lower than in 1932, 
but almost 10 per cent higher than in 1923. The range in per cent of 
attendance among the counties extended from approximately 75 
per cent in Calvert to over 93 per cent in Washington. Ten counties 
reported a higher percentage of attendance in 1933 than during the 
preceding year. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in, 
June 1923, 1931, 1932 and 1933 



County 1923 1931 1932 1933 

County Average 76.2 85.6 86.3 86.0 

Washington 81.7 90.8 90.0 93.2 

Talbot 84.3 88.7 89.4 91.0 

Frederick 84.6 90.8 89.8 90.8 

Allegany 87.4 87.0 90.3 90.6 

Harford 79.9 88.7 89.1 90.3 

Wicomico 84.8 89.5 90.7 89.3 

Montgomery 80.8 89.1 88.5 89.1 

Baltimore 75.4 85.9 86.9 88.5 

Cecil 74.4 85.8 88.5 88.3 

Carroll 72.0 84.0 85.9 88.3 

Kent 73.4 86.5 88.1 87.9 

Anne Arundel. 71.2 85.8 86.3 87.4 



County 


1923 


1931 


1932 


1933 


Prince George's .. 
Queen Anne's 


76 


.4 


85 


.6 


87 .2 


86 


.9 


73 


.1 


86 


.8 


89 .1 


86 


.8 


Somerset 


80 


.5 


88 


.7 


88 .5 


85 


.3 


Caroline 


76 


.4 


86 


.1 


86.3 


85 


.2 


Worcester 


80 


.1 


84 


.6 


85 .4 


85 


.0 


St . Mary's 


62 


.9 


81 


.8 


84.9 


83 


.6 


Howard 


71 


.0 


82 


.5 


81 .0 


81 


.9 


Charles 


66 


.8 


81 


.3 


81 .0 


79 


.6 


Dorchester 


74 


.2 


82 


.4 


83 .1 


77 


.6 


Calvert 


65 


.3 


74 


.2 


72 .7 


75 


.6 


Baltimore City 


87 


.0 


87 


.5 


87.9 


87 


.3 


State Average. 


79 


.9 


86 


.5 


87.1 


86 


.6 



The per cent of attendance in the colored elementary schools in 
Baltimore City also decreased .6 per cent from that reported in 1932 
to 87.3 per cent in 1933. The average percentage of attendance for 
the State as a whole was 86.6 per cent in 1933. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 116 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1933 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 




Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


16,985 


2,167 


94.6 


95.8 


October... 


24,774 


2,603 


88.9 


92.8 


November 


25,653 


2,660 


86.8 


92.2 


December 


25,826 


2,616 


78.1 


89.0 


January 


25,680 


2,563 


84.9 


91.7 


February 


25,577 


2,519 


81.9 


91.1 


March 


25,454 


2,472 


86.5 


91.9 


April 


25,169 


2,401 


85.5 


91.2 


Mav 


24,955 


2,261 


88.2 


93.2 


June 


*4,377 


f930 


90.8 


95.1 


Average for Year 


25,104 


2,494 


86.0 


92.2 



* Elementary schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil and 
Charles Counties only . 

t High schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, 
Frederick, Harford and Talbot Counties only . 



156 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average enrollment in the county colored elementary schools 
reached its maximum in December with 25,826 pupils on roll, and in 
the county colored high schools in November with a total of 2,660 
pupils. The highest percentage of attendance for both colored ele- 
mentary and high schools was found in September and June, although 
few of the colored schools were in session in June. The lowest per- 
centage of attendance in the colored elementary schools was recorded 
in December, when the enrollment was at its peak. (See Table 116.) 

Decrease in Pupils Present Under 109 and 120 Days 
TABLE 117 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Uunder 100 
and 120 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



Number Present Per Cent Present 

Year and County 

Under Under Under Under 

100 Days 120 Days 100 Days 120 Days 

Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 



1925 9,463 13,195 33.2 46.3 

1926 8,078 11,295 29.5 41.3 

1927 7,643 10,836 29.0 41.1 

1928 6,610 9,563 24.8 35.9 

1929 5,987 9,045 22.9 34.6 

1930 4,937 7,842 19.3 30.6 

1931 4,342 7,039 16.7 27.1 

1932 3,807 6,139 14.8 23.8 

1933. _ 3,609 6,074 13.9 23.4 



Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by County 1932-33 



Washington 


13 


19 


4.6 


6.7 


Allegany 


15 


24 


5.7 


9.2 


Frederick 


49 


101 


5.9 


12.1 


Baltimore 


154 


236 


8.1 


12.5 


Carroll 


28 


48 


7.5 


12 .8 


Harford 


54 


106 


6.9 


13.6 


Talbot 


90 


163 


9.0 


16 .3 


Prince George's 


245 


474 


8.8 


17.1 


Cecil 


55 


72 


13.1 


17.1 


Kent 


64 


158 


7.7 


18 .9 


Montgomery 


231 


332 


13.3 


19 .2 


Wicomico 


144 


260 


10.7 


19 .4 


Anne Arundel... 


397 


662 


13.7 


22 .8 


Queen Anne's 


90 


181 


12.4 


25 .0 


Somerset 


273 


434 


16.1 


25.6 


St . Mary's 


183 


321 


16.1 


28 .2 


Caroline 


97 


227 


12.1 


28 .3 


Worcester 


269 


429 


18.2 


29 .0 


Howard 


102 


168 


17.9 


29 .4 


Charles 


382 


580 


24.1 


36 .6 


Dorchester 


317 


519 


22 .7 


37 .2 


Calvert 


357 


560 


31 .8 


49 .8 



In 1933 there were 3,609 pupils or 13.9 per cent of the county 
colored elementary school enrollment who attended school fewer 



Colored Pupils Present Under 100 and 120 Days; Late Entrants 157 



than 100 days, compared with 3,807 or 14.8 per cent during 1932. 
There were 6,074 pupils or 23.4 per cent of the enrollment in the 
colored elementary schools in 1933 present fewer than 120 days, a 
decrease of .4 per cent under that recorded for the previous year. 
(See Table 117.) 

Decreases in the per cent of colored pupils attending school under 
120 days were found in 12 counties during 1933. These percentages 
ranged from less than 10 per cent in Washington and Allegany to 
almost 50 per cent in Calvert. (See Table 117.) 

FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

There were 1,279 colored elementary pupils who were reported as 
late entrants in 1933 because of negligence or indifference, and em- 

TABLE 118 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or 
Neglect, for School Year Ending July 31, 1933 















Rank in 


Per Cent Entering 




Number and Per 


Cent Entering School After 


After First Month o r 




First Month 


for Following Reasons: 


Following Reasons* 


Year and 


















County 
























Negli- 




Under 


Negli- 




Under 








gence or 


14 Years 


14 Years, 


gence or 


14 Years 


14 Years, 




Total 


Total 


Indiffer- 


or More, 


Illegally 


Indiffer- 


or More, 


Illegally 




Number 


Per Cent 


ence 


Employed 


Employed 


ence 


Employed 


Employed 


Late Entrants by Year 


1926 


5,393 


18.1 


6.9 


8.3 


2 .9 








1927 


5,204 


17.8 


7.5 


7.9 


2.4 








1928 


4,739 


16.5 


7.8 


6.5 


2.2 








1929 


3,280 


11 .6 


5.3 


5.1 


1 .2 








1930 


3,148 


11 .4 


5.8 


4.5 


1 .1 








1931 


2,505 


9.0 


5.0 


3.1 


.9 








1932 


1,891 


6.9 


4 .5 


1 .6 


.8 








1933 


1,279 


4 .6 


3.3 


.9 


.4 
























Late Entrants by County 


Allegany 


2 


.7 


.7 






3 


1 


1 


Washington .. 


3 


1.0 


1 .0 






5 


2 


5 


Somerset 

Kent 


28 
15 


1 .6 
1 .7 


1 .0 
.6 


.5 
.7 


A 


4 
2 


7 
11 


9 
16 


Cecil 


8 


1 .8 


1 .1 


.7 




7 


10 
6 


3 


Wicomico 


31 


2 .1 


1 .6 


.5 




11 


6 


Talbot . 


23 


2 .1 


1 .2 


.9 




8 


15 


4 


Carroll 


9 


2 .3 


1 .0 


1 .3 
-.9 




6 


17 


2 


Worcester 


38 


2.4 


.1 


1 .4 


1 


14 


22 


Frederick 


24 


2.7 


1 .9 


.7 


.1 


12 


9 


8 


St . Mary's. ... 


38 


3.2 


2.5 


.3 


.4 


15 


4 


15 


Queen Anne's 


27 


3.3 


1.2 


1 .8 


.3 


9 


19 


13 


Charles... . 


67 


4 .0 


3.2 


.7 


.1 


17 


8 


10 


Baltimore 


83 


4 .1 


3.4 


.5 


.2 


18 


5 


12 


Prince 


















George's .... 


129 


4.3 


3 .2 


.7 


.4 


16 


12 


14 


Dorchester .... 


65 


4.3 


2 .1 


1 .1 


1 .1 


14 


16 


20 


Caroline 


47 


5.5 


1 .4 


3.3 


.8 


10 


22 


17 


Harford 


47 


5.8 


2 .1 


2.8 


.9 


13 


21 


18 


Montgomery 


113 


6.2 


4 .4 


1 .6 


.2 


19 


18 


11 


Anne 


















Arundel 


235 


7.7 


6.9 


.7 


.1 


20 


13 


7 


Howard 


65 


10 .6 


9.0 


.3 


1 .3 


21 


3 


21 


Calvert 


182 


15.7 


12.5 


2 .1 


1 .1 


22 


20 


19 



158 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ployment. These constituted 4.6 per cent of the total colored ele- 
mentary school enrollment, 2.3 per cent under the corresponding 
percentage in 1932. There has been a constant decrease in the num- 
ber and per cent of late entrants since 1926, there having been over 
four times as many late entrants the earlier year than in 1933. 
Negligence and indifference continue to be the chief causes of late 
entrance. (See Table 118.) 

The percentage of late entrants in the individual counties ran from 
.7 per cent and 1 per cent in Allegany and Washington, respectively, 
to 15.7 per cent in Calvert. Allegany and Washington had no late 
entrants due to employment and Cecil, Wicomico, Talbot, and Car- 
roll reported no late entrants because of illegal employment. (See 
Table 118.) 

FEWER WITHDRAWALS FROM SCHOOL 



TABLE 119 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools for 
Year Ending July 31, 1933 





Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 


WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 




fer, Commitment, 
or Death 






PER 


CENT WITHDRAWING 


FOR 


year and 
county 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Poverty 


Mental 

and 
Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Year 



1925 


2,549 


8.6 


3,515 


12 .3 


6.4 


2.6 


1 .1 


1 .7 


.5 


1926 


2,446 


8.2 


2,697 


9.9 


4.9 


1 .9 


1 .0 


1 .5 


.6 


1927 


2,340 


8.0 


2,489 


8.5 


4.3 


1 .5 


1 .2 


1 .1 


.4 


1928. 


2,130 


7.4 


2,231 


7.8 


4 .1 


1 .2 


1 .0 


1.1 


.4 


1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7.6 


3.7 


1.5 


1 .1 


.9 


.4 


1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1,717 


6.2 


2 .9 


1.2 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


1931 


1,883 


6.8 


1,405 


5.0 


2.2 


1 .0 


.9 


.6 


.3 


1932 


1,719 


6.3 


1,146 


4 .2 


1.2 


1 .0 


1 .0 


.6 


.4 


1933 


1,652 


6.0 


1,069 


3.9 


1 .5 


1.0 


.7 


.5 


.2 



Withdrawals by County, 1933 



Frederick 


58 


6.5 


12 


1 .4 


.9 


.1 


.3 


.1 




Prince 














George's .... 


234 


7.8 


57 


1 .9 


.7 


.1 


.6 


.5 




Anne Arundel 


154 


5.0 


58 


1.9 


.3 


.5 


.6 


.4 


.1 


Dorchester .... 


103 


6.9 


32 


2.1 


.7 


.3 


.7 


.4 




Kent... 


28 


3.2 


19 


2.2 


1 .7 


.1 


.3 


.1 




Montgomery 


96 


5.2 


44 


2.4 


.5 


.9 


.3 


.5 


.2 


Baltimore 


152 


7.4 


51 


2.5 


1.5 


.4 


.4 


.1 


.1 


Allegany 

Caroline 


10 


3.7 


7 


2.6 


.7 


.4 


1 .5 






53 


6.2 


24 


2.8 


1.2 


.5 


.6 


.2 


.3 


Harford 


36 


4.4 


25 


3.1 


1.0 


1 .1 


.5 


.2 


.3 


Queen Anne's 


98 


11 .9 


27 


3.3 


1.1 


.4 


1.7 


.8 




St . Mary's ... 


55 


4.6 


43 


3.6 


1.6 


.4 


.6 


.2 


Washington .. 


14 


4.7 


11 


3.7 


1 .0 


2 .0 


.4 


.3 






















Wicomico 


122 


8.3 


60 


4.1 


1.3 


1.8 


.7 


.2 


.1 


Talbot 


81 


7.5 


45 


4.2 


1.3 


1 .0 


.9 


.9 


.1 


Carroll 


16 


4 .1 


19 


4.9 


1.0 




.8 


3.1 




Charles 


101 


6.0 


84 


5.0 


1.3 


2.2 


.9 


.4 


.2 


Calvert 


33 


2.9 


66 


5.7 


2.3 


1.6 


.9 


.6 


.3 


Howard 


45 


7.4 


35 


5.7 


1.5 


.6 


1 .5 


1 .6 


.5 


Cecil.. 


19 


4.3 


28 


6.4 


.7 


1 .4 


1 .1 


.7 


2.5 


Worcester 


84 


5.4 


109 


7.0 


2.5 


2.2 


.9 


1.3 


.1 


Somerset 


60 


3.4 


213 


12 .1 


7.0 


2.9 


1 .2 


.4 


.6 



Colored Late Entrants; Withdrawals; Grade Enrollment 159 



Withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, 
and death, over which little control can be exercised, and which will 
probably always constitute a fairly constant proportion of the school 
population, has, nevertheless, dropped from 8.6 per cent in 1925 to 
6 per cent in 1933 of the county colored elementary pupils. Per- 
centages for these withdrawals ranged from close to 3 per cent in 
Calvert to nearly 12 per cent in Queen Anne's. (See Table 119.) 

Withdrawals for causes other than those mentioned included 1,069 
pupils or 3.9 per cent of the total colored elementary school enroll- 
ment, .3 per cent lower than in 1932, but a decrease of 8.4 per cent 
since 1925 when the figures were first computed. This included 1.5 
per cent withdrawn for employment, 1 per cent who withdrew be- 
cause of poverty, .7 per cent for mental or physical incapacity, .5 
per cent not of compulsory school age, and .2 per cent withdrawn 
for other causes. Some of these withdrawals may be due to a lack of 
interest or efficiency on the part of the teachers, but many result 
from the poor home and community environment of the pupils. 
(See Table 119.) 

Among the individual counties the percentage of withdrawals for 
causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions or 
death ranged from under 2 per cent of the colored elementary school 
enrollment in Frederick, Prince George's, and Anne Arundel to 
slightly more than 12 per cent in Somerset. (See Table 119.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 
TABLE 120 

Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years Ending 
in June, 1930, 1932 and 1933, and as of October, 1921 



GRADE 



I ... 
II.. 
III. 
IV.. 



Grand Total... 



Number in Each Grade, 
1933 



Boys 



2,801 
2,164 
1,934 
1,946 
1,676 
1,431 
1,166 
15 

474 
366 
209 
141 

14,323 



Girls 



2,478 
1,918 
1,869 
1,875 
1,730 
1,507 
1,416 
18 

598 
435 
297 
196 

14,337 



Total 



5,279 
4,082 
3,803 
3,821 
3,406 
2,938 
2,582 
33 

1,072 
801 
506 
337 

28,660 



Number in Each Grade 



1921 



9,804 
4,237 
3,741 
3,126 
2,011 
1,348 
859 
170 

168 
98 
51 
6 

25,619 



1930 



5,718 
4,031 
3,935 
3,766 
3,199 
2,695 
2,241 
57 

928 
524 
283 
181 

27,558 



1932 



5,297 
3,955 
4,006 
3,851 
3,348 
2,847 
2,459 
35 

1,068 
645 
415 
327 

28,253 



Change 
1921 to 
1933 



'4,525 
*155 
62 
695 
1,395 
1,590 
1,723 
*137 

904 
703 
455 
331 

3,041 



Decrease 



160 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Distribution of Colored Enrollment by Grades 



161 



The enrollment in the colored schools in 1933 was higher in every 
grade except the first, third, and fourth, than in the preceding year. 
As in previous years, the first grade with 5,279 pupils had the high- 
est enrollment. 

A comparison of the grade enrollment in 1921 with that of 1933 
shows that the first and second grades are the only ones which had 
lower enrollments in 1933 than in 1921, the decrease in the first 
grade numbering 4,525 pupils. Although every grade above the 
third showed considerable increase over 1921, the greatest increases 
in enrollment were found in the seventh, sixth, and fifth grades. 
(See Table 120 and Chart 26.) 

CHART 26 



ENROLLMENT OF COUNTY COLORED PUPILS BY GRADE 
OCTOBER, 1921 AND NOVEMBER, 1923 



Grade Enrollment 



L921 



11933 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 

I 
II 
III 
IV 




168 
1098 

98 
719 

51 
497 



L 



The enrollment by grade in the individual counties for the year 
1932-33 is given in detail in Table 121. 

GRADUATES OF COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
In 1933 there were 1,910 graduates from county colored elementary 
schools who represented 7.4 per cent of the total elementary school en- 



162 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



rollment. This percentage was .2 lower than was reported in 1932, 
but an increase of 4.1 per cent since 1923. The colored elementary 
graduates of 1933 included 805 boys, 6.1 per cent of the boys enrolled 
and 1,105 girls, 8.6 per cent of the girls enrolled. (See Table 122.) 



CHART 27 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
193S 

H Per Cent Boys V777X Per Cent Girls 



County- 


Number 
Boys Girls 


Total and 
Co. Aver age 


805 


1105 


Cecil 


21 


33 


Caroline 


38 


58 


Carroll 


19 


22 


Wicomico 


63 


63 


Talbot 


41 


51 


Kent 


36 


38 


Dorchester 


65 


56 


Somerset 


62 


80 


Montgomery 


56 


88 


Baltimore 


62 


91 


Howard 


17 


29 


Allegany 


9 


12 


Queen Anne* 


23 

s 


35 


Pr. George' 


s 94 


111 


Washington 


5 


15 


Worcester 


57 


66 


Frederick 


22 


35 


Harford 


23 


29 


Charles 


32 


59 


St. Mary's 


21 


40 


Calvert 


25 


27 


Anne Arundel ^ 4 


67 



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Colored Elementary School Graduates; Survival; Non-Promotions 163 

TABLE 122 

Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Number 



Year Boys Girls 

1923 350 637 

1924 427 706 

1925 487 705 

1926 483 820 

1927 542 909 

1928 542 984 

1929... 733 1,077 

1930. 728 993 

1931 884 1,101 

1932 835 1,134 

1933 805 1,105 



Per Cent 



Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 



Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, commit- 
ment and death, graduated. 

In the counties the percentage of boys graduated varied from over 
2 per cent in Anne Arundel to more than 10 per cent in Carroll and 
Cecil. For girls the percentage ranged from 4.5 in Anne Arundel to 
15 in Cecil. In every county except Dorchester and Wicomico the 
percentage of girl graduates exceeded that of the boys. (See Chart 27.) 

Survival of Colored Pupils through Grades and High School 
The survival of pupils through the grades* is another way of show- 
ing the improvement in the holding power of the county colored 
schools growing out of better enforcement of the school attendance 
law, and greater interest in school work following more effective in- 
struction. (See Chart 28.) 

It is estimated that of every 100 children entering county colored 
public schools for the first time in any one year, 47 reached the sixth 
grade, and 30 the seventh grade in 1921. Only 6 of these 100 en- 
trants to the first grade entered high school and 2 reached the third 
year of high school. Twelve years later, corresponding figures in- 
dicate that 91 entered grade 6, and 81 reached grade 7. The change 
in the number going to high school is even more marked. Of each 100 
children first entering school, in 1933 there were 34 who went as far 
as the first year of high school, 22 who reached the second year, 15 
the third year, and 11 the fourth year. (See Chart 28.) 

NON-PROMOTIONS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 5,271 pupils in the county colored elementary schools 
who failed to be promoted in 1933, 20.3 per cent of the total enroll- 
ment, an increase of over one per cent over corresponding figures for 
the two preceding years. The non-promotions in 1933 included 23.2 
per cent of the boys enrolled compared with 22.9 per cent who failed 
in 1932. Of the girls 17.4 per cent were not promoted in 1933 as 
against 15.5 per cent of failures the preceding year. In spite of these 
increases in the percentage of pupils not promoted over corresponding 

* Obtained by dividing enrollment in each grade by largest age group. 



164 1933^ Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 28 



SURVIVAL OF 100 COUNTY COLORED FIRST GRADE ENTRANTS 
TO THE UPPER GRADES AND HIGH SCHOOL 



Grade SZZZ2 1921 H 1933 





TABLE 123 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary Schools* 



Year 




Number 




Per Cent 




Ending in 














June 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3,647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1929 


3,230 


2,361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1930 


3,311 


2,343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1932 


2,977 


1,983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1933 


3,041 


2,230 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 



1 

6 
7 

I 
II 
III 
IV 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions , 



Survival Through the Grades; Colored Elementary Non-Promotions 165 



figures'for 1932, there was nevertheless an appreciable decrease for 
both boys and girls under the percentages reported for every year 
from 1923 to 1930. (See Table 123.) 

Among the individual counties the percentage of failures for boys 
ranged from less than 14 per cent in Kent, Carroll, and Washington 



CHART 29 



County 



Total and 
Co. Average 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY PUPILS NOT PROMOTED 
1933 



Number 
Boys Girls 

3041 



Per Cent Boys[ 



Per Cent Girls 




166 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



to 33 per cent and 47 per cent in Calvert and Allegany, respectively. 
For the girls, the percentage not promoted comprised from 5.3 per 
cent of the girls enrolled in Washington to 35.2 per cent in Allegany. 
As reported in previous years in every county the number and per 
cent of boys not promoted exceeded that shown for girls. (See Chart 
29.) 

One of the chief causes of the increase in non-promotions is due to 
a much more careful check up on seventh grade pupils before their 
promotion giving them eligibility to enter high school. Standard tests 
were used in a number of counties and the remainder used informal 
tests or the old type of examinations. 

CHART 30 



NUMBER AMD PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS OVER AGE 



County 


Number 
1935 


Per 
1921 


Total and 
Co. Average. 


7355 


65.6 


Frederick 


131 


59.5 


Washington 


41 


52.8 


Carroll 


68 


72.6 


Cecil 


76 


59.2 


Kent 


179 


68.9 


Talbot 


203 


66.8 


Dorchester 


338 


64.7 


Caroline 


183 


73.1 


Somerset 


392 


71.0 


Wicomico 


354 


58 »4 


Queen Anne's 


199 


68.6 


Pr. George's 


784 


64.1 


Anne Arundel 


842 


69.0 


Howard 


167 


71.2 


Harford 


245 


64.4 


Worcester 


443 


63.4 


Baltimore 


627 


57.1 


St. Mary's 


374 


74.5 


Charles 


528 


62.6 


Allegany 


96 


56.2 


Montgomery 


602 


66.2 


Calvert 


483 


72.3 



1933 



1921 



1933 




33.9 


1 




EOBH1 1 




1 




1 



Colored Non-Promotions and Overageness by County and Grade 167 



Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest on the part of 
both parents and pupils continued to be the chief causes attributed 
by teachers for non-promotions. Irregular attendance not due to 
illness was next in importance in causing retardation. Personal ill- 
ness and mental incapacity were also important factors in keeping 
pupils from meeting the requirements for promotion. 

Reduction in Overageness, 1921 to 1933 

In October, 1921, there were 25,296 pupils in the Maryland county 
colored public elementary schools, of whom 16,602, or 65.6 per cent, 
were over age.* Twelve years later, in November, 1933, with an en- 
rollment only slightly larger, 25,474, only 7,355 colored elementary 
pupils, or 28.9 per cent, were over age. This is an excellent illustration 
of the remarkable improvement which has taken place in twelve 
years. A comparison of the number and per cent over age by counties 
for 1921 and 1933 is given in Chart 30. 

The reduction in per cent over age* is very great in the colored 
elementary schools of every county. In October, 1921, Washington 
County, with 52.8 per cent, had the smallest per cent over age, while 
the maximum per cent over age, 74.5, occurred in St. Mary's. In 
November, 1933, Frederick and Washington had only 15 per cent of 
the colored elementary pupils over age, while the maximum of 44 per 

CHART 31 



1938 NON PROMOTIONS BY GRADES 
COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Number 
Grade Boys Girls 



E23 Per Cent Girls 



405 
362 
438 
301 
295 
347 
5 



Per Cent Boys 

727 1 " V////////////////A 

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ran— — m mm 

269 I 14.3 V///////////////A 
201 

194 n?9 




313 122-1 V////////////////////////////A 

2 S?3 



A pupil is considered over age who 

8 years old or more in Grade 1 

9 years old or more in Grade 9. 

10 years old or more in Grade 3 

11 years old or more in Grade 4 



12 years old or more in Grade ."> 

13 years old or more in Grade 6 

14 years old or more in Grade 7 

15 years old or more in first year high, etc. 



168 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



cent was found in Calvert. The maximum per cent in 1933 is con- 
siderably below the minimum per cent in 1921. The counties having 
over a third of their colored elementary pupils over age must secure 
better attendance, stronger teaching staffs, and fewer changes in 
them, before they can expect to reduce the retardation in the colored 
schools. (See Chart SO, page 166.) 

Failures by Grade 

In 1933 the percentage of failures for both boys and girls was high- 
est in the first and seventh grades and lowest in the fifth grade. The 
percentage of boys not promoted showed decreases under those re- 
ported in 1932 in the first, second, third, and sixth grades. However, 

CHART 32 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED PUPILS OVER AGE BY GRADE 
OCTOBER, 1921 AND NOVEMBER, 1933 



Over Age 

Grade Number Per Cent f 1 1921 MB 1933 



5025 
886 

3087 
1050 

2834 
1304 

2366 
1277 




r 1564 pfW 

& 1161 



6 



1035 f767~ 
964 



7 598 ITsT 

710 



8 



93 
3 



I 
II 
III 
IV 



116 
266 

49 
154 

28 
117 

1 
72 



I 69 I 




Non-Promotions and Overageness by Grade; Colored High Schools L69 



the percentage of failure for the girls in 1933 was higher in every 
grade than corresponding figures for 1932. The high percentage of 
failures in the first grade can be partly attributed to irregular at- 
tendance caused by contagious diseases and inclement weather, and 
to the immaturity of some of the children who, in order to success- 
fully accomplish first grade work, need a mental maturity of six 
years. (See Chart 31, page 167.) 

Overageness by Grades 

In 1933 as well as in 1921 the percentage of pupils over age was 
lowest in grade 1. The maximum overageness was found in grades 
5 and 6 in 1921 and in grades 4 and 5 in November, 1933. Above 
these grades the over-age pupils began to drop out of school, which 
brought about the reduction in the per cent over age found in grade 
7 and the high school years. (See Chart 32.) 

COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
In 1933 of the 26 county colored high schools, 24 were first group 
schools and 2 second group schools. Because of the plan to add a third 
and fourth year of work at Centerville, the colored high school In Queen 
Anne's previously included as a second group school was reported 
as first group in 1933. Since Baltimore County continued its practice 
of paying Baltimore City for instructing its qualified colored ele- 
mentary school graduates in the colored junior-senior high school^ in 
Baltimore City, Howard and St. Mary's are the only counties which 
offer no opportunities for high school work to their colored ele- 
mentary school graduates. (See Table 124 and Chart 21, page 127.) 



TABLE 121 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1933 



County » 


Total 


Group 


County ■• 


Total 


Group 




u 


tz 




U 












Cecil 


1 


1 




Total Counties 








Charles 


1 


1 




1920 


4 




t4 


Dorchester 


1 


1 










Frederick 


1 


1 




1925 


16 


*11 


t5 
t4 
t6 
7 


Harford 


1 


1 




1926 


16 


*12 


Kent 


1 


1 




1927 


19 


*13 


Montgomery 


1 

3 


1 




1928. 


21 


14 


Prince George's 


3 




1929 


24 


14 


10 

8 




1 


1 




1930 


25 


17 


Somerset 


2 


2 




1931 


26 


21 


5 


Talbot 


2 


2 




1932 


26 


23 


3 


Washington .. 


1 


1 




1933 


26 


24 


2 


Wicomico 


2 


2 












Worcester 


3 


1 


2 


Allegany 


1 


1 












Anne Arundel 


1 


1 




Baltimore City 


1 


1 




Calvert 


1 


1 








Caroline 


1 


1 




State 


27 


25 


2 


Carroll 


1 


1 

























t First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 
15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928 . 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928 . 

For individual schools see Table XXXVII, pages 322 to 327 . 



170 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The continued growth of the county colored high schools is shown 
by the constantly mounting high school enrollment which reached 
2,750 in 1933, an increase of 261 pupils over corresponding figures in 
1932. The enrollment of 2,664 pupils in the last four years of the 
colored high school course in Baltimore City in 1933 brought the 
colored high school population in the State to a total of 5,414 pupils. 
(See Table 125.) 

In 1933 there were graduated from the four-year colored high 
schools 297 in the counties and 364 in Baltimore City, a total of 661 
for the entire State. (See Table 125.) 



TABLE 125 

Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High School 
in 23 Counties and Baltimore City 1921 to 1933 





23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Year 








Four- 








Four 


Ending 








Year 








Year 


July 31 




Average 




High 




Average 




High 


Total 


No. 


Average 


School 


Total 


No. 


Average 


School 




Enroll- 


Belong- 


Attend- 


Grad- 


Enroll- 


Belong- 


Attend- 


Grad- 




ment 


ing 


ance 


uates 


ment 


ing 


ance 


uates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922 


368 


* 


292 


5 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1,557 


1,503 


1,373 


139 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926. 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928.. 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2,028 


1,832 


283 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1,931 


283 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933... 


2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,664 


2,562 


2,334 


364 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



A comparison of the county colored high school enrollment, 
teaching staff, and salary expenditures in 1933 with corresponding 
figures in 1920, 1925, 1930, and 1932, shows very plainly the great 
strides being made in secondary education for colored pupils. In 
1933 the counties enrolled 2,750 pupils for whom 93 teachers were 
employed at a salary cost of $78,310, as compared with 187 pupils 
enrolled with 13 teachers in charge at a salary cost of $9,610 in 1920. 
Corresponding figures in 1925 included 862 high school pupils, a staff 
of 43 teachers for whom $33,587 was spent for salaries. (See Table 
126.) 

In comparing figures for 1932 with 1933, it will be noted that there 
were increases in colored high school enrollment in every county, 
except Cecil, Montgomery, and Somerset; an increasing or stationary 
colored high school staff in every county, except Frederick and Tal- 



Growth in 



Colored High School Enrollment, Staff 
Teachers' Salaries 



and 



171 



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172 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



bot; and increases in the salary budget in every county except Alle- 
gany, Charles, Frederick, Montgomery, Somerset, Talbot, and Wash- 
ington. (See Table 126.) 

A way to evaluate the importance of the high school in the school 
curriculum is to find the ratio between the number belonging in high 
school and the number enrolled in high and elementary schools 
combined. The ratio for the Maryland counties in 1933 was 9 per 
cent as compared with 8.3 per cent in 1932 and 2 per cent in 1924. 
With 10.2 per cent the ratio for Baltimore City in 1933, the ratio 
for the State was 9.6 per cent. Since the pupils from Baltimore 
County who attend the Douglass Junior-Senior High School in Balti- 
more City are included in the Baltimore City figures, the average for 
the counties is slightly lower and that for Baltimore City somewhat 
higher than they actually are. (See Table 127.) 

TABLE 127 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number Belonging 
in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School Years Ending in 
June 1924, 1931, 1932 and 1933. 



County 


1924 


1931 


1932 


1933 


County 


1924 


1931 


1932 


1933 




2.0 


7.5 


8.3 


9.0 


Frederick 


6.7 


8.9 


9.7 


10.5 










Prince George's 


1 .5 


8.5 


9.0 


9.4 


Allegany 


11 .9 


22 .2 


21 .0 


24 .8 


Cecil 


..„..„ 


8.7 


7.6 


7.9 


Caroline 


2.3 


10.8 


18 .0 


18 .2 


Charles 




6.7 


6.8 


7.7 


Wicomico 


6.0 


15.3 


16.0 


17 .2 


Queen Anne's 


2 .0 


4.3 


4.2 


7.6 


Washington 




12 .6 


12 .0 


14 .2 


Anne Arundel 


2.5 


6.1 


7.0 


7.3 


Kent 


"3.6 


8.7 


10.8 


12 .5 


Calvert 




4 .1 


5.7 


6.9 




4 .7 


10.1 


11 .6 


12 .4 


Harford 




4.2 


6.1 


6.5 


Talbot 


3.0 


12 .8 


11 .3 


11 .9 


Montgomery..... 




6.4 


6.4 


6.0 


Carroll 


4 .0 


5.9 


6.7 


11 .8 










Worcester..... 


„.„.„ 


8.3 


10.3 


11 .3 


Baltimore City 


9.2 


*10.1 


*9.9 *10.2 


Somerset 




9.8 


10.7 


10.9 




















State 


4.7 


8.7 


9 .1 


9.6 



* Includes 47 of 90 Baltimore County pupils attending junior and senior high schools in Baltimore 
City, whose tuition is paid by the Baltimore County Board of Education . 

The per cent of the total colored enrollment in high schools in the 
counties ranged from in Howard and St. Mary's and 6 per cent in 
Montgomery to almost 25 per cent in Allegany. Montgomery was the 
only county which did not show a larger proportion of colored pupils 
in high school in 1933 than in the preceding year. (See Table 127.) 

Attendance in Colored High Schools 
TABLE 128 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, for Schools Years Endin g 
in June 1923, 1931, 1932, and 1933. 



County 


1923 


1931 


1932 


1933 


County 


1923 


1931 


1932 


1933 


County Average 


89 .3 


92 .0 


91 .9 


92 .2 


Charles 


88 .4 


90.6 


88 .9 


91 .6 










Prince George's 




93 .4 


92.5 


91.4 


Anne Arundel 


88 .9 


95 .4 


93.6 


95.1 


Allegany 


93.5 


94 .1 


90.3 


91 .1 


Kent 


86.3 


93.5 


93.9 


95.0 


Harford 




90.6 


90 .4 


90 .8 


Wicomico 


90.5 


94.6 


94 .2 


94 .7 


Queen Anne's 




87 .4 


89 .7 


90.6 


Montgomery 




92.6 


92 .3 


94.1 


Calvert 




85.6 


88 .3 


89 .8 


Frederick 


90.5 


94.9 


93.7 


93 .4 


Somerset 




89.6 


89 .0 


89 .0 


Carroll 




92.6 


90.4 


93 .0 


Caroline 


85.6 


90 .4 


89 .1 


88 .8 


Dorchester 


S7A 


85.5 


93 .0 


92 .4 


Cecil 




92 .8 


90 .6 


88.5 


Talbot 


87.3 


91 .9 


89.4 


92 .1 












Worcester... 




92 .3 


94 .4 


92.1 


Baltimore City 


88 .8 


91 .1 


91 .2 


91 .1 


Washington 




93.0 


92 .2 


92.0 


















State Average 


.. 88 .9 


91.5 


91.5 


91 .6 



% Reaching Colored High School; Per Cent of Attendance; Graduates 173 



The average per cent of attendance in the county colored high 
schools increased from 91.9 in 1932 to 92.2 per cent in 1933, a gain 
of .3 per cent. The percentage of attendance in Baltimore City of 91.1 
per cent brought the average for the State as a whole to 91.6 per cent. 
In the individual counties the per cent of attendance in the colored 
high schools varied from below 89 per cent in Caroline and Cecil to 
95 per cent in Kent and Anne Arundel. (See Table 128.) 

TABLE 129 



Colored Graduates of Four Year Public High Schools Together With Number 
Who Entered Bowie Normal School 



f County 


GIRL GRADUATES 


BOY GRADUATES 


Total No . 


Who Entered 
Bowie Normal 
Fall of 


County 


1932 


1933 


1932 


1933 


1932 


1933 


Total 










Total 






Counties 


164 


180 


28 


17 


Counties .... 


al24 


***117 


Harford 


5 


5 


1 


2 


Wicomico 


22 


25 


Worcester 


8 


4 


3 


1 


Anne Arundel 


**** 12 


13 


Prince 










Prince 






George's .... 


32 


24 


6 


4 


George's 


**15 


*11 


Charles 


11 


13 


1 


2 


Kent 


3 


*9 


Wicomico 


26 


28 


5 


4 


Caroline 


8 


9 


Allegany 


4 


8 




1 


Dorchester. ... 


**14 


9 


Anne Arundel 


12 


10 


3 


1 


Montgomery 


*6 


8 


Talhnt 


13 


10 


3 


1 


Somerset 


***12 


5 


Somerset 


14 


19 


1 


1 


Talbot. 


10 


7 


Carroll 


2 




Allegany 


2 


5 


Calvert 




3 






Carroll 


1 


4 


Cecil 




4 






Harford 


**5 


4 


Montgomery 


15 


5 


3 




Charles 


2 


3 


Washington .. 


2 


6 






Worcester 




2 


Frederick 


6 


8 






Frederick 


**5 


*1 


Dorchester .... 


4 


9 






Cecil. 


5 


1 


Kent 


10 


10 






Washington 


2 


1 


Caroline 


2 


12 


2 








Baltimore 








Baltimore 






City 


210 


225 


4 


4 


City 


**103 


*139 


Entire State 


374 


405 


32 


21 


Entire State 


a**227 


****256 


Other 






5 


1 




** 


* 


Graduates 














PrecedingYrs. 






7 


6 




**** 


*** 

















* Each (*) represents a high school graduate who enrolled in the junior class at Bowie Norma 
in the fall following graduation . 

a Includes 16 who entered the junior class at Bowie the fall following graduation . 

i Counties are ranked according to the highest percentage entering Bowie Normal School. 



174 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



County Four Year High School Graduates Total 297 
There were 297 graduates from the county colored high schools in 
1933, of whom 117 were boys and 180 were girls, a decrease of 7 boys 
but an increase of 16 girls over corresponding figures for 1932. The 
number of boy graduates in the individual counties ranged from 1 
each in Washington, Cecil, and Frederick, to 25 in Wicomico, while 
the number of girls graduated varied from 2 in Carroll to 28 in 
Wicomico. There were 139 boys and 225 girls graduated from the 
colored senior high school in Baltimore City. (See Table 129.) 

The Colored High School Curriculum 

During 1932-33 the academic course was offered in 15 of the 26 
county colored high schools and the general course in 7 county high 
schools. The colored high schools in Anne Arundel and Dorchester 
and the Salisbury Colored High School offered both the academic 
and general courses and the Caroline Colored High School offered its 
pupils the academic and vocational courses. The limited curriculum 
in the remaining schools is due to the fact that the schools are small in 
enrollment and teaching staff, which makes it impossible to offer 
different courses except at prohibitive cost. Academic, commercial, 
and technical courses were given in the Baltimore City Colored High 
School. (See Table XXXVIII, pages 322 to 327.) 

Courses in English, mathematics, social studies, and science were 
offered in every county colored high school. Practically every 
colored high school pupil was enrolled in English, 99 per cent took 
courses in the social studies, over 98 per cent received instruction in 
mathematics, and approximately 87 per cent were enrolled in science 
classes. All the pupils enrolled in 19 county colored high schools re- 
ceived instruction in the social studies and in 18 schools all were tak- 
ing courses in mathematics. Courses in Latin, available in the high 
schools in 6 counties, enrolled 146 colored boys and 200 girls, and 
French, offered in 5 counties, was studied by 54 boys and 74 girls. 
(See Table XXXIX, pages 328 to 333.) 

Instruction in industrial arts was given in 11 counties to 47 per cent 
of the colored boys enrolled, and courses in home economics were tak- 
en by 66 per cent of the girls enrolled in 15 counties. Vocational 
home economics was offered to the girls in Caroline and Charles and 
courses in agriculture to the boys in Caroline, Charles, and Prince 
George's. Music courses were given in 8 county colored high schools 
to 372 boys and 462 girls, while courses in physical education were 
taken by 61 boys and 105 girls in 3 counties. (See Table XXXIX, 
pages 328 to 333.) 

Occupations of 1932 High School Graduates During 1932-1933 

Of the 124 boys graduated from county colored high schools in 
1932, twelve enrolled in liberal arts colleges, 15 in normal schools 
and 2 entered college preparatory schools. This means that 23.4 
per cent of the boys graduated in 1932 continued their education the 
year following graduation as compared with 38 per cent in 1931-32. 



Curriculum; Occupation of Graduates; Balto. City Colored Schools 175 

Of the 164 girl graduates in 1932, 8 were enrolled in liberal arts col- 
leges, 27 entered normal schools, 5 were nursing, 1 attended a col- 
lege preparatory school, and 1 a music school during 1933. These 
42 girls included 25.6 per cent of the total number of girls graduated, 
approximately 5 per cent lower than the 31 per cent who continued 
their education the preceding year. In addition to those who were 
enrolled in institutions of higher learning during 1932-33, 38 boys 
and 90 girls were either staying or working at home, 14 girls were 
married, 19 boys were engaged on farms or in fishing, 7 boys and 1 
girl were employed as clerks in stores, 4 boys were chauffeurs, 4 
boys were employed in factories and the occupations of 23 boys and 
17 girls were either unknown or unclassified. 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

The 26,028 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored schools 
included 20,375 in the elementary schools, 3,541 in the junior high 
schools (grades 7-9), and 1,683 in the senior high school. The schools 
were open for 190 days with 91.2 per cent of attendance in the senior 
high school, 91.2 per cent in the junior high schools, and 87.3 per cent 
in the elementary schools. In addition to the regular elementary and 
secondary school, the vocational school enrolled 269 boys and 160 
girls. Classes in trades and industries, such as carpentry, shoe 
repairing, auto mechanics and tailoring, were available for the boys, 
while dressmaking, personal hygiene, and cookery were offered for 
the girls. There were 156 colored pupils enrolled in 7 special classes 
for the physically handicapped and 864 pupils in 27 centers for the 
mentally handicapped. (See Table 34, pages 50.) 

In addition to the day school, Baltimore City continued its night 
school classes for adults, thus enabling many deprived of oppor- 
tunities when they were young to derive the benefits of an elementary 
or secondary education. The colored evening school enrollment in- 
cluded 1,517 in elementary classes, 590 enrolled in high school 
courses, and 1,091 receiving training in commercial, industrial, and 
home economics work. (See Table 159, page 213.) 

Anne Arundel was the only county in the State which offered even- 
ing school work to its colored population. This consisted of evening 
continuation classes conducted at the Stanton High School for cooks, 
waiters, and waitresses at the Naval Academy. Instruction was 
given in cooking, sewing, and related subjects of English, mathe- 
matics, and science. (See Table 162, page 214.) 

TRAINING OF THE COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The effectiveness of a school system depends primarily on the fit- 
ness and training of the members of its teaching staff. Although the 
success of inexperienced teachers can not be determined until their 
abilities have been tested, it is nevertheless possible to insure that all 
vacancies are filled with teachers who have been well-trained for 
their profession at accredited state normal schools and colleges. 



176 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Experienced teachers keep in touch with recent developments in 
educational theory and methods by attending summer school. 

The minimum requirements for a first grade certificate in Mary- 
land, the only certificate issued to a prospective county elementary 
school teacher, are graduation from a two-year normal school, or the 
equivalent, and attendance at summer school once in four years for 
the renewal of the certificate after it has been issued. However, on 
May 19, 1933, the following special regulations regarding summer 
school attendance in 1933 and 1934 were passed by the Maryland 
State Board of Education: 

1. On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1933 ma>, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school 
attendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1935 for four 
j ears on the basis of summer school credits. If, on the other hand, summer 
school credits are presented in 1933, the renewal will extend over six years. 

It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be renewed 
for the first time in 1933 present summer school credits for the renewal. 

2. On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1934 may, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school at- 
tendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1936 for four 
years on the basis cf summer school credits. If, on the other hand, summer 
school credits are presented in 1934, the renewal will extend over six years. 

It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be re- 
newed for the first time in 1934 present summer school credits for the re- 
newal. 

In October, 1933, of the 704 teachers employed in the Maryland 
county colored schools, 689, or 97.7 per cent, held regular first grade 
certificates, an increase of 1 per cent over the corresponding figures 
for the preceding year. This figure is identical with the proportion 
of trained teachers employed in the county white elementary schools. 
There were only 12 teachers holding second grade certificates and 3 
with third grade certificates in the county colored elementary schools 
October, 1933. Every colored teacher in 11 counties held a first grade 
certificate and in only 1 county did less than 90 per cent of the 
colored teachers meet the requirements for first grade certificates. 
(See Table XIV, page 298.) 

Of the 94 teachers employed in the county colored high schools in 
October, 1933, all but 6 held regular high school certificates. (See 
Table XIV, page 298.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

There were 174 summer school attendants in 1933, or 21.8 per cent 
of the county colored teaching staff in service in October, 1933, a 
decrease of 8.4 per cent under the 30.2 per cent reported as summer 
school attendants in 1932. The reduction in the number of summer 
school attendants is probably due chiefly to the special provisions 
made by the State Board of Education given above. The per- 
centage of summer school attendants in the counties varied from 
in Howard and less than 5 per cent in Anne Arundel to 50 per cent 
in Allegany, Cecil, and Talbot. (See Table 130.) 



Training of Teachers; Summer School Attendance; Resignations 177 



Hampton Institute attracted the largest number of colored teachers 
from the Maryland counties, having enrolled 95 as summer school 
attendants in 1933. Morgan College drew the next largest group, 46; 
Virginia State Teachers' College ranked third, with 6; and Columbia 
University attracted 5 summer school attendants from the Maryland 
counties. Two teachers attended summer school classes for 12 weeks. 
In addition to the teachers reported as summer school attendants, 2 
supervisors were enrolled at Hampton Institute, 2 attended Morgan 
College, and 1 attended the summer courses at Iowa State College. 
(See Table 130.) 

TABLE 130 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1933, Reported by County 
Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1933 



County 



Total 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Carroll 

St . Mary's 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Queen Anne's ... 

Washington 

Montgomery 
Prince George's 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Harford 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Charles 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel... 
Howard 



Teachers Employed 
Oct ., 1933, Who 
Attended Summer 
School, 1933 



Number 



174 

tl8 
8 
5 
t6 
14 
18 
11 
f9 
6 
3 
11 
*19 
11 
t5 



Per Cent 



21 .8 

50 .0 
50.0 
50.0 
42.9 



42 .4 
36.7 
27.5 
27.3 
26 .1 
25.0 
22.9 
22 .4 
20.4 
16.7 
15.4 
14.3 
13.3 
11 .5 
10.9 
9.1 
4.9 
0.0 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

Hampton 

Morgan 

Virginia State Teachers' College ... 
Teachers' College Columbia Univ 

Temple University. 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pittsburgh 

University of Denver 

West Chester 

All Others 



Number 
of County 
Colored 
Teachers 



tttfr**174 

fr**95 

tt46 
6 
5 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 

no 



* Each asterisk represents one teacher who attended for the two sessions of twelve weeks . 
t Each f represents one supervisor not included in the figures above . 

RESIGNATIONS AND TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1931-1932 there were 96 teachers who re- 
signed from the county colored elementary schools, 23 fewer than re- 
signed during the preceding year and a reduction of 77 under the 
number of resignations during 1930-31. These figures exclude teach- 
ers who transferred to another county and those who were on leave 
of absence. Probably the lack of available positions in fields other 
than teaching during the current economic depression, and the re- 
duction in resignations from teachers who marry have been the 
chief factors in reducing the number of resignations during the past 
two years. (See Table 131.) 

Inefficiency is still the chief cause for the dismissal of county colored 
elementary teachers, 52 teachers having been dismissed for this rea- 



178 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



son. Eight teachers resigned voluntarily, seven received teaching 
appointments in other states, 6 retired, and 4 each were dropped 
because of abolished positions or illness. There were 4 teachers on 
leave of absence during 1931-32 and 10 who transferred from one 
county to another. (See Table 131.) 

TABLE 131 

Estimated Causes for Resignation of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools for the School Year 1931-1932 with 
Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 





Elementary School 


High School 


Cause of Resignation 
















1929-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1929-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


Inefficiency 


74 


41 


52 


9 


8 


9 


Voluntary 


12 


13 


8 




5 


1 


Teaching in Another State 


17 


6 


7 




1 




Retired 


2 


5 


6 








Abolished positions 






4 








Illness 


19 


12 


4 


1 


2 




Dropped for low certificate or 








failure to attend summer 














school 


9 


3 


3 


2 


1 


5 


Marriage 


12 


16 


3 


2 


2 


1 


Left to study 






2 








Death 


7 


3 


1 








Teaching in Baltimore City, 












or supervising in counties 


1 


9 


1 


1 


1 


2 


Other and unknown 


17 


8 


2 


1 


1 


2 


Total 


170 


116 


93 


16 


21 


20 


Leave of absence 


12 


7 


4 


1 




2 


Transfer to another county. . 


27 


24 


10 


6 


1 


4 



In the high schools the number of resignations decreased from 21 
to 20. Of this number 9 were dropped for inefficiency and 5 for hav- 
ing provisional certificates. (See Table 131.) 



Reduction in Turnover in Colored Elementary Schools 

With the reduction in the number of resignations in 1931-32, the 
number of appointments made in the county colored elementary 
schools during 1932-33 included 103 teachers, 13.9 per cent of the 
total number of teachers employed, a drop of 1.5 per cent under the 
number of new appointments made during the preceding year. 
These figures exclude those teachers who transferred from one 
county to another. Of the newly appointed teachers, 99 were in- 
experienced, 7 had had experience outside the state of Maryland, 22 
had taught in Maryland schools, but were out of service the pre- 
ceding year, and 3 were substitutes. (See Table 132.) 

In the counties the turnover during 1932-33 ranged from in 
Washington County and less than 5 per cent of the total number of 
colored elementary teachers in Dorchester, Harford, and Mont- 



Resignations and Turnover in Colored Schools 



179 



gomery to one-third of the teaching staff in Carroll and Howard. 
In Baltimore City there were 53 teachers who received appointments 
in the colored elementary schools, or 11.6 per cent of the total num- 
ber of teachers employed. Of this number, 17 were inexperienced 
and 27 were doing types of work other than that done from February 
to June, 1932. (See Table 132.) 

TABLE 132 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties, 
during School Year, 1932-33, showing those Inexperienced, Experienced and 

from Other Counties 



County 


New to County 


Change 
in 

No. of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct , 1931 
to 

Oct., 1932 


New to County, Who Were 


Elementary 


High 


Inexperi- 
enced 


Experi- 
enced 
but 
New 

to 
State 


.Experi- 
enced 
in Md . 
Counties 
but not 
Teaching 

in 
1931-32 


From 
Other 
Counties 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 
and 

Others 


No . 


Per 
Cent 


No . 


Per 
Cent 


Total and Av . 






















1930-31 


201 


26 .4 


26 


30.2 


+ 13 


fl76 


*** 14 


x33 


x33 


4 


1931-32 


115 


15.4 


35 


38 .5 


+3 


tH3 




**24 


*25 


3 


1932-33 


103 


13 .9 


28 


29.5 


—4 


f99 


*7 


*22 




3 


Washington 










-1 












Dorchester 


2 


4.3 


3 


40 .0 


+ 1 


** 4 




*1 






Harford 


1 


4 .3 


1 


33 .3 


*1 




1 






Montgomery 


2 


4 .7 


2 


50.0 


- 1 


*1 






*3 




Baltimore 


3 


5.9 






+ 1 


1 


1 






Cecil.... 


1 

3 


7.1 
















Frederick 


10.3 


2 


50 .0 




*4 






*1 




St . Mary's 


4 


11 .8 




-1 


3 




1 






Kent 


3 


12 .5 






-3 


2 




1 






Prince George's 


10 


13 .0 


4 


30 .8 


-1 


**6 


2 


**4 




2 


Allegany 


1 


16.7 


2 


50 .0 




*1 






*2 




Anne Arundel 


13 
7 
6 
5 
8 
8 

14 
7 
6 
4 
6 

°53 

156 


16 .7 
16 .7 
16.7 

20 .0 

21 .1 
25.8 
26.4 
26.9 
27 .3 
33 .3 
33 .3 

11 .6 

13.0 


1 

3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
2 
1 


12 .5 
75 .0 
18 .2 
28 .6 
20.0 
28.6 
50.0 
100.0 
50.0 


+4 


*10 

**8 
**6 
** 6 
*6 
6 

***16 
*3 
*7 
1 
6 

®34 
133 


1 


1 

*2 
1 


2 




Charles 




Wicomico 


-1 
+ 1 




1 




Caroline 




1 


Worcester 


1 


1 

**4 


1 


Talbot 


-3 
-1 




Somerset 




1 
1 




Calvert 


*2 


3 




Queen Anne's 


+2 
-1 




Carroll 




1 


2 




Howard 










Baltimore City 


tl8 
46 


11 .0 
17.9 


-28 
-32 


**2 
9 






n§35 

38 


Entire State 


22 


14 



* Each asterisk represents one high school teacher . 

t Includes 21 high school teachers for 1932-33, 29 for 1931-32 and 22 for 1930-31 . 
x Includes 6 high school teachers . 

§ Includes 35 from types of work other than that done from February to June, 1932 . 
% Includes 15 junior and 3 senior high school teachers . 
° Excludes 1 vocational teacher . 

It Includes one senior and 8 junior high school teachers. 

• Includes 7 junior high school teachers. 



Turnover in Colored High Schools Lower 

In the county colored high schools, 28 teachers or 29.5 per cent of 
the teaching staff received appointments during 1932-33, as com- 



180 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



pared with 35 or 38.5 per cent the preceding year. Three counties 
had no newly appointed teachers, while in the other counties the 
number ranged from 1 to 4. The turnover in Charles included 75 
per cent of the total number of teachers employed, and in Calvert 
both a new principal and an assistant were employed in 1932-33. The 
large turnover in the colored high schools is due in part to the deter- 
mined effort made by the State Supervisor of Colored High Schools 
to have every teacher certificated in the subjects in which he gives 
instruction. The fact that most of the colored high schools employ 
so few teachers also accounts for the large percentage of turnover. 
(See Table 132.) 

There were 3 teachers appointed in the senior high school in Balti- 
more City during 1932-33 and 15 new teachers employed in the junior 
high schools. These 18 teachers included 11 per cent of the teaching 
staffs employed in the senior and junior high schools. (See Table 
132.) 

Normal Schools and Colleges Attended by Newly Appointed Colored Teachers 

Of the 78 inexperienced teachers who received appointments 
during 1932-33, 47 or 60 per cent were graduates of the Bowie Normal 
School and 11 or 14 per cent were trained at the Colored Training 
School in Baltimore City. The remaining 26 per cent were graduates 
of normal schools outside of Maryland. Cheyney Normal School 
supplied 8 teachers, Hampton Institute 7, Miner Normal School and 
Howard University trained 2 each, and 1 received training at West 
Chester State Teachers' College. All 6 of the experienced teachers 
who were appointed to the county colored elementary schools were 
graduates of normal schools outside of Maryland. (See Table 133.) 

TABLE 133 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were New 
To Maryland Counties During the School Year 1932-1933 



School or College 
Attended 



Total. 



Bowie Normal School, Md. 

Coppin Normal School, 

Baltimore, Md 

Cheyney Normal School, Pa. .., 

Hampton Institute, Va 

Miner Normal School, 

Washington, D. C 

Howard University, Wash., D. 

New Jersey Schools. 

Westchester State Teachers' 

College, Pa 



Elementary 
Teachers 
Who were 



In- 
experi- 
enced 



Experi- 
enced 

But New 

in 
Mary- 
land 

1932-33 



School or College 
Attended 



Total. 



Hampton Institute, Va. 

Morgan College, Baltimore, Md... 
Virginia State Teachers' College... 

Ohio School 

Howard University, Wash., D. C 

Spelman College, Ga 

University of Pittsburgh 

Indiana State Teachers' College... 



Inex- 
peri- 
enced 
High 
School 
Teach- 



*22 

10 
4 

*2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 



* Includes one teacher with experience outside the state. 



Turnover and Experience of Colored Teachers 



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182 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Of the 22 newly appointed colored high school teachers 10 were 
trained at Hampton Institute, 4 were graduates of Morgan College, 
and 2 each received their training at Virginia State Teachers' Col- 
lege and at Ohio schools. The remaining 4 were graduated from 
schools in Washington, D. C, Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Indiana. 
(See Table 133.) 

EXPERIENCE OF COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The median experience of county colored teachers was 5.3 years 
in October, 1933, as compared with 4.5 years, the median in 1932. 
Among the counties the median years of experience varied from 2.8 
in Somerset where the turnover is fairly high to 11.5 years in Wash- 
ington where there was no turnover at all. (See Table 134.) 

DECREASE IN NUMBER OF MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY 
COLORED SCHOOLS 

There were 122 men employed in the county colored schools in 
1933, 15 per cent of the total number of teachers employed, a de- 
crease of .4 per cent under the corresponding percentage for 1932 
and 3.3 per cent less than the per cent employed in 1923. (See Table 
135.) 

TABLE 135 



Number and Per Cent of Men 

Year Number Per Cent 



1923 - 135 18.3 

1924 129 16.9 

1925 126 16.5 

1926 108 14 .0 

1927 107 13.8 

1928 93 11.8 



Teachers in County Colored Schools 

Year Number Per Cent 



1929 104 13 .0 

1930 106 13.2 

1931 118 14.4 

1932.. 126 15.4 

1933. 122 15 .0 



In the individual counties the men employed ranged from none 
in Howard and 1 in Calvert and Cecil, to 10 and 15 in Wicomico and 
Dorchester, respectively, and the 6 in Carroll included 42 per cent of 
the staff. The men are generally employed as principals or high school 
teachers. (See Table 136.) 

TABLE 136 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County Colored Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1933 





Men Teaching 


COUNTY 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


121 .7 


15 .0 








Calvert 


1 


3 .7 


St . Mary's 


2 


5.9 


Cecil 


1 


6.3 


Charles 


3 


6.5 




4 


8.5 




5 


9.2 


Prince George's 


8 


9.4 


Anne Arundel 


9 


11 .3 


Quppn AnTip*<? _. 


3 


13 .0 



COUNTY 



Washington 

Frederick 

Baltimore. . 

Kent 

Worcester... 

Talbot 

Wicomico... 

Caroline 

Harford 

Dorchester.. 

Allegany 

Carroll 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



2 


15.4 


5.2 


15.7 


9 


18.1 


5.2 


18 .4 


9 


21 .4 


7 .8 


21 .7 


10 


21 .8 


7 


22 .6 


6.5 


24 .5 


15 


29.4 


3 


29 .7 


6 


41 .7 



Men Teachers; Size of Class in Colored Elementary Schools 



183 



SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementarv Schools 

The average number of pupils belonging per colored elementary 
teacher increased from 34 in 1932 to 34.9 in 1933. All but 8 counties 
had larger classes in 1933 than in the preceding year, the most 
marked increases occurring in Carroll, Kent, Talbot, and Washington. 
Among the counties the average colored elementary school class 
varied from 28 pupils in Frederick to 41.5 pupils in Calvert. (See 
Chart 33.) 

CHART 33 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
1933 



County 
Co. Average 

Calvert 

llontfjoraery 



1931 
33.3 



40.4 
36.9 

Anne Arundel 36.0 
Baltimore 36.9 
Allegany 41.2 
Worcester 34.9 
Pr. George's 35.7 
Wicomico 34.4 
Charles 35.3 
Queen Anne's 35.5 



Kent 

•Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Harford 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Howard 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Washington 
Frederick 



27.9 
30.8 
31.7 
29.5 
32.3 
33.5 
28.8 
25.5 
27.2 
28.2 
27.0 
28.5 



Balto.City 35.1 36.3 



State 



34.2 34.9 




t Excludes 30.5 for junior high and 23.4 for vocational. The upper bar shows first semester and 
the lower bar second semester for elementary schools, the average for the yenr being 38.3.} ^ 



184 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Since the Baltimore City teaching staff, because of the budget 
cut, was materially reduced in February, 1933, the average size of 
class has been shown separately for the two semesters of the year 
1932-33. For the first semester there were 36.9 pupils belonging per 
colored elementary teacher, while for the second semester, when 39 
teachers were dropped, the average size of class was 39.8 pupils. 
For the entire state the average number belonging per teacher was 
36.3 pupils. (See Chart 33.) 

High Schools 

The average number belonging per teacher in the county colored 
high schools in 1933 was 26.7 pupils, an increase of 1.7 pupils over 
corresponding figures for 1932. In the individual counties the aver- 
age size of class in the high schools ranged from 15.3 pupils to 38.5 
pupils. With Baltimore City enrolling 28.3 pupils in its average class, 
the ratio of pupils to teachers for the entire State was 27.3 (See 
Table XVI, page 300 and Table XXXVII, page 321.) 

SALARIES OF COLORED TEACHERS 

The average salary for a teacher employed in the county colored 
elementary schools in 1933 was $657, $4 more than in 1932. The 
steady increase in teachers' salaries is due chiefly to the policy, in so 
far as it is possible, of having every teacher meet the requirements for 
first grade certification, and to the constantly larger number of ex- 
perienced teachers in service. (See Table 137.) 

TABLE 137 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1933 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1917 $228 

1918. 279 

1919 .: 283 

1920. 359 

1921 442 

1922 455 

1923 513 

1924 532 

1925... 546 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1926_ $563 

1927 586 

1928. 602 

1929 621 

1930 635 

1931 643 

1932 653 

1933 657 



In the counties the average salary per teacher varied from $534 to 
$1,223, depending on the salary schedules in effect and the length of 
the school year. Allegany and Baltimore have the highest average 
salaries, $1,223 and $1,139, respectively. These two counties have a 
much higher salary schedule than the other counties and also have a 
longer school session than that required by law. The counties which 
adhere, in general, to the minimum State salary schedule for eight 
months vary only in the proportion of trained and experienced 
teachers employed. In Caroline County the average salary of the 
colored elementary school teachers was the lowest in the State, $534. 
In fourteen counties the average salary of colored elementary teach- 



Size of Class and Teachers' Salaries in Colored Schools 



185 



ers was below $600. Dorchester, Kent, and Caroline were the only 
counties with an average salary under $600, which had lower salaries 
in 1933 than in 1932. With the reduction in Baltimore City teachers' 
salaries in January, 1932, of 6.5 per cent and of 10 per cent in Jan- 
uary, 1933, the average salary per colored elementary school teacher 
dropped from $1,713 in 1932 to $1,614 in 1933. (See Chart 34.) 

CHART 34 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENT ART SCHOOLS 



County 


1930 


1931 


1952 


Co« Average 


% 635 $ 643 % 653 


Allegany 


1220 


1102 


1227 


Baltimore 


1181 


1186 


1172 


Washington 


817 


808 


795 


Pr. George's 


710 


719 


730 


Cecil 


697 


699 


717 


Harford 


651 


692 


695 


Anne Arundel 


637 


632 


660 


Montgomery 


627 


642 


655 


Calvert 


563 


569 


566 


Frederick 


567 


572 


574 


Carroll 


581 


626 


587 


Wicomico 


567 


572 


580 


Kent 


571 


577 


587 


Charles 


543 


554 


558 


St* Mary's 


533 


548 


554 


Howard 


567 


552 


560 


Talbot 


544 


543 


553 


Queen Anne's 


555 


552 


561 


Worcester 


530 


552 


557 


Dorchester 


525 


543 


559 


Somerset 


517 


524 


536 


Caroline 


537 


555 


553 


Balto. City 


1720 


1779 


1713 


State 


1052 


1095 


1091 




In 1933 the average salary per colored high school teacher was $837 
ranging from $693 in Somerset to $1,377 in Allegany. The average 
salary paid to a colored high school teacher in Baltimore City was 



186 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



$1,796 and the average saWy in the State as a whole $1,197. (See 
Table XVII, page 301 and Table XXXVII, page 321.) 

The reduction of 10 per cent on all salaries under $1,200 in the 
State minimum salary schedule established in 1922 went into effect 
in October, 1933. The law fixes minimum monthly salaries for county 

TABLE 138 

Minimum Annual Salary Schedule for County Colored Elementary and High 
School Teachers in Effect Since September, 1922 

Reduced Salaries for the Period September 1933 to June 1935 
Are Shown in Italics 
ELEMENTARY (8 Months) 
Grade of Years of ExDerience 



Certificate 


1-3 


4-5 


6-7 


9 + 


Third 


$320 


$360 








288 


324 






Second 


400 


440 


480 






360 


396 


432 




First 


520 


560 


600 


$680 




468 


504 


540 


612 


HIGH (9 


Months) 








Grade of 




Years of Experience 


Certificate 


1-3 


4-5 




6 + 


High School Assistant 


$720 


$ 810 


$ 


855 




648 


729 




769.50 


High School Principal 


855 


990 




1,080 


First Group 


769.50 891 




972 


With 5 Assistants and 


945 


1,080 




1,170 


100 A. D. A 


850.50 972 




1,053 


TABLE 


139 









Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland Counties 

October, 1933 



Elementary Schools 
Salary No. Salary No. 



Under $460. 
$ 460 

500 

540 

580 

620 

660 

700 

740 

780 

820 

860 

900 

940 

980 



209 
93 
67 
62 
70 
39 
53 
9 
38 



$1,020. 
1,060. 
1,100. 
1,140. 
1,180. 
1,220. 
1,260. 



8 1,440. 



3 
1 
17 
5 
2 



Total. 704 

Median $540 



High Schools 
Salary No. Salary No. 
Under $540 1 $1,140 



$ 580. 

620 

660. 

700. 

740. 

780. 

820. 

860. 

900. 

940. 

980. 
1,020. 
1,060. 
1,100. 



19 1,180 

4 1,220 

15 1,260 2 

7 1,300 

12 1,340 1 

2 1,380 

1 1,420 

11 1.440. .. 

3 1,480 1 

1 1,520 1 

5 

4 Total 94 

2 

2 Median $740 



Colored Teachers' Salaries; Cost per Colored Pupil 



187 



colored teachers and requires an eight months' session in elementary 
schools and 180 days in approved colored high schools. The schedule 
as it existed from September 1922 to June 1933 and from September 
1933 to June 1935 is shown in Table 138. 

The median salary paid to a county colored elementary school 
teacher, therefore decreased by 10 per cent from $600 in October, 

1932 to $540 in October, 1933. Of 704 teachers employed in October, 
1933, 501 received salaries ranging from $468, the minimum salary 
paid to an inexperienced teacher holding a regular first grade certi- 
ficate, to $612 the maximum salary for an experienced teacher, 
according to the State salary schedule as revised for a two-year period. 
Thirty-five teachers received salaries exceeding $1,000 in October, 
1933. (See Table 139.) 

Salaries of county colored high school teachers in October, 1933, 
varied from $580 to $1,520, with a median salary of $740, 7.5 per cent 
below the median salary of $800 paid the preceding year. (See Table 
139.) 

COST PER PUPIL BELONGING FOR CURRENT EXPENSES 

The average cost per pupil belonging in the county colored ele- 
mentary schools for 1933 decreased by 85 cents from $24.97 in 1932 to 
$24.12 in 1933. Salary expenditures and size of class are the two 
most important factors in determining the current expense cost per 
pupil. Washington, which ranks third in average salary per teacher 
and also has very small classes, ranks first in pupil costs. Allegany, 
with a very high salary schedule, ranks second and Cecil, with small 
classes and near the top in its salary schedule, ranks third. A study 
of Charts 33 and 34 with Chart 35 indicates very clearly the effect 
of size of class and salaries on the ranking of counties in current ex- 
pense costs per pupil. Decreases in cost per pupil under correspond- 
ing figures for 1932 occurred in all but 6 counties. (See Chart 35 and 
Table XXXVI, page 320.) 

Cost per Colored High School Pupil 

The average current expense cost per pupil in the county colored 
high schools in 1933 was $44.34, a decrease of $4.24 under the aver- 
age cost of $48.58 in 1932. All but 2 counties had lower pupil costs in 

1933 than in 1932, the greatest reductions having been made in Car- 
roll, Harford, Calvert, and Allegany. Cost per high school pupil for 
current expenses ranged from $24.68 in Somerset to $74.05 in Cecil. 
(See Table XXXVII, page 321.) 

There was no colored high school in Baltimore County, but the 
county paid $10,420 for the tuition of 34 senior and 56 junior high 
school pupils who attended secondary schools in Baltimore City, 
the charge being $150 for a senior high school pupil and $95 per junior 
high school pupil. 

Transportation at Public Expense 

There were 847 elementary and 502 high school pupils in 1933 who 
were transported at public expense to 41 colored schools in 16 



188 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 35 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 




Balto. City- 
State 



t Excludes $80 for junior high and $109 for vocational schools. For expenditures see Table XXXVI 
page 320, and for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 226, page 169. 

counties. The total cost for transporting colored elementary school 
pupils was $17,335 and for colored high school pupils $12,872. The 
average cost to the public for transportation to colored elementary- 
schools was $22 per pupil and to colored high schools $26 per pupil. 
(See auxiliary agencies in Tables XXXVI and XiXXVII, pages 320 
and 321.) 



Cost per Pupil; Transportation; Libraries 



189 



The 1,349 pupils transported to colored schools at public expense in 
1933 represented 4.7 per cent of the total colored enrollment. These 
figures inelude 31 pupils from Anne Arundel and 34 from Prince 
George's who were transported to the Bowie Normal Demonstration 
School at State expense. In the 16 individual counties which provided 
transportation for colored pupils the per cent of pupils transported 
varied considerably from .5 per cent in Worcester to 22.8 per cent in 
Caroline. All but 5 of these counties transported a larger proportion 
of colored pupils in 1933 than during 1932. (See Table 175, page 233.) 

LIBRARIES IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

In order to encourage the establishment of libraries in the colored 
schools the directors of the Rosen wald Fund arranged to provide 
well chosen school libraries of 75, 105, or 155 volumes at a cost of $75- 
$120, one-third to be paid by the school, one-third by the county, 
and the remainder by the Rosen wald Fund. Since 1927-28, when 
these funds were first available, aid has been received by 16 counties 
for libraries in 35 schools, the new Annapolis High School receiving 
this aid in 1932-33. (See Table 140.) 

TABLE 140 

Names of Schools Receiving Libraries Through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



County 

Anne Arundel bBrown's Woods dAnnapolis eCamp Parole fAnnapolis High 

Calvert bPrince Frederick dMt . Hope 

Caroline aFederalsburg 

Carroll b Westminster 

Cecil bElkton 

Charles aPomonkey 

Dorchester eCambridge 

Frederick aFrederick dLincoln 

Harford aBelAir dHavre de Grace 

Kent aColeman cChestertown 

Montgomery aSandy Spring bRockville cTakoma Spring 

Prince George's aMarlboro bBerwyn bBrentwood bHighland Park 

St . Mary's bAbel cHollywood 

Somerset bdPrincess Anne cCrisfield 

Talbot aEaston aSt . Michael's 

Wicomico aSharptown bNanticoke bdSalisbury 



Aid received in al927-28 bl928-29 cl929-30 dl930-31 el931-32 f 1932-33 



COOPERATION OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION* 

During 1932-33 the colored schools made very little use of the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. Only two elemen- 
tary schools in Baltimore County borrowed three traveling libraries 
containing 105 books. Three colored teachers in two Baltimore 
County schools also borrowed ten package libraries containing 40 
books. In Charles County one high school teacher borrowed three 
package libraries of ten books. 

Upon request, a speaker from the library explained the services of 
the Library Commission at one of the assemblies of the Bowie Normal 
School. 

Traveling , libraries are collections of books which are loaned by 
the Maryland Public Library Commission for a period of four 
months at which time they may be returned and exchanged for an- 

* Data furnished by the courtesy of Mss Adelene J. Pratt, State Director of Public Libraries. 



190 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



other collection, or renewed for four more months. The books are 
selected with respect to the grades for which they have been in- 
tended. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. 

For the purpose of meeting special requirements such as school 
essays, debates, or individual needs and professional reading for the 
teachers, collections of from one to ten books are loaned for one month 
to any one living in Maryland who is without access to a public 
library. 

Those borrowing books from the Maryland Public Library Com- 
mission, 517 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland, of which 
Miss Adelene J. Pratt is State Director, must fill out the necessary 
blanks, have them signed by three guarantors, and indicate the 
grades and subjects for which the books are desired. They must pay 
the transportation costs and guarantee reimbursement for books 
defaced or lost. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY AND ROSENWALD AID IN 1933 

Capital outlay for county colored schools in 1933 amounted to 
$26,745, less than was spent in any year since 1920 with the exception 
of 1922. Since 1920 the total capital outlay in the counties amounted 
to nearly $1,150,000, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Prince George's 
having made the largest investments in school buildings for colored 
pupils. (See Table 141.) 

Rosenwald Aid for Buildings 

In addition to giving aid for financing libraries for colored pupils 
the Rosenwald Fund continued its practice in 1933 of furnishing aid 
toward the construction of school buildings for negroes. Reim- 
bursement from the Rosenwald Fund through the General Education 
Board gave $4,300 in 1933 for the high school of 13 classrooms at 
Annapolis, and made available $150 for the purchase of equipment for 
each of three industrial rooms. Every county in the State except 
Garrett and Allegany has at some time received aid for buildings 
from the Rosenwald Fund. Since 1919 the Rosenwald Fund has 
placed at the disposal of the counties $114,450 towards the con- 
struction of 376 classrooms. This means that 47 per cent of the rooms 
in use by colored teachers are modern and have been built since 1920. 
(See Table 142.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED CHILDREN 

In 1933 school property used by county colored pupils was valued 
at $1,453,360 and for Baltimore City the total valuation amounted to 
$5,400,347. Five counties showed increases in valuation of school 
property over that reported in 1932, the most marked increases being 
found in Anne Arundel and Dorchester, both of which counties con- 
structed new high school buildings in 1933 (See Table L81, page 241.) 

The value of school property per colored child in 1933 was $53 in 
the counties, $214 in Baltimore City, and $130 for the entire State. 



Capital Outlay; Rosenwald Aid; Value of School Property 



191 



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Rosenwald Aid; Value of School Property; Size of Colored Schools 193 



The value of school property in the counties ranged from $19 per 
pupil in Kent to $178 per pupil in Allegany. (See Chart 36.) 

CHART 36 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE 
PER COLORED PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 1931 1932 
Co. Average $ 51 $ 52 

Allegany 
Washington 
Baltimore 
Wicomico 
Frederick 
Montgomery 
Pr. George's 
Charles 
Caroline 
Dorchester 
Harford 
Talbot 
Cecil 

Anne Arundel 
Carroll 
Howard 
Calvert 
Worcester 
Queen Anne's 
Somerset 
St. Mary's 
Kent 

Balto. City 208 217 
State 122 129 



1933 




SIZE OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

Of the 489 county colored elementary schools, 334 had one teacher, 
116 had two teachers and 39 had three or more teachers. The largest 
colored elementary school with a staff of 13 teachers was located at 
Annapolis. There was a school of 9 teachers at Salisbury and one of 
7 teachers at Hagerstown. Allegany had only two colored elementary 
schools while Anne Arundel and Dorchester each had 40 and Prince 
George's 44. (See Table 143.) 

Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 

During the year 1932-33 there were 334 colored teachers employed 
in one-teacher schools, or 46.5 per cent of the total colored elementary 



194 1933 Rrport of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 143 

Size of Teaching Stan" in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
Year Ending July 31, 1933 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 


| Total 


| Allegany 


| Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


| Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St . Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester | j 


Total.... 


489 


2 


40 


28 


19 


17 


10 


10 


33 


40 


21 


18 


14 


20 


31 


44 


17 


25 


29 


22 


5 


19 


25 


1 or less 
1 .1- 2 
2.1- 3 


334 
116 
25 


1 


19 
18 
2 


16 

8 


14 
4 
1 


13 
1 

3 


8 
2 


6 

4 


26 
5 
2 


38 
1 


14 

5 
2 


14 

3 


11 

2 
1 


17 
2 
1 


21 

8 
2 


21 
20 
2 


14 
2 
1 


16 

9 


16 
10 
1 


16 

5 


4 


12 

3 
3 


17 
4 
4 


3.1- 4 


2 






1 
















1 




















4.1- 5 


7 






3 












1 
















2 


1 








5.1- 6 


2 


1 


























1 














6.1- 7 


1 






































1 






8 .1- 9 


1 










































1 




12.1-13 


1 




1 

























































































staff. There were 10 fewer teachers in one-teacher schools than in the 
preceding year and 88 fewer than were employed in 1920. (See Table 
144.) 

TABLE 144 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1933 





Colored Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 


Total 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


683 


422 


61.8 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1923 


712 


403 


56.6 


1924 


728 


395 


544 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


725 


382 


52.7 


1928 


734 


378 


51.5 


1929 


734 


372 


50.7 


1930 


733 


363 


49.5 


1931 


739 


353 


47.7 


1932 


727 


344 


47.3 


1933 


718 


334 


46.5 



Among the counties the number and per cent of teachers employed 
in one-teacher schools varied from 1 or 14.5 per cent in Allegany to 



Size of Schools; One-Teacher Schools; Size of Colored High Schools 195 



37 or 82.2 per cent in Dorchester. In six counties there were from 
one to four fewer teachers employed in one-teacher schools than in 
1932. (See Table 145.) 

TABLE 145 



Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31. 1933 





Teachers in One- 




Teachers 


in One- 




Teacher Schools 




Teacher 


Schools 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


334 


46.5 


St . Mary's 


16 


47.1 






Montgomery 


. 21 


48 .8 


Allegany 


1 


14.5 


Talbot.. 


16 


53 .0 


Anne Arundel 


19 


26 .4 


Caroline 


13 


54 .2 


Prince George's. 


21 


29 .0 


Calvert 


.. 14 


56.0 


Wicomico 


12 


33.5 




14 


60.1 


Baltimore 


17 


34.1 


Howard 


11 


61 .1 


Somerset 


17 


35.1 


Charles 


26 


61 .9 




4 


40.0 


Carroll 


8 


66.7 


Cecil 


6 


42.9 


Queen Anne's 


14 


66.7 


Frederick 


13 


43 .8 


Kent 


17 


70 .8 




17 


45.9 


Dorchester 


37 


82 .2 



Staff and Enrollment in Colored High Schools 

There were from 1 to 8 teachers employed in the 26 county colored 
high schools which varied in enrollment from 26 to 225 pupils. The 



TABLE 146 

Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in Colored High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1933 



No. of 






<D 




















>> 




03 












Teachers 


Total 




C 




















u 

0) 


gl 
o 


a 






c 

a 






Average 
No. 
Belonging 


No. 
High 
Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Aru 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorcheste 


Frederick 


Harford 


Kent 


Montgom 


Prince Ge 


Queen An 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washingt 


Wicomico 


Worcester 



size of teaching staff 



All School* _ 


26 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1* 


1 






































1 


2 


7 






1 




1 


1 
















1 




1 






2 


3 


8 


1 
















1 








1 




2 




1 


1 




4 : 


5 














1 








1 


1 






1 






5 


1 


























1 














6 


1 
















1 
























7 


2 








1 




























1 




8 


1 




1 













































































SIZE OF ENROLLMENT 



26- 40 


2 












1 




















1 








41- 50 


2 










1 






















1 






51- 75 


7 




















1 








1 


1 






1 


3 


76-100 


7 


1 




1 












1 








3 


1 








101-125 


3 






















1 






1 








126-150 


1 














1 
























151-175 


1 








1 






























176-200. 


1 
















1 
























201-225 


2 


































1 















































* Mid Point of interval. 



196 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



largest high school in the State at Annapolis employed 8 teachers for 
223 pupils. There were 7 teachers employed at the Salisbury High 
School for 205 pupils, and there was a staff of 7 teachers at the Den- 
ton High School for 172 pupils. (See Table 146.) 

For average number of pupils belonging per teacher in colored 
high schools, see Table XVI, page 300 and Table XXXVII, page 321. 

THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 

During the year 1932-33 there were 5,673 boys and 6,480 girls from 
Maryland county colored schools who entered the preliminary and 
final badge tests under the auspices of the Playground Athletic 
League. Of this number, 23 per cent of all boys entered and 42 per 
cent of the girls entered won the bronze, silver, gold, or super-gold 
badges. Baltimore and Howard Counties had no boys or girls en- 
tered in the badge contests in 1933. In all except three counties there 
were more boys entered than in the preceding year, and in all except 
four counties a larger number of boys won their badges than in 1932. 
Corresponding figures for girls show a larger number of entrants in 
1933 in all but two counties and a larger number of winners in all 
except three counties. (See Table 147 and Table XXI, page 305.) 

TABLE 147 

Number of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests in 1932 and 1933 





BOYS 


GIRLS 


COUNTY 


1933 


1932 


1933 


1932 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Total 


5,673 


1,279 


5,751 


965 


6,480 


2,728 


6,447 


2,220 


Anne Arundel 


474 


147 


553 


211 


586 


198 


637 


229 


Baltimore 






371 


89 






425 


124 


Calvert 


207 


17 


143 


18 


264 


159 


191 


76 


Caroline 


327 


82 


293 


15 


382 


152 


317 


120 


Carroll 


146 


29 


132 


25 


142 


23 


121 


61 


Cecil 


113 


24 


105 


9 


146 


44 


128 


32 


Charles 


435 


55 


384 


18 


489 


196 


448 


112 


Dorchester 


307 


77 


301 


60 


406 


183 


335 


132 


Frederick. 


342 


52 


341 


21 


347 


101 


361 


68 


Harford 


228 


38 


258 


29 


235 


96 


220 


33 


Howard 






107 


13 






118 


51 


Kent 


212 


44 


172 


46 


260 


89 


208 


102 


Montgomery 


521 


116 


465 


55 


531 


219 


467 


127 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


694 


97 


594 


110 


746 


279 


645 


219 


179 


55 


181 


14 


211 


111 


197 


53 


St . Mary's 


244 


71 


197 


6 


248 


161 


223 


48 


Somerset 


219 


78 


197 


58 


355 


169 


342 


156 


Talbot 


224 


43 


196 


37 


258 


120 


217 


124 


Wicomico 


489 


165 


486 


90 


543 


256 


531 


214 




312 


89 


275 


41 


331 


172 


316 


139 



There were four counties from which no colored pupils participated 
in the State-wide athletic meets in 1932-33. The entrants engaged in 
track and field events, dodge, speed, and volley ball, and run and 
catch and flag relays. Entrants from 440 colored schools participated 



The Physical Education Program; Health and Cleanliness Contests 197 



in the meets. Every school in 7 counties was represented in the con- 
tests and in only two counties did less than 90 per cent of the schools 
participate in the events. (See Table 148 and Table XXII, page 306.) 

TABLE 148 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Schools Which Had Entrants 
in County Meets During Years 1932 and 1933 





SCHOOLS ENTERED 




SCHOOLS ENTERED 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 




1932 


1933 


1932 


1933 




1932 


1933 


1932 


1933 


Total and Average 


487 


440 


92 .8 


85.4 


Frederick 


21 


21 


95.5 


95.5 










Kent 


25 


20 


100 .0 


95.2 


Caroline 


18 


18 


100 .0 


100 .0 


Calvert 


18 


19 


90 .0 


95.0 


Carroll 


12 


11 


100.0 


100.0 


Anne Arundel._ 


40 


38 


97 .8 


92 .7 


Harford 


19 


19 


100.0 


100 .0 


Dorchester 


38 


38 


90.5 


92.7 


Queen Anne's 


18 


18 


100 .0 


100.0 


St . Mary's 


27 


23 


100.0 


92 .0 


Wicomico 


21 


21 


100.0 


100.0 


Cecil 


10 


10 


90.9 


90.9 


Charles . _ _ 


33 


34 


97.1 


100.0 


Montgomery 


30 


28 


90.9 


87.5 


Somerset _ .. 


25 


31 


80.6 


100.0 


Worcester 


27 


22 


96 .4 


78 .6 


Prince George's .. 


45 


46 


95.7 


97.9 


Howard 


14 




100.0 




Talbot 


24 


23 


100.0 


95.8 


Baltimore 


22 




78.6 





HEALTH, CLEANLINESS, AND NEATNESS CONTESTS 

Interest in Negro Health Week activities has increased year by 
year in the colored communities throughout the State and the in- 
fluence of the educational features of the annual health campaign 
has been reflected in the year-round program in each county. The 
activities in each county were arranged this year, as usual, under the 
direction of the County Health Officer and the Public Health Nurses 
with the schools and local groups cooperating. The programs in- 
cluded public exercises in the schools and churches, community 
clean-up campaigns, medical examination of school children, child 
health conferences, dental clinics, clinics for various types of diseases, 
and clinics for immunization against diphtheria and for vaccination 
against smallpox. Practically all counties having a large colored 
population took an active part in some phase of the exercise. The 
colored population of the fourteen counties to which honors were 
awarded comprises about three-fourths of the total colored population 
in the Maryland counties. 

As a follow-up of Negro Health Week, a Cleanliness and Neatness 
Improvement Contest, which was sponsored by the State and County 
Departments of Health and Education, was held in the elementary 
schools in Talbot County in May. The contest was undertaken in 
response to the offer by Dr. H. Maceo Williams, a colored physician 
in Baltimore City, of suitable awards to the schools showing the 
greatest improvement in the cleanliness and neatness of the pupils 
personally and of the school rooms and school grounds during the 
period of the contest. 

Daily records were kept by the teachers and inspection of the 
pupils and of the buildings and grounds were made by Dr. A. L. 



198 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Oilar, the county health officer, at the beginning and end of the 
contest. Awards were made to the following schools: 

St. Michaels, home hursing class. 

Matthewstown, highest score for buildings and grounds. 

Wittman, highest percentage of gain for buildings and grounds. 

McDaniel highest percentage of gain in cleanliness of pupils. 

Jarrelltown, highest score for cleanliness of pupils. _ 

Easton, for highest averages in graduation examination, for home nursing 
class, for class with most perfect attendance, for work of civics class 
during Negro Health Week, and for athletic team. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 
CHART 37 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1932 end 1933 

County Number 

193? 1933 

Total and 

Co. Average 385 401 

Q. Anne's 17 17 

St.Mary's 25 26 

Wicomico 15 19 

Caroline 18 17 

Harford 17 17 

Pr. George' s 41 42 

Somerset 24 27 

Baltimore 28 26 

Talbot 17 20 

Kent 19 18 

Montgomery 26 27 

A. Arundel 40 34 

Charles 27 27 

Frederick 10 16 

Dorchester 25 26 

Worcester 14 16 

Carroll 6 6 

Cecil 6 6 

Allegany 1 1 

Howard 8 7 

Calvert 1 5 

Washington - 1 



Per Cent 
1932 1933 



76.7 
100.0 
92.6 
78.9 
100.0 
94.4 
91.1 
82.8 
-100.0 
77.3 
79.2 
81.3 
97.6 
81.8 
47.6 
61.0 
56.0 
54.5 
60.0 
50.0 
57.1 
5.3 




72-7 


m 










50.0 


26.3 




20.0 


■ 





P. T. A.'s; Funds Other Than From County and State; Supervision 199 

In response to previous offers by Dr. Williams, smiliar contests 
were held in Dorchester and St. Mary's Counties in 1931 and in 
Queen Anne's County in 1932. 

During 1932-33 there were 401 parent-teacher associations organ- 
ized in 81.2 per cent of the county colored schools. This was an in- 
crease of sixteen schools and a gain of 4.5 in per cent. Queen Anne's, 
St. Mary's, and Wicomico had parent-teacher organizations in 
every county colored school. Calvert County increased the number 
from one to five. One of the five Washington County schools had a 
P. T. A. functioning in 1933 whereas there was none in 1932. (See 
Chart 37.) 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY 

AND STATE FUNDS 

For the six counties which reported on the financing of extra- 
curricular activities in the colored schools, the total gross receipts 
amounted to $7,743. Expenses for various items totalled $945, leav- 
ing net receipts of $6,798 to be spent for school purposes. Dues from 
various organizations, P. T. A's. and parties and dances furnished 
the chief sources of receipts. (See Table 149.) 

Of the total net receipts $5,958 was used for school purposes and 
$840 remained as a balance. Over one half of the receipts was used for 
transporting colored pupils in Charles County. Equipment for 
physical education activities, improvement to buildings and grounds, 
and social affairs and trips used up 22.3 per cent of the total ex- 
penditures. (See Table 150.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools is responsible for the 
supervision of all the county colored schools. He spends most of his 
time in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors of colored 
schools and working with the high school principals and teachers. 
At the conference at the beginning of the year with the county super- 
visors of colored schools the State Supervisor of Colored Schools 
emphasized the necessity for improvement of classroom instruction. 
Every supervisor prepared a comprehensive plan along this line which 
the State Supervisor checked and followed up during the year. In 
many counties standard or informal tests prepared by the supervisor 
were given to check up on the effectiveness of the work of the teachers. 

Conferences with Eastern Shore and Western Shore principals held 
early in the year dealt entirely with the administration of the colored 
high schools. A special effort was made during the year to employ 
only teachers regularly certificated in the subjects in which they 
teach. With few exceptions this objective was carried out. 

The State Supervisor visited the Bowie Normal School a number 
of times during the year to study the quality of instruction and to 
confer with both faculty and students. Much of his time at the office 
is spent in interviewing prospective county teachers in order to make 
suggestions regarding desirable colored teachers to the county super- 



200 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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202 1933 Eeport of Maryland State Department of Education 

intendents. The major portion of the salary and traveling expenses of 
the State Supervisor of Colored Schools is paid by the General Educa- 
tion Board. 

Each of 16 counties received $750 from the State as reimbursement 
toward the salary of a full time colored supervisor. Six of the super- 
visors employed were women and 10 were men. In 3 counties, the 
supervisors devoted some time to instruction in home economics or 
manual training in the high school. The attendance officers in Cecil, 
Howard, and Somerset Counties spent part of their time in super- 
vising the colored schools, and the Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools in Baltimore County had the supervision of the colored 
schools as part of his duties. In Allegany and Washington, whatever 
supervision the colored schools had was given by the white ele- 
mentary school supervisors and the county superintendent. 

BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
The Enrollment 

During the school year 1932-33 there were 123 students enrolled 
at the Bowie Normal School. This is an increase of 10 over the en- 
rollment in 1932. The enrollment in the fall of 1933 was 94, of whom 
36 were juniors and 58 seniors. The decrease in the freshman enroll- 
ment is a result of the effort to reduce the number of students on 
probation to those who are likely to succeed because of personality 
and teaching aptitude. The cooperation of the county superintend- 
ents was enlisted in the selection of the freshmen who entered in the 
fall of 1933. (See Table 151.) 

TABLE 151 
Enrollment at Bowie Normal School 







Enrollment 






Year Ending June 30 


Total 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Graduates 


1924 


*11 


11 






1925 


*26 


16 


10 


i'o 


1926 


*36 


24 


12 


12 


1927 


*80 


58 


22 


22 


1928 


*109 


55 


54 


50 


1929.. 


128 


76 


52 


46 


1930... 


119 


46 


73 


56 


1931 


113 


59 


54 


41 


1932 


112 


56 


56 


54 


1933 


123 


71 


52 


49 


Fall of 1933 


94 


36 


58 





* Excludes high school enrollment . 



The scholarship rating of the entrants for 1933 is improving. 
Junior students who met the requirement of an average of "B" in 
the last two years of their high school work increased from 28 per 
cent in 1932 to 47 per cent in 1933. 

The distribution of the juniors according to the ranking of high 
school principals, shows 58 per cent in the upper third, 33 per cent 
in the middle third, and 8 per cent in the lower third of their high 



Supervision; Bowie Normal School 



203 



school classes. This is an improvement over the year preceding 
brought about because the county superintendents, as well as county 
supervisors and high school principals, gave special assistance in 
selecting students on probation. 

The Graduates 

Of the 49 graduates of Bowie in 1933, the counties employed 32, 
of whom 25 have positions in their home counties. Of the 17 without 
positions, 12 are men. (See Table 152.) 

TABLE 152 

Home and Teaching County of Bowie Graduates of 1933 



Number of Graduates 

by by 
Home Teaching 
County County County 



Total Counties 


46 


32 


Anne Arundel. . 


***a6 


2 


Caroline 


bl 




Carroll 


1 


..„ 


Cecil 


bl 




Charles 


2 


*3 


Dorchester 


*2 


3 


Frederick 


2 


2 


Harford 


1 


1 


Howard._ 


1 


1 



Number of Graduates 
by by 
Home Teaching 
County County County 



Kent 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


*2 
**9 


1 

7 


*2 


3 


Somerset 


**b5 


2 


St . Mary's 


*2 


1 


Talbot 


****cd8 


2 


Wicomico 


1 


1 


Worcester 


1 


2 


Baltimore City 


**c3 




Entire State 


49 


32 



* Each asterisk represents one graduate not appointed . c Includes one teaching in Dorchester . 
a Includes one teaching in Charles . d Includes one teaching in Worcester . 

b Includes one teaching in Queen Anne's . 



The Faculty and Practice Centers 
In the fall of 1933 the professional staff of the normal school in- 
cluded 15 persons — the principal, 7 instructors, 2 teachers in the 
demonstration school, a librarian, a secretary-registrar, a stenog- 
rapher, a clerk, and a dietician. There are 9 cooperative practice 
centers in three two-teacher and one-teacher schools. Each normal 
school student is given 160 clock hours of practice teaching during 
the two-year course. 

Expenditures and Cost per Student 

The current expenses of the Bowie Normal School for 1932-33 
totaled $55,065 of which $28,246 was spent for instruction and 
$26,819 for the dormitory. From the State appropriation of $41,680 
there was returned to the State Treasury unused $2,065. 

The total instruction cost per pupil was $261, of which an average 
of $6 was paid by each student and the remaining $255 by the State. 
Of the average enrollment of 108 students, all but two lived in the 
dormitory. The total dormitory expense per pupil amounted to $255, 
an average payment of $139 being received from each student, 



204 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



leaving a cost of $114 to the State. The combined cost to the State 
for instruction and dormitory amounted to $369 per student. This 
is an increase of $13 over the corresponding cost in 1932. (See Table 
153.) 



TABLE 153 

Cost per Student at Bowie Normal School 
1932-1933 

expenditures 

Instruction Dormitory 

Administration 

Salaries .. $ 2,295.00 $ 1,695.00 

Other Than Salaries 415.31 458.46 

Instruction 

Salaries 14,211.85 

Other Than Salaries 4,396.55 

Operation and Maintenance 

Salaries and Wages 1,799.47 a7,800.02 

Other Than Salaries.. 5,127.61 b6,900.12 

Food b9,964.98 



Totals $28,245.79 $26,818.58 

RECEIPTS 

From Students for 

Board and Lodging 10,152.61 

Service Rendered 1,969.70 

Laundry, Breakage Fees 1,190.02 

Health, Dental, Medical Service.. 380.62 

Special Funds cl, 050.98 

Athletic Fees 238.00 

Registration and Activities 467.63 



Total Receipts from Students 705.63 $14,743.93 

Total Cost to State $27,540.16 12,074.65 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students._ 108 106 

Average Total Cost Per Student $261.53 $253.00 

Average Payment Per Student $6.53 $139.09 

Average Cost to State Per Student. $255.00 $113.91 

$368.91 

a Includes $1,969.71 for allowance to students for work rendered. 

b Excludes part of $634.04 deducted for food and materials paid for by students. 

c Excludes $602.35 transferred to budget for 1933-34. 



Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie Normal School property as of Septem- 
ber 30, 1933, totaling $206,088, was distributed as follows: Land 
$9,440; buildings $153,074; equipment and other $43,575. 



FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 

During 1932-33 there were 26 men and 72 women enrolled at the 
Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in Baltimore City. 
The average net roll of 84 was a decrease of 26 students under that 
of 1932. The faculty included the principal and 4 assistants. The 
current expenses for the school amounted to $19,430, making the 
average cost per student $231. 



Colored Teacher Training; Md. Physical Education Program 205 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND COUNTIESf 

The director of the Playground Athletic League, acting as State 
Supervisor of Physical Education, plans and cooperates with the 
State Department of Education and county superintendents of 
schools in carrying out the program for physical education in the 
counties of Maryland. One of the outstanding characteristics of the 
Maryland plan is the large proportion of pupils above grade 3 who 
participate in the physical education program. 

Participation in Spring County Meets 

In 1933 there were 65,650 individual participations in the badge 
tests, games, track and field events scheduled in connection with the 
spring county meets. These figures represent gross participation and 

TABLE 154 

Participation in County Meets for White Boys and Girls, 1933 



COUNTY 



Allegany (Graded). „_ 

Rural 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline...- 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's (Graded). _ 

Rural 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Total 1933 

Tome Institute...- 

Towson Normal School 



Badge 
Tests 



Boys 



917 
166 
942 
♦1,241 
124 
331 
686 
292 
225 
480 
898 
296 
519 
307 
386 
903 
588 
192 
229 
173 
345 
284 
942 
353 
191 



12.010 



Girls 



1,431 
175 

1,376 

2,684 
269 
595 
967 
645 
443 
798 

1,372 
392 
867 
450 
420 

1,290 
944 
345 
362 
330 
435 
537 

1,125 
546 
363 



19,161 



Games 



Boys 



550 
81 
426 
881 
92 
234 
528 
325 
194 
280 
508 
204 
418 
194 
232 
536 
498 
198 
224 
159 
180 
243 
462 
125 
184 



7,956 



Girls 



424 
69 
346 
738 
102 
237 
438 
342 
181 
234 
445 
163 
378 
183 
206 
664 
384 
191 
228 
173 
185 
239 
366 
224 
180 



7,320 



Track and 
Field 



Boys 



604 
152 
510 
837 
134 
252 
467 
313 
308 
327 
324 
259 
372 
252 
197 
776 
497 
134 
232 
224 
181 
206 
433 
174 
238 



,403 



Girls 



10,810 



Totals 



55 
301 



140 



* Includes 10 who took the National Physical Athletic Test, 
t Data furnished by Dr. William Burdick, State Supervisor of Physical Education and Director of 
Playground Athletic League. 



206 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



include duplicates, since any one individual who was included for a 
badge test may also have appeared and been counted for one game, 
one track, and one field event. About one-half of the counties had a 
greater number of individual participations in 1933 than for the 
preceding year. (See Table 154.) 

The number of white schools which entered pupils for events at 
the county meets decreased from 961 in 1932 to 871 in 1933, and the 
percentage of schools which entered pupils decreased from 83.8 to 
82.4. Seven counties had entries from every white school, and seven- 
teen counties had entries from over 90 per cent of the white schools. 
Seven counties had a higher percentage of schools which participated 
in 1933 than in 1932. (See Table 155.) 

TABLE 155 

Number and Per Cent of County Schools for White Pupils Which Had Entries in 
County Meets During the School Years 1931-32 and 1932-33 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 



County Number Per Cent 

1932 1933 1932 1933 

Total and Average 961 871 83 .8 82 .9 

Calvert 19 9 100.0 100.0 

Talbot 22 22 100.0 100.0 

Wicomico 48 43 100.0 100.0 

Caroline 24 26 88.9 100.0 

Kent 26 28 86.7 100.0 

Queen Anne's 28 26 96.6 100.0 

Montgomery 62 57 95.4 100.0 

Carroll 67 54 95.7 98.2 

Frederick 55 53 93.2 96.4 

St . Mary's 25 23 96 .2 95 .8 

Cecil 54 46 100.0 95.8 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 



County Number Per Cent 





1932 


1933 


1932 


1933 


Anne Arundel 


35 


32 


94 .6 


94 .1 


Prince George's 


66 


62 


93 .0 


93 .9 


Charles 


16 


15 


100 .0 


93 .8 


Somerset 


30 


29 


93 .8 


93.5 


Dorchester 


44 


42 


95.7 


93 .3 


Howard 


37 


32 


94 .9 


91.4 


Baltimore 


76 


64 


84 .4 


83.1 


Allegany 


65 


62 


82 .3 


81.6 


Harford 


47 


47 


77.0 


77 .0 


Worcester 


24 


21 


75.0 


75.0 


Washington 


59 


56 


59 .0 


58 .3 


Garrett 


32 


22 


33 .7 


23 .7 



In most of the counties the superintendents attend to show their 
interest and to encourage participation in the meets. It gives the 
superintendents an opportunity to meet large numbers of parents of 
the children who attend their schools. 

Badge Tests 

The county schools enrolled 45,177 white boys above grade 3. Of 
these boys 18,163, or 40.2 per cent, in the opinion of their teachers 
successfully passed the badge tests on their school grounds, which 
permitted them to enroll for the tests at the meet. According to 
Table 154, there were 12,000 boys who were counted at the meets as 
entering the badge tests, two-thirds of those who had passed them 
at their schools, and of these 5,503 won their badges. Of those who 
entered the meet, therefore, 46 per cent won their badges, although 
the percentage of the county enrollment of boys above grade 3 which 
won badges was only 12 per cent. (See Chart 38 and Table XVIII, 
page 302.) 

The badge tests on the school premises attracted over one-half of 
the boys enrolled above grade 3 in nine counties while at the opposite 
extreme less than one- third of the boys in five counties tried them. 
Baltimore County which carries on a regular physical education 



Participation in the Maryland Physical Education Program 207 



program throughout the year does not have the same need as other 
counties for concentrating on the badge test program in the spring. 
(See Chart 38 and Table XVIII, page 302.) 



CHART 38 



PER CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
* ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1933, BASED ON 1932-33 ENROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 

Number Number Per Cent 

L,ounty Enrolled Entered Won Won Entered 



5,503 

115 
131 

75 
253 

66 

74 
153 
187 
185 
409 

81 
693 
158 
420 
338 
226 

74 
116 
509 
665 
383 

85 
127 



Total and 4g 
Average 


,177 


18,163 


Howard 




779 


485 


Kent 




688 


415 


St. Mary' b 




468 


267 


Dorchester 


1 


,213 


673 


Calvert 




304 


168 


Q. Anne's 




636 


347 


Caroline 




962 


521 


Wicomico 


l 


,549 


803 


Carroll 


2 


,101 


1,061 


Montgomery 


2 


,765 


1,540 


Charles 




657 


317 


A. Arundel 


2 


,609 


1,233 


Talbot 




866 


403 


Pr. Geo. 


3 


,107 


1,355 


Frederick 


5 


,128 


1,346 


Harford 


1 


,764 


752 


Somerset 




977 


387 


Cecil 


1 


,491 


542 


Washington 


4 


,331 


1,327 


Baltimore 


6 


,749 


2>062 


Allegany 


5 


,388 


1,623 


Worcester 


1 


,033 


296 


Garrett 


1 


,612 


440 




48.5 



48.2 



* 




47-3 


15.9 


46.5 




43-6 



43*.0 



42.6 



39-6 



36.4 




30.6 



30.fe 



30.7 



28-7 



273 



The badge tests are different for boys and girls, since it is the 
policy of the physical education leaders in Maryland to plan activities 
adapted to the special physique and interests of the two sexes. Of the 
45,276 girls above grade 3 enrolled in the county public schools, 
24,868 or 55 per cent tried out the badge tests for girls at their schools. 
According to Table 154, at the county meets 19,161 of these girls 



208 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



who had passed or 77 per cent entered for the tests, and of these 
8,746 or 45.7 per cent won their badges. The percentage of the county 
enrollment of girls above grade 3 which won badges was 19.3. (See 
Chart 39 and Table XVIII, page 302.) 



CHART 39 



PER CENT OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1933, BASED ON 1932-33 ENROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



County 



Number 



Number 



Enrolled Entered Won 



8,746 

100 
148 
157 
151 
175 
220 
183 
218 
284 
600 
251 
683 
774 
250 
334 
552 
1,515 
144 
208 
610 



Won 



Per Cent 

Entered 



Total and 
Average 


AC p7R 
*±0 , t, 1 D 


OA 


ODO 


Calvert 


394 




346 


Charles 


635 




534 


St. Mary' s 


438 




350 


Howard 


764 




565 


Kent 


681 




499 


Caroline 


1,070 




783 


Q. Anne's 


709 




511 


Talbot 


881 




625 


Dorchester 


1,282 




895 


Carroll 


2,094 


1 


,346 


Wicomico 


1,682 


1 


,077 


Montgomery 


2,731 


1 


,742 


A. Arundel 


2,698 


1 


,695 


Cecil 


1,434 




886 


Harford 


1,820 


1 


,025 


Pr. Geo. 


3,048 


1 


,691 


Baltimore 


6,472 


5 


,501 


Somerset 


997 




505 


Worcester 


985 




480 


Frederick 


5,141 


1 


,530 


Allegany 


5,375 


2 


,089 


Washington 


4,592 


1 


,628 


Garrett 


1,553 




567 




17.1 


74.0 


1 


25.7 


73.3 


1 


20.6 


73.2 


1 


25.8 


72.1 


1 


24.7 . | 


70.9 


1 




69.8 


1 



28-7 


64.3 


13.7 | 


64.0 


25.0 


63.B 1 


28-7 


62.8 I 





570 



18-4 


56-2 


18-1 


I 555 


20.3 


1 54.1 I 


144 | 


50.7 | 


21.1 


■ 48.7 I 


MESM 


1 487 I 


E3 


38 9 1 


13 | 


371 


EH 


3S-5 



In three counties three-fourths or more of the girls above grade 3 
tried out and passed the tests for badges at their schools and in only 
five counties was the percentage who successfully passed the tests 
at their school less than 50 per cent. (See Chart 39 and Table 
XVIII, page 302.) 



Badge Tests; Team Games; High Schools Entering Girls 209 



The emphasis in the badge tests is on individual attainment of 
physical skills. This is desired before pupils are permitted to enter 
the group activities of the physical education program. The games 
and track and field events set up opportunities for cooperation of 
individuals when they work together on teams as representatives of 
schools or groups with which they are identified. It is this phase of 
the physical education program that develops fine character exhibited 
in good behavior and self control. 

Team Games 

There were 29,893 white boys and girls entered on 2,098 teams in 
the State-wide athletic program of games. Circle dodge ball out- 
ranked all other games in popularity, having had 10,792 boys and 
girls as entrants on 775 teams. Of these teams 143 were mixed. There 
were 7,209 boys on 512 speed ball teams. Soccer and boys' basketball 
showed little change in status for the counties as a whole from the 

TABLE 156 

*Number of County H'gh Schools from which Girls Entered Games, Relays, 
and Badge Tests, Year Ending June 30, 1933 





Ball Games 


COUNTY 


Basket ball 


Field ball 


Hit ball 


Touchdown Pass 


Volley ball 


Total Counties 


52 


109 

5 


111 


85 
4 


122 


Allegany 


7 


5 


6 


Anne Arundel 




3 


3 


3 


4 


Baltimore 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


Calvert 


2 


2 


1 




2 


Caroline. 




5 


5 


4 


5 


Carroll 






9 


10 

3 
3 


10 


Cecil 




8 


7 


8 


Charles 




5 


3 


5 


Dorchester 


3 


4 


4 


2 


6 


Frederick 


6 


7 


7 


3 


5 


Garrett 


5 


5 


3 


4 


Harford.. 


1 


7 


7 


3 


8 


Howard 


2 


4 


4 


2 


4 


Kent 




4 


3 


2 


4 


Montgomery 


7 




7 


6 
5 


5 


Prince George's.... 


2 


9 


7 


10 

5 
2 


Queen Anne's 




5 


4 


4 


St . Mary's 




2 


2 


2 


Somerset 


2 
6 


4 


4 


2 


4 


Talbot 


6 
6 


4 


4 


6 


Washington 


1 


5 


5 


4 


Wicomico 


1 


7 


5 


5 


5 


Worcester 


3 


5 


4 


4 


4 














* Excludes Junior High and one Year High Schools . 



Relays 



Badge Tests 



pq 

121 

9 
3 
6 
1 

5 
8 
8 
5 

5 



134 

9 
4 
6 
2 

5 
10 
8 
5 

6 
7 
6 
8 

5 
4 
5 
10 

5 
2 
4 



132 

9 
4 



S.SP 



137 

9 
4 
6 
2 

5 
10 
8 
5 



210 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



preceding year. Every county except Carroll had soccer teams, 
representing a total of 120 high schools. Each county winner of 
soccer played the neighboring winner, until the Western Shore series 
was won by Bruce of Allegany County, which was the winner over 
Chesapeake City of Cecil County, the champion team of the Eastern 
Shore. All counties, except Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, St. 
Mary's, and Washington had at least one boys' basketball team. The 
need for indoor gymnasiums probably prevented the playing of 
basketball in the counties which had no basketball teams. (See fable 
XIX, page 303.) 

Outside of dodge ball, the girls showed the greatest support of and 
interest in field ball, volley ball, hit ball, touchdown pass and basket- 
ball, in the order named. Every county except Carroll and Mont- 
gomery had field ball teams at the fifth State-wide tournament, in 
which 2,148 girls from 109 high schools participated. Basketball was 
played by girls in fifteen counties. Since an indoor gymnasium is re- 
quired for practice during the winter months, basketball is, of course, 
limited to the localities having the necessary facilities. (See Table 
156, and Table XIX, page 303.) 

Track, Field and Relay Events 
In addition to team games, the P. A. L. program includes running 
and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, broad 
jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who make up a 
team which brings success to the school or county represented. In 
Maryland the number of events in which any one participant may 
enter is limited to one running event for girls and one running and one 
field event for boys. It is thus impossible for a few good athletes 
to win the track meet for their school. All children who have at- 
tained even average ability in the events are needed to bring final 
success to their own schools. (See Tables XVIII and XIX, pages 
302 and 303.) 

From Table 156 it will be seen that the majority of the high schools 
had girls represented in the team games and relays. Space for play- 
ing basketball was not available in all of the counties. 

The Spring Athletic Meets 

The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field events 
took place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The 
winners of the county meets came to Baltimore to compete for the 
State-wide championships. The girls were entertained at the State 
Normal School at Towson and a majority of the boys were cared for 
in the homes of members of the City Parent-Teachers' Associations. 
The Y. M. C. A. took care of the boys not assigned to homes. The 
county winning the greatest number of points was awarded the Sun 
trophy. In 1933 this award went to Baltimore County. The dodge- 
ball championship was won by Baltimore County athletes from Park- 
ville School, and the championship in volley ball was won by Mont- 



Games; Track, Field and Relay Events; Meets; Medical Inspection 211 

gomery County representatives from Bethesda-Chevy Chase Senior- 
Junior High. 

Medica! Inspection of High School Pupils 

The two physicians of the Playground Athletic League examined 
4,304 white high school boys in five counties and 540 white high 
school girls in two counties. They found 13 per cent of the white 
boys and 6.5 per cent of the white girls examined without physical 
defects. Pupil and parents of pupils with defects were advised to 
have them corrected by their regular family physicians. (See Table 
157.) 



TABLE 157 

White Boys and Girls in Five Counties Examined by Physicians of Playground 
Athletic League, Found Defective and Not Defective, 1932-33 















Not Defective 






Number 


Number 










COUNTY 


Examined 


Defective 


















Number 


Per Cent 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


4,304 


540 


3,753 


505 


551 


35 


12 .8 


6.5 




2,661 




2,465 




196 




7.4 




Frederick.. 


925 




647 




278 




30.1 




Kent 


197 


265 


166 


244 


31 


21 


15.7 


7.9 




192 


275 


166 


261 


26 


14 


13 .5 


5.1 


Somerset 


329 




309 




20 




6.1 





















Most children are not interested in health unless their parents 
stimulate them to acquire health habits, or unless lack of health 
interferes with what the children want to do. Interest in health does 
not naturally come until adolescence. The physical education pro- 
gram stresses physical fitness or readiness for activity. 

Expenditures by P. A. L. for the 23 Counties as a Group 

The administration and direction of school athletics in Maryland 
counties during the fiscal year October 1, 1932, to September 30, 
1933, required a total expenditure of approximately $24,674. To- 
wards this the Playground Athletic League received $15,000 from the 
State through the State Public School Budget and the remainder 
from the Board of State Aid and Charities. In addition, certain 
services were rendered the counties, for which the Playground Ath- 
letic League received reimbursements to the extent of $17,105. 
Furthermore, materials and supplies worth $2,637 were bought by 
the counties through the P. A. L. The actual service rendered the 
counties, therefore, necessitated a budget of more than $45,773. The 
Playground Athletic League made no charge to the counties for the 
general administration and direction of the P. A. L. program. (See 
Table 158.) 

The expenditure for salaries pays for the services of field leaders 
who conduct the meets and tournaments, of the physicians who 



212 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



examine high school boys and girls for physical fitness, and of the 
athletic leaders for boys and girls who act as teachers, referees and 
umpires for *1,748 "school units." A school unit is defined as any 
school to which assistance is given, and the same school may be in- 
cluded a number of times in this figure. 

The amount for wages takes care of the cost of recording the badges 
and medals won by different pupils. The system of registration 
prevents unnecessary duplication of awards. The 18,256 badges, 
979 date bars, 4,749 medallions, 8,334 pendants awarded to county 
pupils, and 1,575 badges for officials were all paid lor through the 
State appropriation. These incentives to effort in the physical 
education program bring returns out of all proportion to the amount 
of money spent for this purpose, $4,777. (See Table 158.) 

TABLE 158 

Expenditures of Playground Athletic League for County Work 
October 1, 1932, to September 30, 1933 

Salaries $10,070.29 

Wages..... 1,876.84 

Printing 385.71 

Postage 333.40 

Telephone 309.87 

Auto... 720.31 

Supplies 816.85 

Repairs 12.31 

Awards 4,777.35 

Travelling 4,060.28 

Miscellaneous 1,310.43 

$24,673.64 

Research..... 1,357.31 

$26,030.95 

The amount of $4,060 spent on travel includes the expenses of the 
physicians who have been making physical examinations of county 
girls and boys, and the transportation costs of the leaders who act as 
officials at the many county meets and athletic tournaments that are 
conducted during the year. (See Table 158.) 

The amount of $1,357 spent for research includes the costs of a 
study of color blindness among high school boys and girls. (See 
Table 158.) 

Physical Education Supplies Purchased for the Counties 

Through the P. A. L. the counties may purchase the supplies and 
materials needed for the physical education program at a greatly re- 
duced rate. During the school year 1932-33, the counties paid $2,637 
for these purchases. The savings possible through purchases from 
the P. A. L. permit more schools to have the needed equipment, and 
thus more children are able to participate with pleasure and benefit 
in these healthful activities. 

*The 1748 school units exclude 217 different schools to which supplies were sold by the P. A. L. 



Expenditures of P. A. L.; Evening Schools 



213 



Teacher Training for Physical Education 

The schools in general are better prepared now to give a sound 
type of health education than formerly because the Maryland nor- 
mal schools have been strengthening the work in this field. Pro- 
spective high school teachers are receiving training in physical educa- 
tion at Western Maryland College and, to some extent, at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland. 

EVENING SCHOOLS 
In Baltimore City 

As a result of the cut in the budget the Baltimore City evening 
school total enrollment decreased for white adults from 10,837 in 
1931-32 to 9,160 in 1932-33 and for the colored from 3,303 to 3,198. 
In secondary work for both white and colored, however, the enroll- 
ment showed a small increase as it did in home economics for white 
adults and in elementary work for the colored. The night school 
session which ranged from 39 nights in vocational classes to 56 in 
commercial, elementary and Americanization, and 75 for secondary 
classes, was shorter than the year before by from 9 to 20 nights. 

TABLE 159 

Baltimore City Evening Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1933 







Net Enrollment 


Number 


of Nig] 


Type of Work 




White 


Colored 


1933 




1933 


1932 


1933 


1932 


White 


Color 


Americanization 


943 


1,215 






56 




Academic 








Elementary.. 


239 


583 


1,517 


1,461 


56 


56 


Secondary 


3,266 


3,181 


590 


540 


75 


56 


Vocational 














Commercial 


2,598 


2,704 


302 


350 


56 


56 


Industrial. 


1,303 


2,418 


240 


376 


39 


39 


Home Economics .... 


811 


736 


549 


576 


39 


39 


Total 


9,163 


10,837 


3,198 


3,303 






Average Net Roll 


7,161 


7,310 


2,940 


2,815 






Average Attendance.... 


5,717 


5,920 


2,377 


2,359 






Per Cent of Attendance 


79.8 


80.8 


80.8 


83.4 






No. of Teachers 


259 


267.5 


78 


74 






No. of Schools Open at 














Beginning of Session 


14 


18 


5 


6 






End of Session 


14 


14 


5 


5 







TABLE 160 

Number of Baltimore City Night School Students Completing Definite Courses 

or Units 





High 


Vocational 


Completion of 


Year 


School 


3 or 4 Year 


2-10 One 




Graduation 


Course 


Units Unit 


1929 


175 


92 


1,341 323 


1930 


203 


188 


1,627 577 


1931 


237 


165 


1,687 634 


1932 


271 


194 


1,539 564 


1933 


348 


281 


1,570 3 2 



214 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The evening school work has led to successful completion of the 
high school course or unit courses by the following increasing num- 
bers. (See Table 160.) 

The expenditures for night schools for 1932-33 are shown in 
Table 161. 

TABLE 161 

Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City — 1932-33 



Expenditures 

T> pe of Work White Colored 

Americanization.. $ 5,135.20 $ 

Elementary 2,601.13 6,628.27 

Handicapped 266.75 

Junior 10,155.73 

Senior 25,251.85 4,851.92 

Vocational 5.932.33 1,221.45 

$49,342.99 $12,701.64 

$62,044.63 



The average cost per adult instructed on the basis of average 
net roll was $6.14. 

In the Counties 

The evening school program in the counties was limited to voca- 
tional work in industries in Allegany, Garrett, and Washington, to 
continuation classes for colored employees of the Annapolis Naval 
Academy, and to home economics classes in Cumberland. One-half 
of the funds spent for salaries came from Federal vocational funds. 
The expenditures in Allegany County were 23 per cent less than for 
the preceding year. (See Table 162.) 

TABLE 162 



Salary Expenditures for Vocational Education in Maryland County Evening 
Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1933. 



County 


Expenditures for Salaries of Teachers of 
Vocational Education in Evening Schools 


En- 
roll- 
ment 


County 
Funds and 
" Other" 
State Aid 


State 
Vocational 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Industries 

Allegany 

Garrett 


*$2,549.49 
fl,920.00 


$91.26 


*$2,640.75 
1,920.00 
618.00 
156.25 


**$5,281.50 
3,840.00 
1,236.00 
312.50 


♦344 
310 
54 
34 


Washington 

Anne Arundel (Col.) 

Total 


568.56 
143.75 


49.44 
12.50 


$5,181.80 


$153.20 


$5,335.00 


$10,670.00 


742 


Home Economics 
Allegany 

Grand Total 


88.32 


7.68 


96.00 


192.00 


17 


$5,270.12 


$160.88 


$5,431.00 


$10,862.00 


759 



* Includes $1,500 for 210 enrolled in mining classes. 

t Bureau of Mines University of Maryland, contributed $1,920 and staff for mining classes 



County Evening Schools; Vocational Rehabilitation 



215 



In Allegany and Washington Counties the evening classes included 
show-card writing, machine shop, mechanical drafting, foremanship 
training for the Celanese Corporation, textile calculation, weave 
formation, electrical construction and maintenance, machine shop 
mathematics and drafting, auto mechanics, sheet metal drafting, 
carpentry and architectural drafting, and electric motor rewinding. 
The evening school classes in Cumberland are taught by men from 
industry for the most part. There were also mining classes conducted 
in Allegany and Garrett Counties, instruction being given by the 
Bureau of Mines' staff of the University of Maryland. 

For each of the 759 county adults enrolled in vocational courses 
in evening schools there was an average salary expenditure of $14.31 
in 1932-33, one-half of which came from Federal funds. (See Table 
162.) 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 
Service Rendered from July 1, 1932 to June 30, 1933 

Rehabilitation service was rendered to 263 physically handicapped 
adults during 1932-33. The 43 persons rehabilitated, i. e., trained and 



TABLE 163 

Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1933 









Training 
















Com- 


Being 




Surveyed 


Not 


COUNTY 


Total 




pleted 


Prepared 




But 


Eligible 


No. 


Rehabili- 


Awaiting 


for 


Plan 


Plan 


or 




of 


tated 


Employ- 


Employ- 


Made 


Not 


Sus- 




Cases 




ment 


ment 




Made 


ceptible 


Total Counties.... 


129 


9 


14 


33 


23 


35 


15 


Allegany 


34 


1 


6 


6 


6 


11 


4 


Anne Arundel 


5 




1 


2 


1 




1 


Baltimore 


5 






3 






2 


Calvert 


2 








2 






Caroline 


2 


1 




1 








Carroll 


7 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 




Cecil... 


4 




1 


1 


2 




Charles 


3 








2 




1 


Dorchester 


4 








1 


1 


2 


Frederick. 


10 




1 


3 


1 


5 




Garrett 


8 




1 


2 


2 


3 




Harford 


3 




1 


1 




1 




Howard 


3 




1 


2 








Kent 








1 






Montgomery 


4 






1 


1 


1 


1 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


2 






1 






1 


2 


1 






1 






St . Mary's 


2 




1 




1 




Somerset 


3 


2 


1 






Talbot 


2 










2 




Washington 


14 


3 




5 


1 


3 


1 / . 


Wicomico 


8 






2 


2 


2 


2 , 


Worcester 


1 










1 




Baltimore City.... 


tl34 


34 


8 


26 


14 


18 


20 *" 


Total State.. 


t*263 


43 


22 


59 


37 


53 


35 , 



t Includes 14 cases in Baltimore City not listed in the table, who were placed on jobs by the 
rehabilitation service . The period of employment has not been sufficiently long to determine whether 
these 14 individuals have permanent jobs . 

* Excludes 78 cases in the state who were investigated and found not entitled to rehabilitation ser- 
vice . 



216 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

placed in jobs, and the 59 cases pursuing definite vocational training 
courses were increases of 2 and 7 respectively over the number the 
year before. The 22 persons who had completed training and were 
awaiting employment were just double the corresponding number in 
June, 1932, due to the difficulty in placing workers during a period of 
depression. In addition to the 43 rehabilitated cases, 14 others were 
working on June 30 at jobs where they had been placed by the re- 
habilitation service, but they had not been working sufficiently long 
to determine whether their employment would be permanent, — 
only permanent placements are reported as rehabilitations. (See 
Table 163.) 

During the past year every county in the State benefited from re- 
habilitation service, and the number of cases in the city and counties 
was nearly the same. 

Cooperation with Other Agencies 

Effective rehabilitation service requires the cooperation of all 
agencies interested in the education, health, and welfare of handi- 
capped individuals. Accordingly, efforts to bring about such a plan 
of cooperation in Maryland begun four years ago have been continued 
throughout the State. Both county and city welfare agencies, hos- 
pitals, labor organizations, health departments, civic clubs, and 
vocational schools have actively participated in the promotion of a 
unified rehabilitation service during the past year. 

Of particular importance has been the splendid cooperation render- 
ed by industry. Factory superintendents, shop foremen, personnel 
managers and even executives have appealed to the rehabilitation 
service for advice and assistance in the proper placement of workmen 
injured in their employ; and, in many instances, these officials have 
cooperated in setting up in their own factories training plans for 
disabled persons under the supervision of the rehabilitation service. 

Cost and Training Objectives 

The per capita cost of rehabilitation service in Maryland from 
State and Federal funds for 1932-33 was $146.19. This includes the 
43 persons rehabilitated and the 81 who received training during the 
year; it excludes the remaining 139 active cases who had not been in- 
ducted into training. Many different job objectives were used in 
training disabled persons in Maryland last year. Some of these were: 
auto mechanic, barber, bookkeeper, chauffeur, chef, dental mechanic, 
dressmaker, draftsman, electrician, inspector, laboratory technician, 
lithographer, lock repairman, milliner, neon sign maker, poultry 
raiser, printer, salesman, shoe repairman, stenographer, store- 
keeper, typewriter repairman. (See Table 163.) 

Emergency Relief in Rehabilitation 

The Federal Emergency Relief Commission has made it possible 
for Maryland to extend its rehabilitation program during the present 
emergency to meet the needs of disabled persons who are unemployed. 



Vocational Rehabilitation; Financing Public Schools 217 



It is estimated that more than 500 physically handicapped adults in 
the State will receive rehabilitation service under the emergency 
program who could not be cared for under the regular program be- 
cause of the limitations of both funds and personnel. 

FINANCING THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
Total Current Expenses, Capital Outlay 

The counties of Maryland as a group showed the first decrease 
in total current expenses in 1933, the total, $8,485,146, being over 
$400,000 lower than for the preceding year. Aid from State and 
Federal funds, $2,596,545, was nearly $130,000 less, while county 
support, $5,888,601, was lower by $278,000 than for the year before. 
It was the second consecutive year that county funds showed a de- 
crease in the period since 1919. Capital outlay of $688,497 was lower 
than for any year since 1920. (See Table 164.) 

In Baltimore City, total school current expenses in 1933 of 
$8,494,508 were only slightly higher than the corresponding total for 
the counties, whereas between 1921 and 1932 expenditures in the 
City had been always considerably above those for the counties. 
The city figures include expenditures for the training of colored 
teachers, but exclude the funds required to finance the City's re- 
sponsibilities for the retirement system on account of teachers. 
State aid to the City in 1933 of $1,083,401, which excludes $497,303 
contributed toward the retirement system for teachers, was only ex- 
ceeded in one year preceding, 1927. For the second consecutive year 
the City's contribution toward the maintenance of the school system 
decreased, the reduction for the latter year totaling $1,145,385. 
(See Table 164.) 

Capital outlay in the City which totaled $1,268,159 in 1933 was 
only less in four years during the period from 1919 to 1933. 

For the entire State, the total current expenses of $16,979,654 
showed a decrease for the second consecutive year, the last decrease 
totaling $1,454,582. Most of the decrease was found in the amount 
raised by the counties and Baltimore City, $13,299,708, as the State 
aid of $3,679,946 was only $31,521 less than for the preceding year. 
The total capital outlay of $1,956,656 was only lower in the years of 
1919 and 1920. (See Table 164.) 

The amounts given as State and Federal aid include all funds 
due for the State's fiscal year from October 1 to September 30, even 
if the funds were received between July 31 and September 30. 

Per Cent of Aid Received from State and Federal Funds 

The sources of funds for current expenses with the amounts 
and percentages from Federal and State aid and from county funds 
show that on the average for the counties 30.6 per cent in 1932-33 
came from State and Federal aid and 69.4 per cent from county funds. 
The State and Federal aid to the individual counties ranged from 18 
to 66 per cent, six counties receiving 53 per cent or more of their 
funds from State and Federal aid. These counties were Somerset, 



218 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 164 

Expenditure for School Current Expense From State and Local Funds and Capital 
Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1933 



Year 


CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 




Ending 
July 31, 


Total 


From State 
and Federal 
Funds 


From Local 
Funds 


Capital 
Outlay 



1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



Total Counties 



$3,184,351.22 
3,703,153 29 
5,043 923.02 
5,291,124.43 
5,964,456.44 
6,475,802.93 
6,743,015.08 
7,143,149.65 
7,517,728.77 
7,787,298.09 
8,164,657.18 
8,456,414.05 
8,852,073.43 
8,892,181.36 
8,485,145.77 



$1,230,181.60 
1,186,192.67 
1,554,693.60 
1,545,695.85 
2,026,315.58 
2,068,186.05 
2,161,571.04 
2,248,399.75 
2,329,031.35 
°2,246,541.47 
°2,322,643.82 
f2,348,530.19 
2,386,738.76 
2,725,905.04 
2,596,544.97 



$1,954,169.62 
2,516,960.62 
3,489,229.42 
3,745,428.58 
3,938,140.86 
4,407,616.88 
4,581,444.04 
4,894,749.90 
5,188,697,42 
5,540,756.62 
5,842,013.36 
6,107,883,86 
6,465,334.67 
6,166,276.32 
5,888,600.80 



$ 311,137.08 
485.601.23 
929,024.08 
1,121,553.98 
1,475,268.52 
949,719.78 
2,527,823.35 
2,602,745.09 
1,023,362.25 
1,532,717.90 
1,773,070.68 
2,450,143.80 
2,172,087.55 
1,650,064.84 
688,497.49 



Baltimore City* 



$2,832,543.59 
3,706,641.51 
5,394,655.76 
6,631,682.32 
6,949,793.45 
6,963,332.47 
7,419,638.99 
7,660,787.84 
8,040,694.93 
8,503,427.29 
8,910,245.11 
9,340,560.01 
9,817,669.53 
9,542,054.34 
8,494,508.42 



$ 671,006.78 
713,287.02 
1,032,541.55 
1,026,972.79 
1,066,100.96 
1,061,111.63 
1,042,479.92 
1,056,893.87 
1,086,496.95 
fl,016,993.13 
tl,037,490.92 
995,063.18 
946,023.62 
985,562.39 
1,083,401.42 



$2,161,536.81 
2,993,354.49 
4,362,114.21 
5,604,709.53 
5,883,692.49 
5,902,220.84 
6,377,159.07 
6,603,893.97 
6,954,197.98 
7,486,434.16 
7,872,754.19 
8,345,496 83 
8,871,645.91 
8,556,491.95 
7,411,107.00 



I 38,562.29 
60,741.25 
1,267,636.20 
1,417,569.15 
3,301,086.21 
5,336,889.06 
3,224,733.82 
3,484,766.86 
4,200,037.45 
1,897,871.37 
633,631.71 
1,508,678.41 
3,658,046.55 
2,678,922.51 
1,268,158.96 



Entire State* 



$6,016,894.81 
7,409,794.80 
10,438,578.78 
11,922,806.75 
12,914,249.89 
13,439,135.40 
14,162,654.07 
14,803,937.49 
15,558,423.70 
16,290,725.38 
17,074,902.29 
17,796,974.06 
18,669,742.96 
18,434,235.70 
16,979,654.19 



$1,901,188.38 
1,899,479.69 
2,587,235.15 
2,572,668.64 
3,092,416.54 
3,129,297.68 
3,204,050.96 
3,305,293.62 
3,415,528.30 
3,263,534.60 
3,360,134.74 

f3,343,593.37 
3,332,762.38 
3,711,467.43 
3,679,946.39 



$4,115,706.43 
5,510,315.11 
7,851,343.63 
9,350,138.11 
9,821,833.35 
10,309,837.72 
10,958,603.11 
11,498,643.87 
12,142,895.40 
13,027,190.78 
13,714,767.55 
14,453,380.69 
15,336,980.58 
14,722,768.27 
13,299,707.80 



$ 349,699.37 
546,342.48 
2,196,660.28 
2,539,123.13 
4,776,354.73 
6,286,608.84 
5,752,557.17 
6,087,511.95 
5,223,399.70 
3,430,589.27 
2,406,702.39 
3,958,822.21 
5,830,134.10 
4,328,987.35 
1,956,656.45 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training schools, but 
excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund . 
t Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund . 
° Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes . 



Financing the County and City Public Schools 



219 



Garrett, Charles, Calvert, Caroline, and St. Mary's. (See Table 165 
and Chart 40.) 

State and Federal aid in Baltimore City represented 12.8 per cent 
of the current expenses for 1932-33 and for the entire State 21.7 per 
cent. (See Table 165 and Chart 40.) 

CHART 40 

PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1933 



County 



County Average 



Received fromf 



State and Federal Funds Excluding 
Equalization Func 

Equalization Fund 




X/////A County Funds and Other Sources 
40 60 80 



100 



4°. 



v//////////////m? 



V//////////////////////. 



V///////////////JW/. 



Y///////////////77777/7/. 



yy////////////////////////. 



V////////////////////////////. 



V///////////////////////////////. 




^^^^^^^^^ 



_ 



y/////////////////A. 



Baltimore City 
State 



7, 



220 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Sixteen of the counties shared in the distribution of the Equaliza- 
tion Fund which totaled approximately $709,000 for the State fiscal 
year 1932-33. 

With the increase in State aid made available through the dis- 
tribution of $1,500,000 in 1933-34 as well as the reduction to 47 cents 
of the county school tax rate for participation in the Equalization 
Fund, the per cent of State aid to the counties will probably show an 
increase from 30 to approximately 46 per cent for 1933-34. 

TABLE 165 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State 
and Federal Funds for Year Ending July 31, 1933 



County 



Total Counties 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Charles 

Calvert 

Caroline 

St . Mary's 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's 

Kent 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Harford 

Cecil 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Washington 

Baltimore. 

Montgomery 

Baltimore City 

State 



Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses* 



$8,485,145 .77 



210 
306 
165 
100 
207 
121 
274 
411 
223 
285 
169 
167 
156 
509 
186 
313 
271 
626 
504 
877 
652 
1,122 
619 



,374 .54 
,352 .34 
,743 .82 
,971 .67 
,148 .29 
,263 .77 
,254 .23 
,333 .41 
,084 .55 
,948 .70 
,897.68 
,016.58 
,507 .32 
,795.16 
,396 .22 
,486.76 
,904.12 
,953 .26 
,751 .70 
,004 .99 
,342 .04 
,794 .53 
.820 .09 



t8,475,078 .00 
$16,960,223.77 



Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 



*State and 
Federal 
Aid 



$2,596,544 .97 

138,611 .28 
190,200.75 
102,085.11 
61,953 .16 
118,573 .49 
64,223 .72 
131,749.13 
159,769 .99 
85,900 .01 
108,699.38 
59,480.88 
56,707 .79 
46,026.13 
146,950.67 
50,333 .26 
80,790.11 
65,921 .75 
147,581 .12 
117,394.53 
199,088 .31 
139,275.65 
213,773 .96 
111,454 .79 

tl,083,401 .42 

$3,679,946 .39 



County and 
Other 
Sources 



$5,888,600 .80 

71,763 .26 
116,151 .59 
63,658 .71 
39,018.51 
88,574 .80 
57,040 .05 
142,505.10 
251,563 .42 
137,184 .54 
177,249 .32 
110,416.80 
110,308.79 
110,481 .19 
362,844 .49 
136,062 .96 
232,696 .65 
205,982 .37 
479,372.14 
387,357 .17 
677,916.68 
513,066 .39 
909,020 .57 
508,365.30 

7,391,676 .58 

$13,280,277 .38 



Per Cent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Received from 



T3 

<d m 



33 



30.6 
65.9 



62 
61 
61 

57 
53 
48 

38 .8 
38.5 
38 .0 
35.0 
34.0 
29 .4 
28 .8 
27 .0 
25.8 
24 .2 
23.5 
23 .3 
22.7 
21 .4 
19.0 
18.0 

12 .8 

21.7 



S 3 a 



22 .2 

25.7 
21 .5 
28 .8 
26 .0 
25.5 

28 .4 

23 .8 

22 .2 
25.6 
25.1 
25.4 

23 .7 

29 .4 
20.1 
25.8 
25.8 

24 .2 
22.6 
23 .3 
19.5 
21 .4 
19.0 
18.0 

12 .8 

17.5 



not . 



Includes all state and federal aid due for the year 1932-33, whether received after July 31, or 

t Excludes payments of $837,204 for Teachers' Retirement System toward which the State paid 
$497,303 . 

HOW THE SCHOOL CURRENT EXPENSE TAX DOLLAR IS SPENT 

Of every dollar spent in the twenty-three counties for school 
current expenses in 1932-33, teachers' salaries required 70.2 cents; 
auxiliary agencies: transportation, libraries, and health 10.8 cents; 
and general control 3.2 cents. The proportions of the tax dollar 
devoted to these three items were the only ones showing an increase 
over 1931-32. For books and supplies only 3.5 cents of every school 



Per Cent of State Aid; How the School Tax Dollar Is Spent 221 
CHART 41 



HOW THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPENT 
IN THE MARYLAND COUNTIES, 1953 




* Fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties. 

dollar were used in 1932-33 compared with 4.5 cents the year before. 
There was a decrease of .9 of 1 cent for repairs, and of .2 of 1 cent for 
supervision and also for fixed charges, including tuition to adjoining 
counties. (See Chart 41 and Table 166.) 

The amounts required for teachers' salaries, general control, and 
transportation are necessarily determined by the salary schedule and 
contracts in effect. A curtailment in the total amount available means 
that these items must be provided for, leaving the financing of other 
items such as books and supplies and repairs, however badly needed, 
to be postponed until a later date when funds may be less limited. 
This postponement of purchasing books and making repairs of course 
can not go on indefinitely without impairing the results of instruction 
or seriously damaging the value of buildings. Although amounts 
spent for salaries and general control may be actually lower, they re- 
quire a greater proportion of the lower total than when salaries are 
really higher but assume their relative place with a more normal ex- 
penditure for books and repairs. 



222 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Among the counties the per cent of current expenses devoted to 
salaries of teachers ranged from 51.9 per cent in Calvert to 77.4 in 
Harford and 77.5 in Washington. In every case, such as Calvert, St. 
Mary's, Queen Anne's, Kent, and Charles, which used a relatively 
small proportion of funds for teachers' salaries, an unusually large 
proportion of the current expense budget was used for auxiliary 
agencies, chiefly transportation. On the other hand, the counties like 
Washington, Harford, Baltimore, Allegany, and Prince George's, 
which used a large proportion of the budget for salaries, spent con- 
siderably less than the average county for transportation. (See 
Table 166.) 

TABLE 166 

Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1933 



Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 



COUNTY 


General Control 


| Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


1 

Auxiliary Agencies 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 

Capital 

Outlay 


County Average 


3.2 


1.9 


70 .2 


3.5 


6.8 


2.3 


10.8 


1.3 


7.5 


Allegany 


2.4 


1.5 


72.7 


5.4 


7.0 


2 .1 


7.8 


1 .1 


1 .9 


Anne Arundel 


2.8 


1 .7 


64.6 


4.0 


7.8 


2.5 


15.7 


.9 


42 .4 


Baltimore 


2.5 


1 .4 


74 .2 


2.4 


7.5 


1 .8 


7.9 


2.3 


6.2 


Calvert 


6.3 


3.9 


51 .9 


2.7 


4.6 


1 .6 


28.5 


.5 


1.2 


Caroline 


3.3 


2.0 


67 .3 


2.9 


6.2 


1.2 


16.0 


1.1 


.7 


Carroll 


2.9 


2.1 


65.1 


4.9 


5.2 


1.8 


16.4 


1.6 


11.4 


Cecil 


3.1 


2.8 


70.5 


4.3 


6.8 


1.7 


9.8 


1 .0 


10.7 


Charles 


3.1 


1.9 


64 .2 


3.2 


5.8 


2.5 


18 .2 


1 .1 


9.1 


Dorchester 


3.6 


2.5 


68 .2 


2.9 


6.4 


3.0 


12 .4 


1 .0 


.5 


Frederick 


2.6 


2.4 


70.8 


3.0 


5.5 


1.3 


13 .0 


1.4 


.4 


Garrett 


3.6 


2.6 


66.5 


1.6 


4.3 


1.1 


18.0 


2.3 


.3 


Harford 


2.9 


2.1 


77 .4 


3.4 


5.8 


3.6 


4 .2 


.6 


9.9 


Howard 


4.5 


2.3 


70.9 


3.0 


5.6 


.6 


10.3 


2.8 


5.4 


Kent.. 


5.0 


2.7 


63.7 


4.3 


7.1 


2.5 


14 .0 


.7 


.2 


Montgomery 


3 .4 


2.0 


70 .6 


3.0 


8.7 


2.4 


8.3 


1.6 


4.8 


Prince George's 


3.3 


1.6 


71.4 


4.4 


8.7 


5.6 


4.9 


.1 




Queen Anne's 


5.5 


2.5 


62 .3 


3.2 


5.7 


1 .9 


17.4 


1.5 


.1 


St . Mary's 


6.7 


3.0 


58.9 


2.5 


3.8 


2.6 


22 .2 


.3 


1 .1 


Somerset 


4.1 


1.8 


71 .7 


3.3 


6.0 


.7 


11 .7 


.7 


10.7 


Talbot 


5.1 


2.4 


66 .3 


2.9 


7.0 


1 .5 


12 .8 


2.0 


2 


Washington 


2.4 


1.5 


77.5 


2.9 


6.6 


1.5 


6.2 


1.4 


.5 


Wicomico 


4.2 


2.3 


71 .0 


4.4 


6.3 


3.1 


7.8 


l'S 


2.6 


Worcester 


3.8 
3.1 


1.7 


66.5 


2.9 


7.6 


2.1 


14.1 






Baltimore City 


2.0 


75.4 


3.6 


9.6 


2.9 


3.1 


.3 


13.0 


State 


3.2 


1.9 


72 .8 


3.6 


8.2 


2.6 


6.9 


.8 


10.3 



The range in per cent used for auxiliary agencies ranged from less 
than five per cent in Harford and Prince George's to 22 per cent in 
St. Mary's and 28.5 per cent in Calvert. This percentage bears a 
close relation to the per cent of county children transported and the 
extent of the participation of the public in the expense of transporting 
children to high school. (See Table 166 and Table 175, page 233.) 

Counties having the largest public school population, Allegany, 
Washington, Baltimore, and Frederick, show the smallest per cent 



Per Cent Distribution of School Current Expenses; Cost per Pupil 223 



of their school current expense budget going for general control or 
administration, 2.6 per cent or less. On the other hand, the counties 
with the smallest public school population, St. Mary's, Calvert, 
Queen Anne's, Talbot, and Kent, require the largest percentage of 
their school current expense budgets for administration, i. e., 5 per 
cent of more. The same administrative and financial duties must be 
carried on whether a county be large or small. The smaller counties 
could undoubtedly care for a large increase in pupils without having 
to spend much more than they do at present for general control. 
(See Table 166.) 

For supervision Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, Prince George's, 
and Anne Arundel Counties, all of which employed fewer supervisors 
than the number for which they were entitled to receive State aid, 
spent 1.7 cents or less out of every dollar. The small counties, Cal- 
vert and St. Mary's, had to use between 3 and 4 cents of each dollar 
in order to have supervision of the white and colored elementary 
schools. The supervisors in these counties could have worked with a 
larger number of teachers without additional expense. In Maryland 
at least one supervisor has been required in every county to insure a 
constant improvement in instruction. (See Table 166.) 

The number of cents in each school tax dollar used for books, 
materials, and other costs of instruction varied from 2.5 cents or less 
in Garrett, Baltimore, and St. Mary's Counties, to 4 cents or more in 
Allegany, Carroll, Wicomico, Prince George's, Cecil, Kent and Anne 
Arundel. (See Table 166.) 

The cents of each tax dollar used for maintenance were lower in 
all except six of the counties than for the preceding year. Howard 
and Somerset spent less than one cent of each dollar for repairs. 
Prince George's was the only county which spent over 3.6 cents of its 
tax dollar for this purpose. (See Table 166.) 

Fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties required 2 cents 
or more of each tax dollar in Howard, Baltimore, Garrett, and Tal- 
bot. They took least money from the tax dollar in Prince George's, 
St. Mary's, Calvert, Harford, Kent, and Somerset. (See Table 166 
and also Tables XXVIII and XXIX, pages 312 and 313.) 

Per Cent ior Capital Outlay 

The per cent of combined current expenses and capital outlay 
used for capital outlay which averaged 7.5 per cent for the counties 
varied from nothing to over 42 per cent in Anne Arundel which com- 
pleted its building program from the bond issue of $1,000,000 made 
possible after a favorable referendum. (See Table 166.) 

CURRENT EXPENSE COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
The average 1933 cost per county day school pupil belonging,* 
$51.71, was lower than it has been in any year since 1927. The de- 
crease from 1932 was $3.80 and from 1931, when the average cost was 
highest, was $4.73. This decrease reflects in part reductions in salary 

* Excluding tuition to adjoining counties and states. 



224 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



which took effect in several counties in January 1933, but chiefly 
the fact that vacancies which occurred in high schools were left un- 
filled and there was no expansion of the high school program to pro- 
vide for the increase in high school pupils or to introduce special 
subjects, such as agriculture, home economics, industrial arts, music, 
and physical education, in schools that were ready for and desired 
them, and for which provision had originally been made in the 1933 
State Public School Budget. (See Table 167.) 



TABLE 167 

Cost Per Day-School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1930, 1931, 1932 and 1933 













Decrease 


County 


fl930 


fl931 


|1932 


|1933 


1933 









underl932 


County Average 


$55.49 


$56.44 


$55.51 


$51.71 




$3.80 


Garrett 


72.46 


69.17 


66.86 


61.22 


5.64 


Carroll 


66.83 


68.75 


66.71 


60.82 


5.89 


Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 


64.51 


68.29 


65.96 


59.17 


6.79 


59.72 


57.55 


61.34 


59.01 


2.33 


Kent 


58.23 


61.15 


61.13 


58.19 


2.94 


Cecil 


60.94 


60.84 


58.07 


57.38 


.69 


Allegany 


61.31 


61.45 


60.37 


55.97 


4.40 


Caroline 


55.67 


57.13 


57.37 


54.15 


3.22 


Howard 


56.23 


56.02 


54.25 


51.87 


2.38 


Talbot 


53.67 


54.86 


56.26 


51.79 


4.47 


Dorchester 


51.64 


54.21 


51.20 


50.68 


.52 


Harford 


54.58 


56.05 


53.06 


50.26 


2.80 


Baltimore 


56.71 


58.05 


55.98 


50.03 


5.95 


Prince George's 


50.70 


51.55 


52.31 


49.87 


2.44 


Worcester 


51.35 


53.36 


51.42 


49.36 


2.06 


St. Mary's 


46.15 


49.59 


51.50 


49.09 


2.41 


Frederick 


51.46 


52.88 


50.99 


49.03 


1.96 


Washington 


50.71 


51.31 


51.01 


47.41 


3.60 


Calvert 


46.00 


47.94 


48.96 


47.07 


1.89 


Anne Arundel 


53.37 


53.72 


52.87 


46.81 


6.06 


Wicomico 


48.56 


46.42 


48.83 


46.45 


2.38 


Charles 


49.42 


47.86 


47.80 


46.03 


1.77 


Somerset 


44.51 


45.75 


45.72 


44.57 


1.15 



t In making this calculation, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for even- 
ing schools have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury and Bowie 
Normal Elementary Schools have been eliminated. 



Every county in the State shared in the decrease, the greatest 
reductions appearing for Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, 
Carroll, and Garrett Counties. (See last column in Table 167.) 

The cost per pupil varied from $44.57 in Somerset to $61.22 in 
Garrett. Somerset has three-eighths of its population in colored 
schools and Garrett has no colored schools. The proportion of the 
population in high schools and in one-teacher schools, the number of 
pupils per teacher, and the enrichment of the high school curriculum 
also affect the total average cost, in general the county having more 



Cost per Day School Pupil for Current Expense and General Control 225 



one-teacher schools, a smaller number of pupils per teacher, a greater 
proportion of pupils in high school, and an enriched curriculum hav- 
ing higher costs. (See Table 167.) 

Cost per Pupil Belonging for General Control 

The average cost per county pupil belonging for general control 
which was $1.68 in 1933 was 13 cents less than in 1932. Among the 
counties 1933 costs ranged from less than $1.40 per pupil in Washing- 
ton, Frederick, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Allegany Counties, 
with the largest public school population, to over $2.60 per pupil in 
St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Calvert, Kent, and Talbot, the counties 
having the smallest public school population. Every county except 
four, St. Mary's, Kent, Frederick, and Dorchester showed a decrease 
in cost per pupil from 1932 to 1933. (See Table 168.) 

TABLE 168 
Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



county 



County Average 

St . Mary's 

Queen Anne's 

Calvert 

Kent 

Talbot 

Howard 

Garrett 

Montgomery 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Somerset 



1931 



$1 .90 

3.23 
3 .16 
3.53 
3.05 
2 .69 
2.53 
2 .77 
2 .07 
1 .98 
1 .97 
1 .88 



1932 



$1 .81 

3.21 
3.44 
3.53 
2 .84 
2.77 
2 .48 
2 .64 
2 .11 
1 .96 
1 .94 
1 .89 



1933 



$1 .68 

3.29 
3.28 
2 .95 
2 .92 
2 .62 
2 .39 
2 .24 
2 .02 
1 .94 
1 .90 
1 .83 



Decrease 
1933 
under 
1932 



$ .13 

*.08 
.16 
.58 

*.08 
.15 
.09 
.40 
.09 
.02 
.04 
.06 



County 



Dorchester 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Charles. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel... 

Baltimore. 

Frederick 

Washington 



1931 



$1 .99 
2 .04 

1 .95 

2 .17 
1 .79 
1 .76 
1 .77 
1 .56 
1 .71 
1 .65 
1 .61 
1 .19 



1932 



$1 .80 
1 .97 

1 .87 

2 .09 
1 .74 
1 .63 
1 .68 
1 .44 
1 .64 
1 .43 
1 .22 
1 .23 



1933 



1 .47 
1 .42 



Decrease 
1933 
under 
1932 



.18 
.09 
.32 
.11 
.16 
.26 
.09 
.31 
.15 
.04 



* Increase 

Comparative Cost per Pupil in White Elementary and White High Schools 

The 1933 cost per county pupil in white high schools, $82.35, was 
1.75 times the cost per county white elementary school pupil. The cost 
per white elementary pupil was 5 per cent less and per white high school 
pupil 13 per cent lower in 1933 than in 1932. The greater decrease 
for high schools shows that the retrenchment program has affected 
the high schools to a greater extent than it has the elementary schools. 
The salary cost per pupil represented 72 per cent of the total cost in 
white elementary schools whereas it covered nearly 76 per cent of the 
total cost in white high schools. (See Chart 42 and Table 169.) 

The cost per pupil for salaries was $33.85 for county white ele- 
mentary pupils as against $62.26 per county white high school pupil. 
This difference is explained by the higher salary schedule and the 
smaller classes in white high schools. (See Chart 42.) 

"Auxiliary agencies" was the next largest item of expense, $5.83 
per county white elementary school pupil and $8.64 per county 
white high school pupil. There are fewer high schools than elementary 
schools which means that a much larger proportion of high than of 
elementary pupils live a long distance away from school and require 



!6 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



RANK IN COST PER PUPIL FOR CUR- 
RENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING 
GENERAL CONTROL IN 


Colored 
Schools 


spoqog 
XjB^uauiaia 












siooqog 












White Elementary Schools 


siooqog 

nv 










siooqog 
papBJO 










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spoqog 
aaqoBa^-auo 










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siooip s 
joj ndnj jad isoj ut ^ubh 











P3 
W 
Ph 

►J 

o 

r*0 



siooqog 
iCjB^uatuai 



spoqog 
M31H 



siooqog 
M 3 !H 3^!MAV 



ssss 



to 
o 


siooqog 
XjB^uainaia 

UV 




s 


ntary Sc 


spoqog 
papBJO^ 








te Eleme 


siooqog 
jaqOBax-OMj,* 










siooqog 
jaqOBaj^-auQ* 









joj^uoq iBjauaf) joj 
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Cost per Pupil by Types of Schools 



227 



transportation. The average cost of heating, cleaning, and repairing 
buildings was $4.53 for white elementary and $7.33 for white high 
school pupils. The small sections in many high schools using rooms of 
ordinary size require a higher cost for building operation and main- 
tenance than is the case for the larger elementary school classes. (See 
Chart 42.) 

For books, materials, and other instructional costs per white 
high school pupil, $4.12 was used, while the corresponding amount 
per white elementary pupil was $1.36. High school pupils use more 
books with more voluminous content material than is the case for 
even the upper grades in white elementary schools. (See Chart 42.) 

CHART 42 

1933 COST, EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 
PER COUNTY PUPIL BELONGING 

In White In M*"* 

ElementDiy Hieh Schools 




a — Supervision. 

b — Books, materials and other instructional costs other than salaries. 



County supervision of white elementary schools cost $1.25 per 
pupil in 1933. Except for two counties which have county high school 
supervision included with teachers' salaries, the supervision of white 
high schools is provided by the State and is not shown in the cost per 
white high school pupil. (See Chart 42.) 

An analysis of the cost per pupil in individual counties for white 
elementary schools is given on pages 67 to 80, in white high schools on 
pages 1 37 to 1 46, and in colored schools on pages 1 87 to 1 89. 

Federal Aid as a Stimulus to Vocational Education 

The allotment to Maryland for 1932-33 from the Federal Govern- 
ment under the Smith-Hughes and George-Reed Acts was $98,058, 



228 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

approximately 9 per cent less than for the year preceding. Of this 
amount a maximum of $38,757 was allocated to agriculture, $47,294 
to industrial education and home economics, and $12,007 to teacher 
training and supervision. The amount of Federal funds actually avail- 
able was $91,497, which meant that $6,561 was returned to the 
Federal Treasury. It was not possible to use the entire amount be- 
cause there are definite requirements for the use of a specified por- 
tion of the funds for part-time and continuation classes in industry. 
Only a limited number of Maryland employers cooperate with the 
schools in giving this type of training. 

Of the $91,498 actually received from Federal funds, $33,046 was 
expended for salaries of teachers of agriculture, $27,689 for salaries 
of teachers of trade and industrial subjects, $15,305 for salaries of 
teachers of home economics, and $15,458 for administration, super- 
vision, and teacher-training in these three branches. 

Vocational work was further aided in 1933 by State appropriations 
amounting to $4,957 toward the salaries of vocational teachers in the 
counties and $11,242 for administration and supervision of work in 
agriculture, home economics, and industrial arts. In addition, there 
were expenditures for vocational work from county funds and from 
State funds for high school aid and equalization aggregating $58,500, 
and from the University of Maryland totalling $9,862. The total 
amount spent for salaries for the vocational program for the Mary- 
land counties in 1933 including Federal funds was $165,395. For the 
vocational salary expenditures in the various counties see Table 104, 
page 141. 

The Vocational Program in Baltimore City 

The 1933 expenditures for salaries for vocational education in 
Baltimore City were $128,490, nearly $17,000 below the year pre- 
ceding, due partly to the second decrease in salary which took effect 
in Baltimore City January 1, 1933, and to the reduction in expendi- 
tures for evening work in home economics and industries and for 
part-time classes. The city supported the salaries for vocational 
work to the extent of $117,827, while the Federal reimbursement 
totaled $10,663. (See Table 170.) 

Nearly 82 per cent of the salary expenditures for vocational work 
in Baltimore City was paid to teachers in the four day vocational 
schools which enrolled 1,510 boys and girls at a salary cost per pupil 
of $69.52. These schools have a six hour school day of which one half 
is spent in the school shop and the remaining half is given to class in- 
struction in related and unrelated subject-matter. (See Table 170.) 

The Boys' Vocational School has increased from an enrollment of 
74 and a teaching staff of 8 in 1919 to an enrollment of 811 and a 
teaching staff of 33 in 1933. The Girls' Vocational School for which 
the first report was available in 1926 started with 30 pupils and 2 
teachers. In 1933 it had 403 enrolled and 19 teachers. The School 
of Printing organized during 1923-24 began with 42 boys and 2 
teachers and in 1933 had 95 enrolled and 5 teachers. The Colored 



Financing the Vocational Education Program 



229 



School, opened in 1925-26 with 154 pupils and 9 teachers, enrolled 
449 pupils with a staff of 18 teachers in 1933. 

The continuation classes, started in 1926-27 with an enrollment of 
265 and 2 teachers, had 305 enrolled and a staff of 3 teachers in 1933. 
Their work is done in several department stores and with employees 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company. (See Table 170.) 

TABLE 170 

Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 

Year Ending Julv 31, 1933. 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enrollment 


Vocational 
Education 

Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Boys 


Girls 


Day Vocational 
Part-time 

Industrial 
General 

Continuation 
Evening 

Industrial 
Evening Home 

Economics 


$104,976.99 




$104,976.99 
7,402.20 
8,183.89 
4,911.50 
3,015.50 


*1,113 
18 


*397 
41 
305 
133 
858 


$69.52 
125.46 
26.83 
6.64 
3.51 


$3,701.10 
4,091.94 
3,549.08 
1,507.75 


$3,701.10 
4,091.95 
1,362.42 
1,507.75 


607 


m 

Totals 






$117,826.86 


$10,663.22 


$128,490.08 


1,738 


1,734 


$37.01 





* Includes 274 colored boys and 175 colored girls. 



Administration, Supervision, and Teacher-Training in Vocational Education 

Administration, supervision, and teacher-training in agriculture 
in 1933 required expenditures of $14,136. Toward this total the State 
contributed $4,581, the University of Maryland $3,209, and Federal 
funds $6,346. Toward $11,243 spent for supervision and teacher- 
training for trades and industries the State expended $3,570, the 
University of Maryland $2,863, and Federal funds contributed 
$4,810. Of a total expenditure of $9,262 for home economics, $3,091 
came from State funds, $1,870 from the University of Maryland, 
and $4,301 from Federal sources. (See Table 171.) 

TABLE 171 

Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1933 



SUBJFCT 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 
Md . 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry 

Total 


$4,580.90 
3,570.02 
3,090.97 


$3,288.36 
2,081.60 
*2,531.21 


$3,209.00 
2,862.90 
1,870.24 


$3,057.30 
2,728.95 
1,770.06 


$7,789.90 
6,432.92 
4,961.21 


$6,345.66 
4,810.55 
♦4.301.27 


$11,241.89 


$7,901.17 


$7,942.14 


$7,556.31 


$19,184.03 


$15,457.48 



* Includes $1,000 federal reimbursement from George-Reed Funds for supervision. 



230 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
Transportation of Pupils, a Growing Function of County Schools 

More public funds were spent for transporting more county pupils 
wholly or partially at county expense in 1932-33 than ever before. 
The total bill of the counties for transporting 40,308 pupils was 
$858,000, about 5,300 more pupils and $23,600 more than for the 
preceding year. There has been a steady increase in expenditures for 
transportation since 1910 when but four counties transported pupils 
at public expense. (See Table 172.) 



TABLE 172 

County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910 — 1933 



Year 


Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


Cost per 
Pupil 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


$30.59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


27.88 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 


27.45 


1929 


1512,385 


23 


18,928 


27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


22,814 


26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


29,006 


25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


35,019 


23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


40,308 


21.32 



* Excludes $700 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



The cost per pupil transported has shown a steady decline with the 
increase in the transportation program, and the $21.32 average for 
1933 is lower than at any time since 1923. (See Table 172.) 

Of the 40,308 pupils transported at county expense, 29,589 were 
carried to elementary schools and 10,719 to high schools. There was 
an increase of 4,066 in the number of elementary pupils transported 
and of 1,223 in the high school pupils transported entirely or partially 
at public expense. (See Table 173.) 

Public funds paid for all of the costs of transporting pupils to 
county elementary schools, but in five counties parents who sent their 
children to high school were required to supplement the public funds 
used in transporting their children to school. These counties were 
Baltimore, Montgomery, Howard, Harford, and Frederick. 

With only two exceptions, Montgomery and Harford high school 
pupils, every county transported more pupils to elementary and high 



Cost to Public of Transporting Children to School 231 

schools than for the preceding year. Although all counties transported 
more pupils, 13 counties spent less for transportation in 1933 than 
they spent the year before. (See Table 173.) 

TABLE 173 

Maryland Pupils Transported in 1933 at County Expense 





Pupils Transported 


1 

Pub! 


ic Expenditures 










for 


Transportation 


COUNTY 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 




Hie-h 


Total 


mentary 


High 






Srhool 


Srhool 




School 


School 


Total Counties.. 


40,308 




10,719 


$858,274.43 


$611,071.03 


$247,203.40 


Baltimore 


5 089 


3 941 


1 148 


♦76,546.18 


*60,515.66 


16,030.52 


Anne Arundel.... 


f3,649 


f2,'890 


759 


71,337.81 


51,923.70 


19,414.11 


Carroll 


3*181 


2*311 


870 


67,208.38 


48,501.71 


18,706.67 


Frederick 


3010 


?'801 


209 


64,680.33 


58,469.32 


6,211.01 


Allegany 


2630 


2 061 


569 


56,558.90 


44,786.44 


11,772.46 


Garrett 


1,493 


'843 


650 


54,751.62 


31,621.40 


23,130.22 


M ontgomery 


2,395 


1,927 


468 


44,091.59 


35,086.98 


9,004.61 


Washington 


1,824 


1,263 


561 


36,275.72 


26,298.31 


9,977.41 


Dorchester 


1,535 


1,054 


481 


33,713.75 


22,113.55 


11,600.20 


Caroline 


1,682 


1,083 


599 


32,981.37 


21,226.97 


11,754.40 


Worcester 


1,410 


980 


430 


31,142.98 


20,949.67 


10,193.31 


Charles 


1,286 


880 


406 


30,114.62 


19,017.37 


11,097.25 


Queen Anne's.... 


1,144 


778 


366 


28,796.31 


20,971.49 


7,824.82 


Calvert 


918 


620 


298 


28,771.99 


18,782.42 


9,989.57 


Prince George's 


fl,532 


fl,149 


383 


28,276.82 


20,625.79 


7,651.03 


Cecil 


1,298 


867 


431 


26,475.25 


17,670.95 


8,804.30 


St. Mary's. 


818 


489 


329 


26,184.11 


14,375.34 


11,808.77 


Somerset 


999 


687 


312 


24,483.98 


14,007.25 


10,476.73 


Talbot 


976 


686 


290 


23,403.50 


16,113.07 


7,290.43 


Kent 


789 


433 


356 


22,707.47 


12,055.19 


10,652.28 


Wicomico 


1,287 


793 


494 


21,302.97 


13,084.10 


8,218.87 


Howard 


710 


475 


235 


16,078.90 


10,788.77 


5,290.13 


Harford 


653 


578 


75 


12,389.88 


12,085.58 


304.30 



t Includes 65 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at state expense, 31 from 
Knne Arundel and 34 from Prince George's . 
* Includes $156.50 for transporting pupils to Baltimore City Schools . 

The number of pupils transported at public expense included as a 
minimum 653 in Harford which had the smallest transportation 
program and as a maximum 5,089 pupils in Baltimore County. The 
transportation budget was at its lowest in Harford with an ex- 
penditure of $12,390 while Baltimore County's at the opposite 
extreme totalled $76,546. (See Table 173.) 

Cost Per Pupil Transported 

The 1933 average cost per county elementary pupil transported 
was $20.69, a reduction of $2.70 under 1932. The range in cost for 
each elementary pupil carried was from less than $18 in Baltimore and 



232 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Wicomico Counties to over $25 in Garrett, Calvert, St. Mary's, Kent, 
and Queen Anne's. Every county showed a decreased cost per ele- 
mentary pupil transported from 1932 to 1933. (See Table 174.) 

TABLE 174 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School 
at Public Expense in 1933, Compared with 1932. 



County 



County Average 

Garrett 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Howard 

Allegany... 

Charles 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Frederick 

Washington 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Prince George's. 

Montgomery. 

Anne Arundel. _.. 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 



Cost to Public 
per Pupil Trans- 
ported to Elemen- 
tary School 



1932 



$23.39 

38.39 
33.72 
33.89 
32.83 
30.14 
26.24 
30.33 
23.92 
25.19 
22.94 
21.33 
23.17 
29.12 
23.09 
25.66 
21.89 
25.11 
21.73 
21.06 
19.80 
21.19 
19.47 
17.89 



1933 



$20.69 

37.51 
30.29 
29.40 
27.84 
26.96 
23.49 
22.71 
21.73 
21.61 
21.38 
20.99 
20.98 
20.91 
20.87 
20.82 
20.39 
20.38 
19.60 
18.50 
18.21 
18.16 
16.50 
15.32 



County 



County Average 

St. Mary's 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Kent 

Frederick 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Howard 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Allegany 

Cecil..._ 

Prince George's.. 

Caroline 

Montgomery 

Washington... 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 

Harford 



Cost to Public 

per Pupil 
Transported to 
High School 



1932 



$25.21 

42.12 
39.21 
35.67 
38.00 
34.00 

|36.70 
24.31 
26.09 
26.62 
25.46 
24.02 

t21.90 
21.44 

f22.55 
29.61 
25.77 

f22.21 
21.34 

fl3.98 

|21.07 
21.57 

U9.46 

t 4.22 



1933 



$23.06 

35.89 
35.58 
33.58 
33.52 
29.92 

f29.72 
27.33 
25.58 
25.14 
24.12 
23.71 

122.51 
21.50 
21.38 
20.69 
20.43 
19.98 
19.62 

tl9.24 
17.79 
16.64 

tl3.96 
|4.06 



t Pupils transported to high school pay a part of the cost of transportation . 

The average cost to the public of transporting county high school 
pupils, $23.06, was a reduction of $2.15 under 1932, but was $2.37 
more than the cost of transporting an elementary pupil in spite of the 
fact that in five counties parents of high school pupils contributed 
toward the cost of transportation. The greater space requirements 
and the longer distances which high school pupils must travel be- 
cause high schools are much more widely distributed than elementary 
schools account for the excess cost for high school pupils. In all except 
seven counties, Garrett, Howard, Queen Anne's, Allegany, Wash- 
ington, Baltimore, and Harford, the expenditure from public funds 
was higher per high school than per elementary school pupil trans- 



Cost per Pupil Transported; Fer Cent of Pupils Transported 233 



ported. In Howard, Baltimore, and Harford, the amount contribu ed 
by parents brings down the cost for high school pupils. A comparison 
of cost to the public per high school pupil transported in 1932 and 
1933 indicates a reduction in the later year in all counties, except 
Charles, Howard, Carroll, and Montgomery. (See Table 174.) 

For further discussion of the cost per white elementary pupil 
transported, see pages 71 to 73, and per white high school pupil trans- 
ported, see pages 143 to 144. 

Since the State considers transportation costs as a part of the 
minimum program which it helps to finance in counties entitled to 
share in the Equalization Fund, a member of the staff of the State 
Department of Education studies the policies regarding transporta- 
tion as he visits each county. 

Per Cent of Pupils Transported to County Schools 

With 28,750 county white elementary pupils transported, 26.5 
per cent of all white elementary pupils, there was an increase of 
3,957 in number and 3.4 in per cent transported to school from 1932 
to 1933. Every county shared in the increase. Washington County 
with a large part of its population concentrated in Hagerstown and 



TABLE 175 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School 
at Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1933 







White 






















Colored 


COUNTY 


Elementary 


High 










Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 




28,750 


26.5 


10,209 


33.7 




*1,349 


*4 .7 


Carroll 


2,255 


46 .1 


845 


53.8 




81 


19.0 


Caroline. 


1,017 


47.2 


439 


54 .0 




226 


22.8 




517 


63 .2 


228 


91 .2 




173 


14.3 


Queen Anne's 


744 


47.4 


343 


66.3 




57 


7.3 


Charles... 


880 


59 .1 


361 


69.7 




45 


2 .6 




2,859 


45.6 


759 


44 .3 




*31 


*1 .0 




412 


38.5 


329 


99 .7 




77 


6.8 


Garrett 


843 


21 .1 


650 


65.1 








Worcester 


973 


43.3 


429 


53 .1 




8 


.5 




2,761 


36.7 


209 


10.4 




40 


4 .2 


Dorchester 


1,054 


33.9 


400 


48 .7 




81 


5.0 


Kent 


384 


26.8 


291 


53 .6 




114 


11 .9 


Cecil : 


806 


24 .7 


431 


37.7 




61 


13 .3 


Talbot 


686 


37.7 


290 


40.4 








Howard 


475 


24 .2 


235 


47.5 






Baltimore 


3,781 


22 .9 


1,148 


26 .9 




160 


8.5 


Montgomery 


1,812 


25.2 


444 


29 .2 




109 


5.9 


Somerset 


687 


29 .6 


312 
494 


44 .0 








Wicomico 


793 


22.7 


38 .1 






Allegany 


2,054 


16.8 


560 


16.2 




16 


4.6 


Washington 


1,257 


11 .3 


554 


22 .7 




13 


4 .0 


Prince George's 


1,115 


14 .3 


383 


19.0 




*34 


*1 .1 


Harford 


555 


13.4 


75 


5.6 




23 


2 .8 



* Includes 31 pupils from Anne Arundel and 34 pupils from Prince George's transported to the 
Bowie Normal Elementary School at state expense . 



234 1933 Report_of Maryland State Department of Education 

small towns transported the smallest proportion of its white ele- 
mentary pupils, 11.3 per cent, while at the opposite extreme the en- 
tirely rural Calvert County carried 63.2 per cent of its white ele- 
mentary pupils to consolidated schools. (See Table 175.) 

The 10,209 white high school pupils transported represented 33.7 
per cent of the total white high school enrollment, an increase of 1,190 
pupils and 1.7 per cent over 1932. Harford transported 75 white high 
school pupils, just over 5 per cent of its enrollment, while St. Mary's 
and Calvert carried over 90 per cent of their white high school en- 
rollment at county expense. Almost all of the counties increased the 
number and per cent of high school pupils transported, but Caroline, 
Montgomery, and Harford decreased both the number and per cent 
transported, and Dorchester showed a slight decrease in number and 
Anne Arundel in per cent transported. (See Table 175.) 

The 1,349 colored pupils transported included 4.7 of the total 
colored enrollment. These figures were an increase of 142 in number 
and .4 in per cent over 1932. Sixteen counties used public funds for 
transportation of colored pupils and among these counties the per 
cent carried varied from .5 of 1 per cent in Worcester to 22.8 per cent 
in Caroline. The transportation program for colored pupils was 
originally inaugurated in Caroline with aid from the Rosenwald Fund. 
Caroline, St. Mary's, Baltimore, and Montgomery were the only 
counties which transported fewer colored pupils in 1933 than in 1932. 
(See Table 175.) 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Is Provided 

Of 431 different schools to which county pupils were transported, 
260 were white elementary schools, 130 were white high schools, and 
41 were colored schools. Of the white elementary schools 40 were 
one-teacher schools and 66 had two teachers. The chief changes 
from the preceding year were the reduction of one-teacher schools 
and the increase in graded and colored schools to which children were 
transported. 

Number and Type of Vehicle Used for Transportation 

In the fall of 1933 there were 862 motor vehicles in use for the trans- 
portation of Maryland county children to public school at public 
expense. One of these was a motor boat used in Calvert County, 104 
were private cars used to transport small groups of children either to 
school or to meet school buses. In addition there were seven horse 
drawn vehicles used in Allegany, Dorchester, Garrett, Montgomery T 
and Queen Anne's. Of the 757 buses 58 were owned by seven counties, 
Montgomery having 30, Baltimore County 13, Calvert and Queen 
Anne's 4 each, Garrett and Harford 3 each, and Carroll 1. In ad- 
dition Prince George's owned 26 bodies of the buses in use. 

The total distance reported as covered one way by 790 of the 
vehicles was 9,181 miles or an average of 11.6 miles per vehicle. In 
addition the counties paid for the transportation of 2,014 pupils on 
public buses, 19 on trains, and 163 on electric cars. 



Per Cent Transported; Schools Having Transportation; Vehicles Used 235 

TABLE 176 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at County Expense, 
Year Ending July 31, 1933. 



COUNTY 



Schools with Elementary 
Grades Only 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



Schools 
Having 
Both 
High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 



Having 
High 
School 
Pupils 
Only 



Colored 
Schools 



Total Counties.. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. .. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick. 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's._ 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



143 

13 
18 
10 
2 
4 
5 



117 

alO 
1 

10 
1 
5 

10 
3 
5 
4 

b6 
5 
7 
5 
3 

c7 
9 
1 
1 
2 
6 

d7 
4 
5 



41 



*To Elementary Only 



Baltimore 1 

Frederick 4 

Harford 4 

Howard 1 

Washington 1 



a Includes Greene Street and Cresaptown Junior High Schools and Bruce Junior-Senior High School, 
b Includes Brunswick Junior-Senior High School. 

c Includes Bethesda-Chevy Chase and Takoma-Silver Spring Junior-Senior High Schools, 
d Includes South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High Schools. 



Capital Outlay 

Capital outlay in the counties in 1933 totalled $688,497. In the 
period since 1920 it was only in 1920 and 1921 that there was a small- 
er capital outlay than in 1933. Over 54 per cent of the total in 1933 
was invested in Anne Arundel County which spent $375,397. Balti- 
more, Carroll, Harford, Cecil, Montgomery, and Somerset had a 
capital outlay of amounts varying between $25,000 and $75,000, the 
funds in all except Baltimore and Cecil coming from the county levy 
and not from bond issues. (See Table 177.) 

Nearly 55 per cent of the capital outlay in the counties was used for 
white high schools, 41 per cent for white elementary schools, almost 
entirely for graded schools, and the remaining 4 per cent for colored 
schools. In Anne Arundel almost equal amounts were used for white 
elementary and high schools. Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil, Montgomery, 
and Harford also used funds for white high school buildings and 
Somerset, Baltimore, Harford, and Allegany invested at least $10,000 



236 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 













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Capital Outlay by Counties 1933 and 1920 to 1933 



237 




238 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in white elementary schools. The colored children in Charles and 
Anne Arundel benefited by the capital outlay investments in these 
two counties. (See Table 177.) 

In Baltimore City 46 per cent of the capital outlay of $1,267,320 
was for white elementary schools, 34 per cent for white junior high 
schools, and over 18 per cent for colored elementary schools. (See 
Table 177.) 

The total capital outlay is shown for each county for the period 
from 1920 to 1933 and for Baltimore City from 1922 to 1933. For the 
counties the aggregate capital outlay for the period is nearly 
$21,000,000. For Baltimore County the total is over $5,100,000, for 
Allegany, $2,443,900, for Montgomery, $2,372,000, for Washington, 
$1,818,115, for Anne Arundel $1,755,000, for Prince George's 
$1,514,000, and for Frederick $1,120,000, if those counties which 
have invested at least one million dollars during the period are listed. 
(See Table 178.) 

The years 1926, 1925, 1930, and 1931 were those showing the 
maximum capital outlay for the counties. In Baltimore City capital 
outlay investments reached their highest points in 1924, 1931, 1926, 
1923, and 1925. (See Table 178.) 

SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING, SEPTEMBER 1933 

In September, 1933, school bonds outstanding in 20 of the 23 coun- 
ties aggregated $15,632,000, about 75 per cent of the capital outlay 
from 1920 to 1933 included in Table 178. The 1933 amount of bonds 
outstanding was about $28,000 more than for the year preceding, 
due to increases in three counties, Frederick, Montgomery, and 
Wicomico. (See Table 179.) 

If comparison is made between Tables 178 and 179, it will be noted 
that in only Frederick and Montgomery Counties does the bonded 
indebtedness for September 1933 exceed the capital outlay invest- 
ment for the period from 1920 to 1933. (See Tables 178 and 179.) 

The assessable basis back of each dollar of school indebtedness in 
September 1933 is $59 for the counties, $47 for Baltimore City, and 
$51 for the entire State. For all except Frederick, Harford, Mont- 
gomery, and Worcester Counties the assessable basis behind each 
dollar of school bonds outstanding is either stationary or greater than 
it was the year before. For the 20 counties having school bonds 
outstanding, the assessable basis back of each dollar of indebtedness 
ranged between $50 or less in Montgomery, Allegany, Anne Arundel, 
Baltimore County, Baltimore City, and Frederick to over $300 in 
Cecil, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Harford, and Kent. (See Table 179.) 

Another way of expressing these same facts is by showing the per 
cent that indebtedness for school bonds is of the total assessable 
basis. On the average in the counties school bonds outstanding are 
1.7 per cent of the assessable basis, with a range among the 20 coun- 
ties having such bonds outstanding from less than one per cent in 
Kent, Somerset, Harford, Queen Anne's, Cecil, Caroline, and Howard 



Capital Outlay; School Bonds Outstanding 



239 



to 2 per cent or more in Frederick, Baltimore City, Baltimore County, 
Anne Arundel, Allegany, and Montgomery. The maximum in Mont- 
gomery is 2.9 per cent. A governmental unit is considered a good cre- 
dit risk if its total bonded indebtedness for all purposes is not in ex- 
cess of 7 per cent of its assessable wealth. (See Table 179.) 



TABLE 179 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, as of September, 1933 





1933 Assessable 


Assessable 


Per Cent that 




School 


Basis Taxable 


Basis Back 


Indebtedness 




Bonds 


at the 


of hach 


for School 


COTTNTY 


Outstanding 


Full Rate 


Dollar 






September, 


for County 


of School 


Total County 




1933 


Purposes 


Indebtedness 


Basis 


Total Counties ... 


$15,632,300 


$918,995,144 


$59 


1.7 


Allegany 


2,080,000 


76,459,477 


37 


2.7 


Anne Arundel 


1,284,833 


48,952,706 


38 


2.6 


Baltimore 


3,966,667 


171,129,440 


43 


2 .3 


Calvert 


qo nnn 


O, (UO, ooo 


71 


1.4 


Caroline..- 


72,000 


14,549,377 


202 


.5 


Carroll 




36,029,927 






Cecil _ 


110, uuu 


OOftfZOfOOO 


321 


.3 


Charles 


101,000 


9,801,916 


97 


1.0 


Dorchester 


320,000 


21,507,580 


67 


1 .5 


Frederick 


1,251,000 


63,139,194 


50 


2.0 


Garrett 




17,953,049 






Harford 


125,000 


52,981,387 


424 


.2 


Howard._ 


163,000 


17,934,534 


110 


.9 


Kent 


12,000 


16,207,881 


1,351 


.1 


Montgomery 


2,561,300 


87,185,389 


34 


2.9 


Prince George's... 


*1, 190,500 


65,263,583 


55 


1.8 


Queen Anne's._ 


48,000 


16,033,456 


334 


.3 


St . Mary's 




8,659,789 






Somerset 


28,000 


11,568,180 


413 


„ 


Talbot 


277,000 


20,560,530 


74 


1.3 


Washington 


1,247,000 


72,599,767 


58 


1.7 


Wicomico 


420,000 


27,660,613 


66 


1.5 


Worcester 


290,000 


20,189,830 


70 


1.4 


Baltimore City ... 


27,407,961 


1,290,942,475 


47 


2.1 


Entire State 


$43,040,261 


$2,209,937,619 


$51 


1.9 



* In addition $275,000 authorized but unissued will be pledged with U.S. Government if funds 
are advanced under the Public Works Program . 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

The value of property used by public school pupils in Maryland in 
1933 was over $66,000,000, more than $1,900,000 over the year 1932. 
The value of property in the counties was reported as $25,351,000 and 



240 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in the City as $40,680,000. The increase over 1932 for the counties 
was nearlv $742,000 and for the City over $1,172,000. (See Table 
180.) 

TABLE 180 
Value of School Property, 1922-1933 





v ci 1 . c 


of School Property 


Value Per Pupil 


H nrol Inn 


Year 
















Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 


Mary- 


Counties 


Baltimore 






City 


land 




City 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236,638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30,764,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765,517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,75° 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 



The 1933 valuation was 3.2 times that for 1922 in the State as a 
whole, 2.5 times for the counties and 3.9 for Baltimore City. (See 
Table 180.) 

The average valuation of school property per pupil enrolled in the 
Maryland public schools is $225, an increase of $3 over 1932. There 
has been a steady increase from the average of $82 in 1922 to $225 in 
1933. In the counties the average of $147 in 1933 is $1 more than the 
corresponding figure for 1932. The county valuation per pupil 
enrolled has increased from $68 in 1922 to a maximum of $147 in 
1933. In Baltimore City the 1933 valuation of $335 is $4 above 1932. 
Except for 1923, there has been a continuous increase in valuation 
per pupil enrolled in Baltimore City from $103 in 1922 to $335 in 1933. 
(See Table 180.) 

The most recent comparable figure for the United States in 1929-30 
gives $242 as the average value of school property per pupil enrolled. 
At that time the average for Maryland was $201. Even with the in- 
crease to $225 in 1933, Maryland does not equal the U. S. average 
of three years preceding. (See Table 180.) 

The value of school property used by white county public school 
pupils totalled $23,897,380, an increase of $678,167 over 1932. There 
were increases in valuation in eight counties — Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Calvert, Cecil, Harford, Howard, Kent, and Montgomery. 
The greatest decrease appeared in Carroll where a revaluation of 
buildings was made. (See Table 181.) 



Value of Property Used As Public Schools 



241 



The average value of $176 per county white pupil belonging was an 
increase of $1 over the preceding year. Only afewcounties,AnneArun- 
del, Calvert, Cecil, and Kent showed an increase in school property 
valuation per white pupil belonging. The large increase in Anne 
Arundel from 1932 to 1933 from $86 to $165 helped to raise the aver- 
age for the State and counteract the decrease found in 16 of the 
counties. (See Table 181 and Chart 43.) 



TABLE 181 

Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1933 





Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


COUN 1 i 




Average 


Value 




Average 


Value 




Value 


Number 


Per 


Value 


Number 


Per 






Belonging 


Pupil 




Belonging 


Pupil 


l oral counties 


$23,897,380 


135,773 


$176 


$1,453,360 


27,533 


$53 


Allegany 


3,174,655 


15,202 


209 


61,225 


343 


178 


Anne Arundel 




1 ,ouu 


lOO 


1 IOjOUU 


9 QQQ 




Baltimore 


5,407,700 


20,290 


267 


257,100 


1,875 


137 


Lalvert 


1 1 q r;n0 


1 030 


1 ID 


39 7^0 


1,1 io 


9Q 


Caroline 


358,000 


2,874 


125 


43,500 


943 


46 


Carroll. 


478,875 


6,352 


75 


15,700 


411 


38 


Cecil ;.. 


553,875 


4,301 


129 


16,900 


431 


39 


Charles 


250,500 


1,953 


128 


85,225 


1,648 


52 


Dorchester 


554,800 


3,850 


144 


67,400 


1,549 


44 


Ffpdpripk 


1,361,400 


9,362 


145 


62,250 


929 


67 


Garrett 


320,125 


4,908 


65 








Harford 


682,100 


5,421 


126 


34,600 


811 


43 


Howard... 


316,200 


2,417 


131 


17,500 


555 


32 


Kent 


174,900 


1,933 


90 


18,010 


938 


19 


Montgomery... 
Prince George's 


2,730,000 


8,684 


314 


106,050 


1,780 


60 


1,601,100 


9,617 


166 


168,550 


2,955 


57 


Queen Anne's.. 


234,450 


2,085 


112 


20,350 


779 


26 


St . Mary's. 


118,250 


1,354 


87 


22,050 


1,116 


20 


Somerset 


310,650 


2,948 


105 


39,750 


1,764 


23 


Talbot 


428,000 


2,472 


173 


47,100 


1,127 


42 


Washington .... 


2,101,250 


13,331 


158 


44,900 


327 


137 


Wicomico. 


867,900 


4,572 


190 


134,600 


1,581 


85 


Worcester.... 


458,050 


2,952 


155 


42,350 


1,557 


27 


Baltimore City 


135,279,589 


91,329 


386 


5,400,347 


25,235 


214 


Total State... 


59,176,969 


227,102 


261 


6,853,707 


52,768 


130 



t Excludes $680,146 for the administration building . 



The average value of property per white public school pupil be- 
longing ranged from less than $100 in Garrett, Carroll, St. Mary's, 
and Kent to over $200 in Montgomery, Baltimore, and Allegany. 
The valuation of $386 in Baltimore City was far greater than that for 
any county. (See Chart 43.) 



242 1933 Report of Maryland State Department op Education 

CHART 43 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE 
PER WHITE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



1933 




Carroll 
Garrett 

Balto. City 368 380 
State 253 258 



The valuation of property used by colored pupils in the counties, 
$1,453,360, was an increase of $63,650 over 1932. The average valua- 
tion per colored pupil belonging of $53 was an increase of $1 over 1932. 
For further discussion of the value of school property used by colored 
pupils, see Table 181 and pages 190 and 193. 



Value of School Property; Pupils Attending Adjoining 243 
County's Schools 



COUNTY RESIDENTS ATTENDING SCHOOL IN AN ADJOINING 
COUNTY OR STATE 

There were 1,507 Maryland county residents who attended schools 
in adjoining counties or states at public expense. Frederick, Balti- 
more, Howard, and Garrett Counties had the largest number of 
residents who attended schools in adjoining counties or Baltimore 
City. In the case of Baltimore County the policy of paying tuition to 
Baltimore City for the high school education of eligible colored ele- 
mentary school graduates instead of organizing several small high 
schools in the territory surrounding the City accounts for 90 of the 
172 resident boys and girls who leave Baltimore County for their 
schooling. (See Table 182.) 

TABLE 182 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own County During School 

Year 1932-33 



County 
in which 

Pupils 

from 
Adjoining 
Counties 
Attended 

School 



Total. 



Allegany... 
Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Frederick ... . 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent...... 

Montgomery 
Pr . George's 
Queen Anne's 
St . Mary's 
Somerset.... 

Talbot 

Washington .. 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Balto . City .. 
W . Virginia 

Delaware 

Pennsylvania 
Virginia 



Counties from Which Pupils Came Who Attended School 
in Adjoining Counties 



1507 

236 
42 
27 
90 
197 

6 
59 
59 
28 
14 
87 
58 
41 
164 
8:5 
15 
12 

6 
75 

2 
30 
90 
29 
23 
21 
13 



Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St . Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


West Virginia 


Pennsylvania 


Delaware 


Virginia 


28 


88 


172 


21 


25 


12 


32 


52 


184 


139 


11 


170 


3 


23 


32 


72 


43 


25 


59 


49 


11 


23 


129 


78 


24 


2 




















99 




















9 






108 


20 


























42 






























7 






9 












11 












































52 














16 


















22 








7 










134 






43 




13 






























































6 


































16 




43 




























8 


















3 








40 








8 






11 










































8 


9 








14 


















































12 


61 




8 


















6 
































6 


















50 


















2 




















17 






8 






16 
























69 










17 








77 




1 




























21 














3 












59 


























15 












































































4 


8 








































6 




































27 




























13 


35 














































2 








































25 






3 










2 






90 






























































29 












































6 




























4 


13 










4 
















6 


11 
































13 








































































1 



























Allegany, Carroll, and Prince George's give instruction to the 
largest number of non-residents from adjoining counties. The policy 
regarding charges for instruction of non-residents is contained in the 
revision of By-law 11. 

The rate of charges for pupils attending school in adjoining coun- 
ties shall be as follows: 



244 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

A. Rate of Charges: 

1. Tuition charges shall be 60 per cent of the average State cost, exclusive 
of general control and capital outlay for respective types of schools for the 
preceding school year, provided no tuition charges shall be collected by an 
Equalization Fund County since such costs are covered in the Equalization 
Fund computation. 

2. Capital outlay charges for every county shall be $15 additional per child 
for elementary pupils, and $20 per child for high school pupils; one half 
of the respective amounts for colored pupils. This shall be budgeted under 
"tuition." 

3. Transportation charges, if furnished for pupils coming from an adjoining 
county by the receiving county with the approval of the sending county, 
shall be at cost, provided no such transportation charges shall be col- 
lected by an Equalization Fund County from any other county. 

B. Adjustment of Tuition Charges in Equalization Fund Counties: 

1. Tuition charges paid by Equalization Fund Counties shall be considered 
as a proper expenditure in computing the Equalization Fund. 

2. Capital outlay charges shall not be considered as receipts or expenditures 
in calculating the Equalization Fund. 

3. Transportation charges paid by an Equalization Fund County for pupils 
going to an adjoining county shall be considered a proper maintenance 
expenditure in computing the Equalization Fund. 

COUNTY LEVIES FOR 1933-34 
County Levies for All Purposes and for Schools 

The county levies for 1933-34 or for the calendar year 1934, which 
totaled $10,729,339, included $4,179,202 for school current expenses, 
and $1,135,326 for school debt service and capital outlay. Payments 
of principal and interest on school bonds outstanding are included in 
the latter amount, whether they are paid directly by county boards of 
education or by the county commissioners. The total for all school 
purposes was therefore $5,315,528. The county levy for roads, 
bridges and ferries made in sixteen counties was $1,073,596, leaving 
$4,340,215 available for all other county purposes. (See Table 183.) 

The aggregate of the county levies for 1933-34 is lower by 
$3,878,000 than for the year preceding. The reduction in school 
current expenses is $1,741,000, in school debt service and capital 
outlay just over $42,000, making the total decrease for schools 
$1,783,000. The reduction in county levies for roads, bridges, and 
ferries totals $1,996,600, leaving $98,400 as the decrease in county 
levies for purposes other than schools and roads. 

How the County Levies for Schools Were Reduced 

The reductions in the county levies were made possible because of 
the adoption of the following policies: 

1. Increase in State aid given to roads and schools. 

2. Decreases in salaries of teachers and school officials. 

3. Elimination of positions because of decrease in enrollment or 
transportation of children to consolidated schools. 

4. Elimination of positions which became vacant the work of 
which could be temporarily cared for by increasing the size 
of classes or by giving heavier assignments to the remaining 
members of the teaching staff. 



School Attendants Between Adjoining Counties; County Levies 1933-34 245 



TABLE 183 
County Tax Budgets, 1933-34 



COUNTY 



Total Counties.. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel- 
Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's.... 

St . Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico. 

Worcester 



Total 
County 
Levy 



abde 

$10,729,339 

1,102,319 
*874,824 
*2,339,310 
87,248 
al57,550 
531,953 
352,790 
98,214 
252,026 
b*646,980 
198,747 
*482,241 
204,852 
dl91,993 
906,723 
670,216 
141,650 
e81,323 
134,088 
167,613 
636,375 
273,698 
196,606 



COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR 



SCHOOLS 



Current 
Expenses 



$4,179,202 

468,616 
*292,491 
*611,598 
28,500 
70,000 
194,195 
154,415 
45,225 
100,410 
*291,104 
84,018 
*179,500 
65,557 
75,774 
373,548 
324,115 
76,048 
40,584 
54,091 
92,840 
335,631 
126,757 
94,185 



Debt 
Service 



$1,096,099 



°161 

*93 
*292 
°7 
°12 
2 
°10 
°8 
°24 
*°73 
1 

*°18 
°10 
°6 
°116 
c91 
°9 
°2 
f5 
°13 
91 
°20 
g21 



562 
,750 
,867 
120 
,188 
,900 
,625 
,027 
,420 
,140 
,326 
,125 
,335 
675 
,539 
,440 
275 
777 
,278 
,550 
,611 
.900 
,66U 



Capital 
Outlay 



e$40,227 



*500 
*9,500 



8,775 
9,268 
845 



*4,896 



3,000 
el f "060 



643 
1,300 



Total 



e$5,315,528 

630,178 
*386,741 
*913,965 

35,620 

82,188 
205870 
174^08 

54,097 
124,830 
*369,140 

85,344 
*199,125 

75,892 

82,449 
490,087 
418,555 

85,323 
e43,361 

59,369 
107,033 
428,542 
147,657 
115.854 



Roads 
Bridges 

and 
Ferries 



$1,073,596 

135,625 
*131,267 
*458,680 
13,100 



29,500 
10,000 
250 
6,360 

*28,420 
16,500 

*92,650 
32,872 
17,100 
46,264 
54,108 



900 



Other 
County 
Purposes 



abd 

$1,340,215 

336,516 
h*356,816 
*966,665 
38,528 
a75,362 
296,583 
168,482 
43,867 
120,836 
b*249,420 
96,903 
*190,466 
96,088 
d92,444 
370,372 
197,553 
56,327 
37,962 
73,819 
60,580 
207,833 
126,041 
80,752 



* For Calendar year 1934 . 

° Paid directly by county commissioners . 

a Excludes $70,000 for outstanding notes to carry items included in preceding levies . 

b Includes $^5,000 levied in 1933 for schools, unpaid at close of year and relevied in 1934 . 

c All except $5,560 paid directly by county commissioners . 

d Excludes $58,370 due on notes or on 1932-33 levy for which uncollected taxes are available . 
e The estimated receipt of $1,050 from tongers' licenses to be used for school capital outlay is ex- 
cluded from the totals . 
f All except $2,453 paid directly by county commissioners . 
g All except $2,500 paid directly by county commissioners . 

5. Replacement of experienced teachers on maximum salaries 
who resigned by inexperienced teachers with minimum salaries. 

6. Lowering the costs of transportation by reducing allowances for 
contracts which expired. 

7. Cutting to the barest minimum appropriations for books and 
materials of instruction and repairs to buildings and equip- 
ment. 

An explanation of the amount and method of distribution of ad- 
ditional State aid for schools is given on pages 8 to 13. 



Reductions in the School Salary Budgets 

The number of teachers employed in each county in October, 1933, 
in white high, white elementary and colored schools and the changes 
revealed by a comparison with corresponding figures for the preced- 
ing year indicate a net decrease in the 23 counties of 4 white high 
school teachers, 12 white elementary, and 13 colored teachers. Sev- 



246 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Reduction in Teachers and Salaries, Oct. 1932 to 1933, and in County £47 

Levies 

eral counties which are growing rapidly found it necessary to increase 
their teaching staffs to provide properly for the additional children 
enrolled. (See Table 184.) 

The aggregate of salaries paid teachers employed in October, 1933, 
in white elementary, white high, and colored schools is given as well as 
reductions from corresponding totals for the preceding year. The 
reductions shown are net figures which reflect not only decreases in 
salary, but also changes due to additions to or deductions from the 
number of positions in the three types of schools. The net reduction 
between October, 1932 and 1933 due to salary cuts and decreases in 
positions totalled $197,599 in white high schools, $333,073 in white 
elementary schools and $59,217 in colored schools, a total reduction 
of $589,889. These amounts represented reductions in expenditures 
for salaries of 9.6 in white high, 9.8 in white elementary schools, and 
10.7 per cent in colored schools. Whenever the per cent of reduction 
in a county amounts to more than 10 or 11 per cent, it is due not only 
to salary cuts but also to elimination of positions and to filling vacan- 
cies due to resignation of experienced teachers receiving the maximum 
salaries with inexperienced teachers having the minimum salary. 
(See Table 184.) 

Reduction in County Levy for Roads, Bridges and Ferries 

Because the State Roads Commission took over the services for- 
merly paid for from the county levy, every county except Allegany 
levied less on account of roads in 1933-34 than for the year preceding. 
The entire road levy in Allegany, however, was for the purpose of 
paying the principal and interest due on road bonds outstanding. 
Seven counties made no levy at all for roads, bridges, and ferries, 
and two counties levied less than $1,000 for these purposes. (See 
next to last column in Table 183.) 

County Levy for Purposes Other than Roads and Schools 

Although the 23 counties as a whole levied less for county pur- 
poses other than schools and roads than they did the year before, 
there were nine counties in which the levy for other purposes was 
greater than for the year preceding. A few of these counties rec- 
ognized the need for county support of the unemployment relief 
program. The counties levying more for "other " purposes in 1933-34 
than for the year preceding were Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, 
Frederick, Harford, Howard, Kent, Prince George's, St. Mary's, and 
Washington. (See Table 183.) 

Per Cent of Levy for Counties and Incorporated Towns and Districts Used for 

Schools 

In a number of the counties the levy for the county is not the only 
amount levied, because the incorporated towns and cities, districts, 
and other areas in the county also raise taxes to carry on various 
functions of government. Baltimore County is the only one in which 
there are no incorporated towns for which additional levies are re- 



248 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Per Cent of Levies Within County Limits Used for Schools 



249 



quired. If the amounts levied for the towns and districts are com- 
bined with the county levy, it is possible to divide the school levy by 
this grand total to find out the per cent of the total levy for govern- 
mental activities within the county limits devoted to school current 
expense and all school purposes. These percentages are shown in 
columns 6 to 8 in Table 185 and the rank of the counties in per cent 
of levy used for school purposes is given in columns 9 and 10. (See 
Table 185.) 

For 1933-34 the average per cent of all levies appropriated for 
school current expenses in the 23 counties, 32.2, was lower by 3 per 
cent than for the year preceding. The range in per cent of amounts 
levied for all governmental purposes devoted to school current ex- 
pense varied from a minimum of 26.2 per cent in Baltimore County 
to a maximum of 48.5 per cent in Queen Anne's. If to school current 
expenses the levy for school debt service and capital outlay is added, 
the average per cent that the levy for all school purposes is of the 
total levy for all governmental purposes is 40.9 per cent in 1933, a 
decrease of 1.3 under the figure for the year before. The smallest 
percentage used for all school purposes appeared in Somerset with 
34.4 per cent, while the maximum of 54.4 per cent was found in 
Queen Anne's. (See Table 185.) 

Because of the additional State aid for schools and roads which 
affect the county levies for 1933-34 for the first time, the proportion 
of the total levy for governmental purposes used for schools shows 
marked change from the situation of the year preceding in a number of 
counties. Caroline, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Talbot, 
and Wicomico devoted a larger per cent of their governmental levies 
to schools in 1933-34 than for the year before. Contrariwise Allegany, 
Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil, Frederick, Harford, Howard, Prince 
George's, and Washington exhibit a reduction in the proportion of 
funds set aside for school purposes. (See Table 185.) 

DECREASE IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes 
registered its first decrease for the counties as a group in 1933, a 
decrease of $4,710,000. The assessable basis for eight years during 
the period from 1923 to 1933 is given for each county and Baltimore 
City in Table 186. 

The amount and per cent of decrease and increase in basis from 
1932 to 1933 are given in Table 1, pages 7 to 8. Baltimore City showed 
its second consecutive decrease in assessable basis, the reduction from 
1932 to 1933 totalling $16,813,000 and from 1931 to 1933 amounting 
to $60,460,000, decreases of 1.2 and 4.5 per cent, respectively. (See 
Table 186.) 

Analysis of the 1933 assessable basis indicates for the 23 counties 
a decrease of $3,484,000 or .4 of 1 per cent in the assessment made 
by the county commissioners on real and tangible personal property 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes, decreases in assessments 
made by the State Tax Commission of $696,000 or 8.4 per cent on 



250 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 185 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 

Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1925 


1927 


*1928 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 




no A 


$ i Zo,Uo4 


<oi,y / 1 


$ooo,5Uo 


$yl7,677 


AftOO o AO 

$923,203 


$923,705 


$918,99 <> 




CO ogc 


(3,1 18 


7fl Q1T 
1 0,00 i 


oU, (15 


81,911 


80,971 


78,856 


76,459 






OD,yOD 


A A KCK 
44, ODD 


47,544 


48,106 


48,553 


49,014 


48,953 




1 f\A OQO 


124,971 




157,654 


1 C A O AO 


lo7,ii42 


170,164 


171,129 


Calvert. 


4,427 


4,623 


4,935 


5,305 


5,546 


5,560 


5,665 


5,704 


Caroline 


14,027 


14,616 


14,761 


15,283 


15,170 


15,156 


14,830 


14,549 


Carroll 


33,382 


34,183 


35,636 


39,875 


36,537 


36,265 


36,198 


36,030 


Cecil 


23,189 


24,700 


25,628 


30,408 


35,916 


36,392 


36,819 


36,924 


Charles 


8,394 


8,854 


9,315 


9,938 


10,162 


10,103 


9,851 


9,802 


Dorchester 


18,987 


19,628 


20,439 


21,918 


22,495 


22,188 


21,944 


21,508 


Frederick 


51,248 


54,941 


57,655 


65,234 


65,244 


64,670 


63,928 


63,139 


Garrett 


16,303 


19,556 


18,903 


21,653 


21,526 


20,838 


20,242 


17,953 


Harford 


28,580 


29,487 


29,561 


39,763 


50,846 


51,149 


51,779 


52,981 




15,670 


15,682 


16,539 


18,063 


17,956 


18,666 


18,714 


17,935 


Kent 


14,519 


14,777 


14,956 


16,162 


16,108 


16,138 


16,153 


16,208 


Montgomery 


45,503 


50,676 


60,239 


77,889 


82,615 


84,580 


86,155 


87,185 


Prince George's.. 


33,651 


37,776 


42,878 


59,312 


62,757 


63,301 


64,331 


65,264 


Queen Anne's 


14,793 


15,024 


14,803 


16,692 


16,536 


16,247 


16,378 


16,033 


St . Mary's 


7,162 


7,825 


7,809 


8,289 


8,371 


8,590 


8,692 


8,660 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,307 


11,972 


12,392 


12,150 


12,055 


11,963 


11,568 


Talbot 


16,927 


17,524 


18,048 


20,478 


20,486 


21,534 


20,509 


20,560 


Washington 


62,570 


68,281 


72,867 


72,908 


75,316 


75,322 


73,569 


72,600 


Wicomico 


20,394 


21,379 


24,109 


25,092 


26,250 


26,487 


27,019 


27,661 


Worcester 


16,579 


17,580 


18,284 


20,941 


21,365 


21,196 


20,932 


20,190 


Baltimore City 


902,208 


1,083,959 1 


,230,198 


1,255,978 


1,328,779 


L,351,403 


L,307,756 1,290,943 


State 


$1,563,932$1,810,023$2,012.169$2,139,486$2,246,456$2,274,606$2,231,461$2,209,938 



* Includes reassessment figures 

railroad rolling stock, of $2,851,000 or 13.2 per cent on ordinary 
business corporations, but an increase of the Commission's assess- 
ment on domestic share or public service corporations of $2,340,000 
or 11.8 per cent. (See Table 187.) 

Of the total basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes 
in the 23 counties, 95 per cent is made up of the real and tangible 
personal property assessed by the county commissioners, leaving the 
amount assessed by the State Tax Commission as only 5 per cent of 
the total. 

Montgomery and Prince George's Counties were the only counties 
which showed an increase from 1932 to 1933 in the assessment of real 
and personal property. Every unit in the State registered a decrease 
in railroad rolling stock. All, except Carroll, Cecil, Harford, and 
Baltimore City, had decreases in the assessment of ordinary business 
corporations, while all, except Allegany, Anne Arundel, Frederick, 
and Worcester, reported increases in the assessment of public service 
corporations. (See Table 187.) 

TAX RATES FOR 1933-34 

The county tax rates for school current expenses, obtained by di- 
viding the county levy for 1933-34, Table 183, by the 1933 assessable 
basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes reflect for the first 
time the increased State aid made available through the fund of 



1933 Assessable Basis; 1933-34 County 



Tax Rates 



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252 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



$1,500,000 distributed on the basis of population according to the 
1930 federal census for the sole purpose of reducing county levies for 
schools, also the lowering of the requirement from 67 cents to 47 
cents for participation in the Equalization Fund and the salary cuts 
for teachers and lowered expenditures for other school items. The 
average county tax rate for school current expense in 1933-34 is 45.5 
cents compared with 64.1 cents a year ago, and for all school purposes 
including also debt service and capital outlay the average 1933-34 
rate is 57.8 cents compared with 76.8 cents a year ago. (See Table 
188 and also pages 9 to 13 for a discussion of the way in which re- 
ductions were brought about.) 

TABLE 188 

County School Tax Rates and Total County Rate, 1933-34 



County 



1933-34 County School Tax Rate for 
School 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Total 



Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1933-34 



County Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundelf- 

Carroll* 

Calvert* 

Prince George's. 

Caroline* 

Queen Anne's*... 

St . Mary's* 

Somerset* 

Kent* 

Garrett* 

Dorchester* 

Worcester* 

Washington 

Frederickf 

Charles* 

Wicomico* 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Howard 

Baltimoref 

Harfordj 



$ .455 

.613 
.597 
.539 
.499 
.497 

.482 
.474 
a. 469 
a. 468 
a. 468 

a. 468 
a. 467 

a. 467 
.462 
.461 

b. 461 
a. 459 

.452 
.428 
.417 

.366 
.357 
.340 



$ .119 

.212 
.192 
.008 
.125 
.140 

.084 
.058 
.032 
.046 
.041 

.007 
.113 
.107 
.126 
.116 

.082 
.075 
.066 
.134 
.029 

.058 
.171 
.034 



$ .004 



.001 
.024 



.005 



.002 
.008 

.009 



.003 



.025 



.006 
.003 



$ .578 

.825 
.790 
.571 
.624 
.642 

.566 
.532 
.501 
.514 
.509 

.475 
.580 
.574 
.590 
.585 

.552 
.534 
.521 
.562 
.471 

.424 
.534 
.377 



$1 .17 

1 .20 
cl .81 
1 .00 
1.50 
1.08 

.73 
.88 
.94 
1 .00 
.93 

1 .06 
1 .05 
1 .00 
.85 
.90 

1.00 
.95 
.78 
dl .04 
.95 

1 .00 
1.18 
.95 



* Received equalization fund in 1933-34 . 
t Calendar year 1934 . 

a County commissioners have agreed to levy 
47 cents on entire basis . 



b Excludes receipts from Indian Head . 
c Average rate — range $1.39 to $2.58 . 
d Average rate — range $ .97 to $1.65. 



County School Tax Rates; Parent-Teacher Associations 



253 



Total published county tax rates in the counties averaged $1.17, a 
decrease of 42 cents from 1932-33. The 1933-34 rates and reductions 
from 1932-33 in individual counties are shown in Table 2, page 10, 
and explanations for the reductions are given on pages 9 to 13. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Active parent- teacher associations were found in 556 or 59.1 per 
cent of the county white public schools in 1932-33, a gain in per cent 
of 2.9 over 1931-32. The parent- teacher association is one of the most 
important agencies for interpreting to the school patrons the aims and 
needs of the schools. Encouragement and support of progressive 
school policies may be counted on from parents who take the interest 
in the schools their children attend required by active participation 
in the work of the P. T. A. 

Although the number of white schools reported as having parent- 
teacher associations since 1924 has not increased, chiefly because 
there has been a reduction in the number of one-teacher schools each 
year, the per cent of white schools having P. T. A.'s has grown 
steadily for ten years from 31 in 1924 to 59 in 1933. (See Table 189.) 

TABLE 189 

Number and Per Cent of Pareni-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1933 

Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 

Year Number Per Cent 

1924 490 30 .8 

1925 623 40 .6 

1926 „ 638 42 .8 

1927 649 45.1 

1928. - 617 45 .4 

1929. _ 588 45 .8 

1930. _ 576 47 .7 

1931. _ 613 54 .7 

1932. _ 571 56 .2 

1933 556 59 .1 

There are three banner counties, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and 
Caroline, in which every white school has a parent-teacher associa- 
tion. Frederick has an association in 90 per cent of its schools and 
Calvert has organizations in 7 out of its 8 white schools. There is 
little change in the proportion of schools having associations in Gar- 
rett, Washington, and St. Mary's which have less than 20 per cent 
of their schools with parent-teacher associations. (See Chart 44.) 

TABLE 190 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 
School Year 1932-33 

Parent-Teacher Associations 
White Schools Having Number Per Cent 

One Teacher.__ 137 33 .7 

Two Teachers 120 65 .2 

Three or More Teachers 281 86 .7 

All Flementarv 538 58 .9 



264 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 44 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS, 1932 and 1933 

County 

Total and . 
Co. Average £> ' 1 

A. Arundel 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Wicomico 
Charles 
Allegany 
Pr. George's 45 
Queen Anne's 14 
Somerset 
Howard 
Harford 
Worcester 
Dorchester 
Carroll 
Cecil 
Garrett 
Washington 
St. Mary's 




There seems to be a close correlation between the size of a school 
and the existence of a parent-teacher association in it. Only one- 
third of the white one-teacher schools had organizations, while 
nearly two-thirds of the two- teacher schools had them, and this was 
the case for nearly seven-eighths of the schools with three or more 
teachers. (See Table 190.) 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY FUNDS 

In the five counties which sent in reports on school funds received 
during 1932-33 from other than State and county sources, gross re- 



P. T. A.'s; Receipts prom Sources other than County Funds 255 



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Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Expenditures from Other than County Funds; County School 257 
Administration 



ceipts were $153,748, a decrease of $34,000 under receipts frotn the 
corresponding counties in 1931-32. Since expenses were $15,000 
lower, net receipts were $19,000 less. (See Table 192.) 

Gross receipts from cafeterias and lunches, from P. T. A.'s, athletics, 
debates, and declamations, musical and radio programs were the 
only ones registering an increase over receipts for 1931-32. Cafeterias 
and school lunches account for 41 per cent of the gross receipts. It 
will be noted that all reporting counties, except St. Mary's, had 
cafeterias and school lunches as a major source of their receipts. 
(See Table 192.) 

The use to which net receipts were put shows that 27.5 per cent of 
the disbursements were used for school lunches, with physical educa- 
tion, libraries, buildings and grounds having expenditures ranking 
next in importance. School lunches assumed a much larger impor- 
tance, especially in Baltimore County, than the year before, partly 
because of the continuance of the depression, but also because of the 
increase in the number of consolidated schools. 

These figures indicate that there are a number of activities which 
the schools need to carry on which are not financed by State and 
county funds. The urgency of the need is so great that the community 
is willing to finance these supplementary needs in addition to public 
taxation for schools. (See Tables 192 and 193.) 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 
County Superintendents and Their Salaries 
The salary of the Maryland county superintendents as fixed by the 
State minimum salary schedule is based upon size of teaching staff 
and years of experience. Salaries for superintendents, supervising 
and helping teachers, and attendance officers are shown in Table 194. 

TABLE 194 

Minimum Salaries of Administrative and Supervisory Staff in Effect Since 

September, 1922 

Reduced Salaries for the Period August 1, 1933, to July 31, 1935, 
Are Shown in Bold Face 

Years of Experience 

Type of Position 1-4 5-7 8+ 

County Superintendent 

Less than 150 Teachers $2500— $2040 

2175— 2657.80* 
150-199 Teachers 2940 

2557.80* 

200 or More Teachers 3540 

3044.40* 

Supervising Teacher..... .... 2040 

1795.20 

Helping Teacher 1440 

1281.60 

Attendance Officer 1200 

1068 

* Salaries not reduced in accordance with the provisions of section 224 of the laws of 1933, but 
by gentlemen's agreement. 

In accordance with Chapter 224 of the laws of 1933 salaries of super- 
pervising and helping teachers, attendance officers, and teachers had 



3240 

2786.40* 

3840 

3264* 

2340 

2059.20 

1740 

1548.60 



$3540 
3044.40* 
4140 
3519* 
2640 
2296.80 
2040 
1795.20 



258 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the following percentage reductions for the period from September 1, 
1933 to August 31, 1935: 

Salaries under $1,200 shall be reduced by 10 per cent. 
Salaries from $1,200 to $1,799 shall be reduced by 11 per cent. 
Salaries from $1,800 to $2,399 shall be reduced by 12 per cent. 
Salaries from $2,400 to $2,999 shall be reduced by 13 per cent. 
Salaries from $3,000 to $3,599 shall be reduced by 14 per cent. 
Salaries cf $3,600 and over shall be reduced by 15 per cent. 

Nine counties had fewer than 150 teachers, five had more than 150 
and fewer than 200 teachers, and the remaining counties had 200 or 
more teachers. Several counties which would have had more than 
200 teachers had they not carried forward a policy for school con- 
solidation and transportation, have replaced the problems involved 
in having a large teaching staff with new problems connected with the 
transportation program. 

A number of counties pay the superintendents salaries in excess of 
the minimum schedule in which the State shares two-thirds. The 
salaries paid in 1932-33 ranged from $2,926 to $7,533. 

The only recent change in the staff of the county superintendents 
resulted from the sudden untimely death in November, 1933, of 
Mr. Woodland C. Phillips, Superintendent of Schools in Howard 
County. Mr. Herbert C. Brown, who had been principal of the 
Ellicott City High School, was appointed superintendent of Howard 
County. 

Superintendents' Conferences 

Conferences of the superintendents were held on October 7, 1932, 
February 16 and 27, and April 21, 1933. 

In connection with awarding State scholarships it was recommend- 
ed that students not be admitted to the examinations who do not 
meet the scholarship requirements for unconditional entrance to any 
State aided institution. 

The recommendations of the Attorney General with respect to 
procedure in dismissing teachers were discussed. Several forms for 
use in this connection have been prepared. The right to demand a 
hearing in case of dismissal applies only to teachers who have been in 
the service of a county for more than two years. The refusal of a 
superintendent to recommend renewal of a certificate is equivalent to 
dismissal as his is the only recommendation accepted by the State 
Superintendent. Whether the closing of a school or the reduction in 
number of teachers required due to decrease in enrollment afforded 
legal grounds for dismissal has not been tested in the courts, but it is 
considered that it would be against public policy for a board to be 
restrained from closing a school and dropping a teacher on these 
grounds. 

In connection with transportation problems, there was discussion 
of the advisability of making general rules, (1) fixing the minimum 
distance for transporting elementary and high school pupils at public 
expense before the cost of such transportation will be included in the 



County Superintendents; Administrative Conferences 259 



minimum program; (2) fixing the amount for bus insurance which 
will be included in the minimum program. The optimum length of 
term for transportation contracts was also discussed. The question 
of the economy of county owned buses versus those contracted for 
was discussed by superintendents who have both types of plan in 
operation. 

A discussion of various methods of financing the State school 
program and of new forms of taxation was brought up in connection 
with the State public school budgets for 1934 and 1935. The report of 
the Governor's Tax Commission headed by Dr. Jacob Hollander 
recommending further taxation on race track bets and of the Tax 
Committee of the Maryland Farm Bureau Federation suggesting 
income taxation or a sales tax were presented. 

The items to be included in the minimum program, the financing 
of salaries of teachers of vocational education who receive a Federal 
subsidy, lowering of the county tax required for participation in the 
Equalization Fund, possible plans for financing various proportions of 
the cost of the minimum program at various rates of participation by 
the county were all discussed at length. 

Mr. Cook reviewed the following statement on reduction in school 
costs: 

By reason of a policy of retrenchment in county school expenses 
begun one year ago by county school officials, with the full coopera- 
tion and approval of the State Department of Education, more than 
$300,000* of the 1932-33 State school budget will be returned to the 
State Treasury as an unexpended balance, and the State school bud- 
get requests for 1934 and 1935 will be upwards of $450,000 less than 
the amount contained in the 1933 budget, provided there is little or 
no reduction in the taxable basis in the Equalization-Fund counties. 
This will be made possible by 

1. Eliminating all new school activities that were provided for in the current 
budget, as well as in the budgets for 1934 and 1935. 

2. Making no extensions of present school activities that will necessitate 
additional expenditures. 

3. Providing no new teachers for increased enrollments in the elementary 
and high schools in the counties except in extraordinary cases. 

4. Reducing teacher replacements whenever possible. 

5. Consolidation of small elementary and small high schools, wherever 
possible, when by so doing costs per pupil can be decreased and better 
educational advantages provided. 

6. Better organization of school transportation routes, so that larger and 
fewer school buses will be used, and by awarding longer term contracts 
for these bus routes on a strictly competitive basis to the lowest respon- 
sible bidders. 

7. Eliminating salaries above the State minimum salary schedule, beginning 
September, 1933, in counties sharing in the Equalization Fund, unless the 
County Commissioners levy more than 67 cents to provide for these sala- 
ries. 

8. Using every opportunity to reduce school expenditures that do not directly 
contribute to the immediate efficiency of the schools. 

* Over $386,000 was returned unused. See page 7. 



260 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The conferences on February 16 and 27 were for the purpose of 
discussing school legislation which had been presented to the Legisla- 
ture of 1933 and proposed plans for financing the State Public School 
Budget. 

The meeting held on April 21 was for the purpose of summarizing 
the most important provisions of the 1933 school legislation. 

Important Maryland School Legislation of 1933 

The legislation of 1933 made the following important changes in the 
Maryland School Laws as they affect the counties as a whole: 

Sections 90, 145, 195, 202, 203 — For a two-year period from October 
1, 1933, to September 30, 1935, the minimum salaries of teachers and 
school officials are reduced from 10 to 15 per cent. All salary increases 
provided in the minimum salary schedules are suspended and not effective 
for this two-year period. (Chapter 224.) 

Section 145 — For the period from October 1, 1933, to September 30, 
1935, the employment of more than one supervising teacher for white 
elementary schools in each county is optional with the County Board of 
Education and the Board of County Commissioners. (Chapter 224.) 

Section 204 — The cost of the minimum current expense program 
used in calculating the Equalization Fund is defined as including, in ad- 
dition to the minimum salaries divided by .76, the necessary costs of 
transporting pupils to public elementary schools and not less than one- 
half of the cost of transportation of pupils to public high schools, when 
such transDortation is approved by the State Superintendent of Schools. 
(Chapter 261.) 

The counties sharing in the Equalization Fund are required to levy 
and collect for school current expenses an annual tax of not less than 47 
cents on each $100 of assessable property. From 1922 to 1933 the tax 
required has been 67 cents. (Chapter 261.) 

Section 56 — The minimum tax which may be levied in any county 
for school current expense is 30 cents. It was previously 34 cents. This 
reduction in county taxation is possible because of additional State aid, 
totalling $1,500,000, made available to the 23 counties for distribution on 
the basis of the 1930 Federal census. (Chapter 226.) 

An equal amount, $1,500,000, is made available to Baltimore City 
for the purpose of paying the interest and principal on bonds issued for 
Emergency Relief of the unemployed in Baltimore City and if not needed 
for that purpose for the reduction of direct taxes in the city. (Chapter 
597.) 

Section 157 — The legislature gives the State Board of Education 
authority to fix uniform tuition charges and fees at the normal schools for 
white students. (Chapter 225.) 

Sections 59 A, 59B — For any member of a County Board of Education 
or for the county superintendent of schools to be interested for profit in 
any contract or purchase to which the County Board of Education is a 
part is unlawful. The making of contracts or purchases involving more 
than $1,000 by the Board of Education without advertising for bids is 
prohibited. This does not apply to purchase of books, other materials of 
instruction and emergency repairs. (Chapter 151.) 

THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM IN THE COUNTIES* 
Number of Certificates Issued 
The number of certificates of the various kinds which have been 
issued during the period from December 1 to November 30 in the 
years 1932-33, 1931-32, and 1921-22 are shown in Table 195. 

* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 



1933 School Legislation; The County Certification Program 261 



The figures for 1932 and 1933 reflect the smaller turnover in the 
public schools and the policy of refraining, whenever possible, from 
replacing teachers who have resigned. The Advanced First Grade 
Certificates, based on three years of normal school training, were 
issued in the fall of 1932 for the first time. The number of these 
certificates issued in 1932-33 is more than double those issued in 
the preceding year. The number of first grade certificates, now issued 
only to teachers in service who bring their credits up to the require- 
ment and to colored teachers, was less than a third of the number is- 
sued during 1931-32. 

TABLE 195 



Grade of Certificate 



Administration and Supervision 

Administration and Supervision ._ 

Elementary Supervision 

Supervision Special Subjects 

Helping Teacher 

Attendance Officer..... 

High School 

Principal 

Academic 

Special 

Vocational.... 

Non-Public 

Elementary 

Principal 

Advanced First Grade 

First... 

Second. 

Third 

Non-Public First 



Number of Certificates Issued 
December 1 to November 30 



1921-22 


1931-32 


1932-33 


4 


2 


1 


9 


4 


4 








1 


10 

















7 


4 


3 


157 


102 


78 


30 


45 


39 


24 


23 


9 





78 


36 


43 


37 


15 





76 


172 


370 


345 


102 


325 


1 





214 









2 


4 



Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional or emergency certificates issued during 
each of the last ten years, including 1933-34 up to January 1, is given 
in Table 196. There has been an almost steady decrease in these 
figures except during certain years when a more complete check of the 
certification than had previously been made took place, with a result- 
ant rise in the number of provisional certificates issued to teachers 
who had formerly taught without certificates. The slight increase in 
the number of provisional certificates issued in the high school field 
(1927-30) has been due to the very large increases in the high school 
enrollment. The January 1 figures, 1 and 41, show an improvement 
over the corresponding figures for last year, which were 3 and 46. 
(See Table 196.) 



262 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 196 



Provisional or Emergency Certificates 
Issued for 



YEAR Elementary High School 

School Teachingf Teachingt 



1923-24 ; 


276 


225 


1924-25 


316 


184 


1925-26 


175 


132 


1926-27 


214 


104 


1927-28 


268 


108 


1928-29 


72 


110 


1929-30 


35 


112 


1930-31 


25 


92 


1931-32 


15 


82 


1932-33 


7 


56 


1933-34 


*1 


♦41 



t Includes both white and colored teachers . 
* Up to January 1, 1934 . 



Medical Examinations 

Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone medical examinations conducted by phy- 
sicians especially appointed for this purpose. For the numbers ex- 
amined, accepted, and rejected during the five years the regulation 
has been in force, see Table 197. 

TABLE 197 

Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical Examinations 



Year 


Number Accepted 


Number Rejected 


Total 


1929-30 


910 


7 


917 


1930-31 


872 


13 


885 


1931-32 


754 


18 


772 


1932-33 


495 


8 


503 


1933-34* 


345 


9 


354 



* Up to February, 1934 . 



Additional New Certificate Regulations 

Upon recommendation of the Certificate Committee, the following 
new regulations were passed at the Superintendents' meeting held 
on April 21, 1933, and those which needed action of the State Board 
were endorsed at the Board meeting which was held on May 19, 1933. 

Special Regulations for Summer School Attendance in 1933 and 1934 

On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1933 may, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school 
attendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1935 for 
four years on the basis of summer school credits. If, on the other hand, 
summer school credits are presented in 1933, the renewal will extend over 
six years. 



New Certificate Regulations; State Normal Schools 



263 



It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be renewed 
for the first time in 1933 present summer school credits for the renewal. 

On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1934 may, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school 
attendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1936 for 
four years on the basis of summer school credits. If, on the other hand, 
summer school credits are presented in 1934, the renewal will extend 
over six years. 

It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be renewed 
for the first time in 1934 present summer school credits for the renewal. 
Attendance at Chicago World's Fair 

Attendance at the Chicago World's Fair shall not be accepted as the 
equivalent of summer school attendance. 

Certification of Teachers Who Have Been Out of the Service 

The certificate of a teacher who has been out of the teaching service 
in Maryland may be renewed only if the full requirements in effect at the 
time of her application for restoration to the service have been met; 
provided, however, that this regulation need not be operative in the case 
of a teacher who has been retired for disability by the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System. 

Certification of Unplaced Maryland Normal School Graduates 

After June 1, 1934, a graduate of the two-year course at one of the 
Maryland State Normal Schools who has received no appointment after 
graduating and whose certificate has expired shall be eligible for appoint- 
ment only after completing a third year of normal school work. 
Admission to Third Year at Maryland Normal Schools 

Among the unplaced Maryland normal school graduates only those 
who have had the four full years of high school as well as two years of 
normal training may be admitted to the third year work at the Mary- 
land normal schools. 

Colored Graduates of Out-of-State Normal Schools 

Colored graduates of out-of-State normal schools shall not be re- 
quired to meet the high school scholarship standard which calls for A and 
B grades in sixty per cent of the subjects in the last two years of high 
school work with no grade below C. 

MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR WHITE STUDENTS 
The Number of Graduates 

There were only 58 county and 25 City students graduated in 1933 
from the Maryland State normal schools at Towson, Frostburg, and 
Salisbury. The three-year course was completed by forty-three of the 
county graduates and by 22 of the City graduates. The 15 county and 
3 City graduates of the two-year course are the last ones to complete 
the two-year course since the entire student body went on a three- 
year basis with the class entering in September, 1931. The small 
number graduating in 1933 was made up of seniors of the two-year 
course in 1932 or of graduates of preceding years who returned for a 
third year of work especially planned for them. (See Table 198.) 

The total number of different individuals who graduated from Tow- 
son, Frostburg, and Salisbury during the period from 1920 to 1933 
was 3,431 for the counties and 1,174 for Baltimore City. (See Table 
198.) 



264 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 198 

White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1920 to 1933 







Towson 


















Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 


YEAR 








burg 


bury 


Counties 




Total 


Baltimore 


Counties 










City 










1920 _ 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921... 


50 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


1923 


240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


a£49 


a25 


£24 


tl5 


tl9 


§58 


Total, 1920 to 1933._ 


3,316 


1,174 


2,142 


811 


•478 


♦3,431 



f Graduates of the three year course. 

a Includes 22 who completed the three year course. 

b Includes 9 who completed the three year course. 

* Excludes duplicates who appear as graduates of two and three year courses. 
§ Includes 43 graduates of the three year course. 



TABLE 199 

Distribution of 1933 Normal School Graduates by County Placement 
and Type of School 





TOWSON 




FROST- 
BURG 




SALISBURY 


GRAND 
TOTAL 


COUNTY 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total | 


Total Counties: 

Teaching 


4 


2 


11 


17 


3 


1 


4 


8 


5 


2 


6 


13 


12 


5 


21 


38 
18 

2 








7 








5 








6 














1 




1 


2 










1 




1 










1 




















1 


1 








7 


7 






















7 


7 


Carroll 


1 






1 


















1 






1 


Cecil 




















1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 




















1 


1 




2 


1 


1 




2 






1 


1 


2 






2 


2 






1 


1 




1 


4 


5 














3 






3 


3 






3 








1 


1 


1 






1 




1 


1 


1 




2 


3 


Queen Anne's 


1 






1 
















1 






1 


St. Mary's 










1 






1 










1 






1 


Talbot 


1 






1 
















1 






1 


Washington 


1 


1 


1 


3 




1 


1 


2 










1 


2 


2 


5 


















1 




1 


2 


1 




1 


2 






















2 


2 






2 


2 


Baltimore City: 

Teaching 






4 


4 






















4 


4 


Not Teaching 








21 
























21 


Entire State 

Teaching 


4 


2 


15 


21 


3 


1 


4 


8 


5 


2 


6 


13 


12 


5 


25 


42 


Not Teaching 








28 








5 








6 








39 



Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools and Their 265 
Teaching Positions 

Types of Positions Secured by Graduates 

By November 1933, there were 38 county graduates of 1933 who 
had secured teaching positions in the counties, leaving 18 still un- 
placed. Of the 25 City graduates, 4 had received appointments by the 
time the directory was issued. (See Table 199.) 

Of the 38 appointed in the counties, 12 gave instruction in one- 
teacher schools, 5 in two-teacher schools, and the remainder, 21, in 
schools having 3 or more teachers. (See Table 199.) 

All of the Towson county graduates who received teaching posi- 
tions returned to teach in their home counties. This included 71 per 
cent of the total. Only one-fourth of the Frostburg graduates and 
slightly over one-fifth of the Salisbury graduates went back to teach 
in their home counties. The average of the county graduates who 
were appointed to their home counties was 47 per cent for the three 
schools. Nearly one-third of those graduates who obtained teaching 
positions went to counties other than those of their residence. (See 
Table 200.) 

Since most of the county students graduating from the normal 
schools through 1930 had received teaching positions and the de- 
pression had not affected normal school placements until 1931, it was 
considered desirable to check on the placements of graduates of 1931 
and 1932 who had not returned to the normal schools for a third year 
of work. The check showed that 75 per cent of these 1931 graduates 
and 66 per cent of the 1932 graduates had been appointed. Place- 
ments of Towson county graduates were 89 and 85 per cent respec- 
tively for the two years. The corresponding percentages for City 
graduates were 32 and 27. (See Table 201.) 

TABLE 201 

Number and Per Cent of Normal School Graduates of 1931 and 1932 
Receiving Teaching Positions 







Towson 


























Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


Year 


City 


County 










County 






Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




No. 


Cent 


No. 


Cent 


No. 


Cent 


No. 


Cent 


No. 


Cent 


1931 


35 


32.1 


122 


89.1 


53 


64.6 


45 


61.6 


220 


75.3 


1932 


28 


27.2 


90 


84.9 


22 


53.7 


25 


44.6 


137 


66.5 



In addition to the placements shown for the City, there were a 
number of graduates temporarily assigned to physically handicapped 
children taught at home and to classes for the physically and mental- 
ly handicapped, while others were acting as temporary substitutes for 
teachers absent one or more days for illness. 



266 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Graduates Receiving Appointments; Normal School Enrollment 267 



Many of the graduates who have not secured teaching positions 
have married, gone on for further college study, or gone into other 
fields of work, such as social work and nursing, and a number have 
taken positions in stores and factories. The certificates of county 
graduates of 1931 will expire by the close of this school year, and those 
of 1932 by June, 1935, and those county graduates who are not 
teaching by the respective dates mentioned will have to secure an 
additional year of training before qualifying for appointments. 

In the City those on the 1933 eligible list who have not 
received appointments by June, 1934, must take another examina- 
tion if they wish to have a place on the new eligible list, which will in- 
clude the graduates of 1934. 

Enrollment at the Normal Schools Fall of 1933 

The enrollment of 460 county students at the State normal schools 
for the current year is lower than it has been at any time since 1921. 
It was in 1926 that the county enrollment was at its maximum with 
834 students. The decrease in enrollment is explained partly by the 
raising of the entrance standards; partly by the tuition fee of $100 
for all students which was fixed by the State Board of Education to 
take effect in September, 1933, after the drastic cut in the budgets for 
the normal schools; partly by the increase in the Charge for resident 
students from $5 to $6 per week, making the total cost $316 per year 
for resident students; and partly by the fear that after taking the 
course a position might not be open. (See Table 202.) 

TABLE 202 
Enrollment at State Normal Schools 



Fall 




Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


of 


City 


County 


County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


518 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


107 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 



The City students now number 230 compared with a maximum of 
518 in 1924, the first year they received their training at the Towson 
Normal School. From the standpoint of the number of graduates, the 
decreases in the county and City enrollment are even greater than 
these figures would indicate, because the enrollment prior to the past 



268 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



school year was distributed over two years while the course is now 
three years in length. (See Table 202.) 

The distribution of the enrollment by classes shows that enrollment 
in the present freshman classes is very small, and for county juniors 
and seniors is less than the number of county graduates for any year 
between 1923 and 1932. The present freshman classes that will 
graduate from the three normal schools in 1936 (28 City and 107 
county students) will furnish considerably fewer teachers than the 
number needed. There will, however, be available sufficient un- 
assigned graduates from the classes of 1934 and 1935 to staff the 
elementary schools, but a larger entering class in September, 1934, 
will be needed to provide the necessary number of graduates in 1937. 
(See Table 203.) 



TABLE 203 



Distribution of Normal School Enrollment by Classes Fall of 1933 





Towson 






Total 


Class 


City 


County 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


County 


Freshmen 


28 


48 


26 


33 


107 


Juniors 


75 


88 


43 


28 


159 


Seniors 


♦127 


a94 


47 


53 


194 


Total 


230 


230 


bll6 


cll4 


460 


Elementary School 


243 




197 


116 


556 


* Includes 2 two-year graduates who returned for the third year. 






a Includes 9 two-year graduates who returned for the third year . 







b Excludes 33 taking extension courses . 
c Excludes 5 on part-time and 17 taking extension courses . 

In 1931, 1932, and 1933, the years when the depression caused 
drastic retrenchment in the schools, fewer appointments than usual 
were made because vacancies were frequently not filled, and the 
teachers were given larger classes; also because teachers who would 
normally have resigned when they married kept their positions. The 
normal school graduates of recent yearfe have therefore had a more 
difficult time securing positions than was the case with the graduates 
of previous years. This, however, has been true of the graduates of 
all colleges and professional schools, and compared with graduates of 
other colleges and schools, the normal school graduates have fared 
unusually well. (See Table 199, 201, 203.) 

The distribution of the normal school enrollment at each school by 
classes and by counties is given in Chart 45 and Table 204. From the 
chart it is evident that each normal school draws its largest enroll- 
ment from the county in which it is located and those counties in 
close proximity. Also see Chart 20, page 97, for per cent of girl high 
school graduates of 1933 from each county who entered normal 
schools in September, 1933. 



Distribution of Enrollment at Each Normal School by 
Class and County 



269 




270 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Distribution of Normal School Enrollment; Status of Freshmen 271 
Status of Freshmen Admitted to Normal Schools Fall of 1933 

Of the small freshman groups entering the normal schools in 
September 1933 from the counties, 90 per cent at Towson, 92 per 
cent at Frostburg and 85 per cent at Salisbury were graduates of the 
academic course. These percentages were increases over correspond- 
ing figures for 1932 for Frostburg and Salisbury, but a slight decrease 
for Towson. For the City students 93 per cent were graduates of the 
college preparatory course for 1933 compared with 88 per cent for 
1932. The per cent having had the commerical course was much 
lower than in preceding years, including 4 per cent of the City and 
2 per cent of the county girls at Towson. All of the remainder had 
had the general course. (See Table 205.) 



TABLE 205 
1933 Normal School Entrants 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep . 
General 


92 .8 
3.6 
3.6 


89.6 
8.3 
2 .1 


92.3 
7.7 


84 .8 
15.2 


Upper 

Middle 


89 .3 
10.7 


70 .8 
25 .0 
4 .2 


46 .2 
42 .3 
11.5 


51 .5 
36.4 
9 .1 
3.0 


Commercial 


Lower 


Total 
Number 






Unclassified 




28 


48 


26 


33 


Total 
Number 








28 


48 


26 


33 



The per cent who came from the upper third of their high school 
classes was higher for every normal school than for the preceding 
year. For the City freshmen 89 per cent were from the upper third; 
for the county freshmen the percentage was 71 at Towson, 46 at 
Frostburg, and 51 at Salisbury. The lower third of the high school 
classes was represented by 4 per cent of the county students at Tow- 
son, by 11 per cent at Frostburg and 9 per cent at Salisbury. (See 
Table 205.) 

Withdrawals of Freshmen Who Entered in September, 1932 

Of the freshman enrollment entering in September, 1932, Towson 
lost 32 per cent of the City students and 25 per cent of the county 
students by withdrawal. Of these totals, 6 and 13 per cent, respec- 
tively, withdrew at the request of the school. At Frostburg, of a 42 
per cent withdrawal over one-half left at the request of the school. 
Of a 30 per cent withdrawal from Salisbury, 5 per cent were requested 
to leave by the school authorities. The per cent withdrawing at all 
of the schools was higher than for the year preceding. (See Table 
206.) 



272 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 206 



Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Normal Schools in September, 1932, Who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily Before September, 1933. 





Towson 


Frost- 


Salis- 




City 


County 


burg 


bury 


Freshman Enrollment, Sept . 1932.... 


114 


119 


78 


37 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer, 










Death 


5 


4 


4 




Withdrawals by Request 


7 


15 


16 


2 


Voluntary Withdrawals 


28 


14 


15 


9 


Per Cent Withdrawn by Request. 


6.4 


13 .0 


21.6 


5.4 


Fer Cent of Voluntary Withdrawals 


25 .7 


12 .2 


20 .3 


24 .3 


Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 


32.1 


25 .2 


41 .9 


29 .7 



Faculty at the Normal Schools 

Because of the decrease in the normal school enrollment and the 
retrenchment in the normal school budgets, it was necessary to de- 
crease the staffs at the normal schools beginning in September, 1933. 
At Towson 5 instructors, 1 member of the library staff, the kinder- 
gartner in the elementary school, 7 county training centers, half 
the time of one member of the office staff, and one member of the 
dormitory staff had to be dropped. At Frostburg 7 instructors, one 
fewer than the year before, and 2 critic teachers have agreed to take 
leave of absence without pay for a semester during the period from 
September, 1933, to June, 1935. At Salisbury, the instructional staff, 
three more than the year preceding, includes three part-time teach- 
ers; there is an additional teacher in the campus elementary school 
and there are five more county practice centers, but there is one fewer 
person on the office staff than reported for September, 1932. (See 
Table 207.) 

TABLE 207 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1933 



Position Towson Frostburg Salisbury Total 

Principal 1113 

Instructors 26 b7 c8 bc41 

Library 4 2 d2 8 

Campus Elementary 

School 9 b6 4 bl9 

Training Centers 

County 14 1 5 20 

Baltimore City 24 .... .... 24 

Office Staff 7.5 2 1 10.5 

Dormitory Staff 4 a2 el ae7 



a The social director teaches education courses . 

b Seven instructors, and two critic teachers will be on leave of absence without pay for a semester 
during the period from September 1933 to June 1935 . 

c Includes chief Supervisor of practice teaching who is also principal of the elementary school, and 
three part-time teachers of music, men's athletics and industrial arts . 

d The librarian teaches English part-time . 

e The sole member of the dormitory staff acts as social adviser and school nurse and teaches home 
economics . 



Withdrawals of Sept. 1932 Freshmen; Normal School Faculty & Costs 273 



Towson gave up its four training centers in Anne Arundel and 
decreased the number in Baltimore County from 15 to 12. Salisbury 
added four centers in Wicomico County and one in Somerset County 
and increased its campus school staff by one. The number of training 
centers in Harford and the City for Towson students and in Allegany 
for Frostburg students remained unchanged. (See Table 208.) 

TABLE 208 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1933 



Normal School at County Co-operating 

Towson Baltimore 

Harford 

Total Counties 

Baltimore City._ 

Campus School 

Frostburg Allegany 

Campus School 

Salisbury Wicomico 

Somerset 

Campus 



Number of 
Schools 
6 



12 



Number of 
Teachers 
12 
2 

14 
24 



Total and Student Costs at the Normal Schools 

Actual expenditures at each of the three normal schools chargeable 
to the year 1932-33 were lower than those for the year preceding. 
Each of the schools made certain expenditures ahead for the year 
1933-34 to help them in running during 1933-34 on the greatly de- 
creased budgets made available*. Each of the schools also returned 
amounts to the Treasury unusedf. The amounts expended for cur- 
rent expenses for 1932-33 aggregated $261,686 at Towson, $71,253 at 
Frostburg, and $71,346 at Salisbury. In addition, Towson made a 
capital outlay for the roof, tennis courts, and men's shower room of 
$13,086. The latter amount has not been included in calculating 
costs per student. (See Table 209.) 

Receipts from students totalled $42,182 at Towson, $9,175 at 
Frostburg, and $12,500 at Salisbury. For current expenses (capital 
outlay excluded), the State contributed $219,504 at Towson, $62,079 
at Frostburg, and $58,741 at Salisbury. (See Table 209.) 

At Towson the cost of instruction, $185,303, was approximately 
$6,000 lower than for the year preceding and the residence cost, 
$76,382, was about $10,000 under the year 1931-32. With a decrease 
of nearly 80 in the total number of students and of 65 in resident 
students, it was to be expected that fees would decrease under the 
year preceding by $13,500 to $42,182. The State's appropriation for 

* From the 1932-33 budgets, amounts actually chargeable against 1933-34 totaled $4,300 at Towson, 

$6,602 at Frostburg, and $13,392 at Salisbury, 
f The amounts returned included $13,471 for Towson, $1,777 for Frostburg, and $45 for Salisbury. 



274 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Total and Per Student Costs at Towson, Frostburg and Salisbury 275 



1932-33 current expenses, $219,504, was lower than for the preceding 
year by slightly over $1,000. In addition $13,086 from State funds 
was for capital outlay. (See Table 209.) 

The total cost per Towson normal school student, making no 
allowance for the service rendered the 270 pupils in the elementary 
school, was $368 for each day school student and $786 for each 
resident student. Deducting the fees which averaged $21 for day and 
$194 for resident students, the current expense cost to the State was 
$347 per day and $592 per resident student at Towson. The total 
cost and the cost to the State per day student is $41 more than the 
year before and per resident student $115 more. (See Table 209.) 

At Frostburg, the cost of instruction, $55,537, was approximately 
$4,000 lower than for the year preceding, while the dormitory ex- 
penditure, $15,716, was nearly $550 less than for 1931-32. There was 
an increase in the total student body, but a decrease in the number of 
resident students, which brought a net reduction in fees of $635. 
The State's appropriation, $62,079, was nearly $3,700 less than the 
year preceding. (See Table 209.) 

The total cost per Frostburg normal school student giving no 
recognition to the benefits derived from the elementary training 
school by its 212 pupils, was $459 for each day school student and 
$773 for each resident student. After subtracting the fees which 
averaged $21 for day and $153 for resident students, the State con- 
tributed $438 per day and $620 per resident student at Frostburg. 
The cost per day student was $71 lower than in 1931-32, while that 
per resident student was $44 lower. (See Table 209.) 

At Salisbury, the cost of instruction, $44,094 in 1932-33, was 
$12,680 below that for the year before, while dormitory costs were 
$4,170 lower. With a total decrease of 26 students and of 35 in re- 
sidence, fees naturally decreased by $7,890 to $12,500. The amount 
contributed by the State for current expenses of 1932-33 declined by 
$8,950 to $58,771. (See Table 209.) 

The total cost at Salisbury, taking no consideration of the educa- 
tion provided for 112 children in the elementary training school, was 
$450 per day normal school student and $839 per resident student. 
Deducting the average fee of $14 per day and $173 per resident 
student, the cost to the State per normal school day student was 
$435 and per resident student $666. The cost per day student was 
$7 lower than for the year preceding but per resident student was 
$101 more. (See Table 209.) 

Costs per day school student were lowest at Towson and highest at 
Frostburg. Costs for residence only were highest at Towson and 
lowest at Frostburg, but the entire cost per normal school student of 
instruction and residence for the State was lowest at Towson and 
highest at Salisbury. (See Table 209.) 

If the elementary school enrollment is added to the total normal 
school enrollment it will be noted that the elementary school enroll- 



276 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ment includes only 35 per cent of the combined total at Towson, 53 
per cent at Salisbury, and 64 per cent at Frostburg. The fact that the 
elementary training school enrollment is larger than the normal school 
enrollment at Frostburg and Salisbury while it is lower at Towson is 
an important factor in explaining the higher costs for instruction at 
Frostburg and Salisbury. (See Table 209.) 

With the increased fees and the decreases in salaries and staff 
the cost to the State for 1933-34 at the three normal schools will be 
considerably lower, although a decrease in enrollment tends to in- 
crease costs per student. 

Inventories of the Normal Schools 

The inventories of Towson and Salisbury showed increases of 
$15,633 and $6,488 respectively over those of a year ago. The total 
for Frostburg, $400,938, remained unchanged, while for Towson the 
total became $1,442,114 and for Salisbury $875,700. (See Table 210.) 

TABLE 210 

Inventories of the Normal Schools, September, 1933 

Towson Frostburg Salisbury- 



Land and Improvements.... $112,198 .72 $25,000 .00 $16,266 .00 

Buildings 1,150,157.11 354,718.00 816,762.00 

Equipment 194,217.11 21,219.64 49,159.73 

Livestock 1,174 .00 



Total.... $1,457,746 .94 $400,937 .64 $882,187 .73 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The value and importance of the Teachers' Retirement System 
to the school children of Maryland in making it possible to retire 
teachers too old and sick to give the type of efficient service demanded 
is inestimable. The satisfactory attitude in the classroom which is 
found when teachers are not harassed and worried about their future 
security certainly makes for an environment in which children can 
benefit from the instruction offered. 

Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its sixth year of 
operation received contributions from county teachers to the amount 
of $272,716, a decrease of $7,814 under the amount contributed dur- 
ing 1931-32, the reduction being explained by decrease in staff and in 
salaries. In October, 1933, 4,788 county teachers, 94.5 per cent of the 
entire teaching staff, were active members of the system. (See Table 
211.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in the 
Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 86.5 per 
cent in Wicomico, to 98.7 per cent in Allegany. Eleven counties had 
over 95 per cent of their teachers enrolled in the Retirement System. 
Contributions from 176 members in the State Department of Educa- 
tion, the Normal Schools, and the four State schools for handicapped 
and delinquent children brought the total contributions for 1932-33 
to $293,979. (See Table 211.) 



Normal School Inventories; The Maryland Teachers' Retirement 277 

System 

TABLE 211 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1933, Number 
and Per Cent of October, 1933, County Teaching Staff Who are Members in 

Active Service 



Members 





Amount Contrib- 


in Active Service 


county or institution 


uted Year Ending 


October, 1933 




July 31, 1933 


Number 


Per Cent 


County: 








Allegany 


$ 30,027 .54 


460 


98 .7 


Anne Arundel 


14,o9o .37 


283 


89 .8 


Baltimore 


38,637 .83 


533 


95 .2 


Calvert 


O CM A a 

2,ooy .40 


57 


96 fi 

«7U .U 


Caroline 


6,434 .50 


125 


94 .7 


Carroll 


12,015 .37 


231 


97 9 


Cecil 


a ioc ac 

y,i^o .UO 


153 


96 '.8 


Charles 


a a a a ao 

4,y40 .02 


111 


97 .4 


Dorchester 


8,214 .18 


171 


92 .9 


Frederick 


16,931 .50 


307 


96 .5 


Garrett 


O AC/? 1 r? 

8,956 .17 


150 


93 .2 


Harford 


10,782 .21 


195 


92 A 


Howard 


A f\c\n T o 

4,996 .78 


98 


92 .5 


Kent 


c a o i no 
5,431 .78 


99 


«70 .\J 


Montgomery 


oa ooc nn 
Z0,2Z5 . 1 i 


348 


9fi 4 


Prince George's 


20,655 .70 


375 


95 .7 


Queen Anne's 


5,322 .95 


87 


94 .6 


St . Mary's 


O OO/? AO 

3,386 .48 


78 


94 


Somerset 


r? CiC\f\ A i 

7,299 .41 


150 




Talbot 


5,391 .76 


114 


91 Q 


Washington 


21,431 .94 


369 


8Q fi 


Wicomico 


8,713 .33 


166 


8fi ^ 

OD .O 


Worcester 


6,560 .19 


128 


92.1 


Total Counties 


$272,716 .23 


4,788 


94.5 


Normal School: 








Towson 


$ 7,064 .25 


43 




Frostburg 


1,615.38 


15 






1,04^ .40 


15 




Bowie 


856.74 


13 




Department: 








State Department of Education 


$ 4,093 .32 


22 




Md . Public Library Advisory Commission 


390 .78 


3 




Md . Teachers' Retirement System 


181 .30 


3 




Other Schools: 








Md . Training School for Boys 


$ 1,918.40 


21 




Montrose School for Girls 


699 .20 


6 




Rosewood State Training School 


944 .90 


10 




Md . School for the Deaf 


1,955 .74 


25 




Total Schools and Departments 


$ 21,262.46 


176 




Grand Total 


$293,978 .69 


4,964 





During 1932-33, in addition to annuity payments of $4,642 from 
their own contributions, $118,000 was paid in the form of pensions 
from State funds to members retired with credit for service rendered 
prior to August 1, 1927. On July 31, 1933, there were 220 members 



278 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



receiving this form of allowance, of whom 182 had been retired be- 
cause they were at least 60 years of age, and 38 had been retired on 
account of disability. Further payments of $79,809 were made to 
teachers retired in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 447 
of the Laws of 1920 on an annual pension of $400. At the end of the 
year 1932-33 there were 192 former teachers receiving the $400 
pension. 

The Retirement System during 1932-33 paid $8,811 for ordinary 
death benefits upon the deaths of members in active service, and 
returned to the beneficiaries or estates of deceased members ac- 
cumulated contributions amounting to $5,267. Benefits paid under 
the optional forms of retirement allowances totaled $4,606 provided 
by State funds and $845 provided by the retired teachers. Teachers 
who resigned from active service and terminated their membership 
in the system withdrew $55,210, which amount covered their con- 
tributions with accrued interest thereon. 

During the year 1932-33, the Board of Trustees purchased $334,000 
par value of bonds for the Retirement System. The total holdings in 
securities on July 31, 1933, had a par value of $2,050,000. An ap- 
praisal of the securities of the Teachers' Retirement System made 
by the State Auditor through the cooperation of Theodore Gould 
and Company showed that the bonds held on July 31, 1933, had 
a market value of $2,005,065. The book value of these holdings was 
$2,063,338. The Board of Trustees considers the soundness of the 
investments indicated by this appraisal exceedingly gratifying. 

State Appropriations 

The State appropriation of $519,059 for 1933 covered the normal 
contribution and the accrued liability contribution of the State of 
Maryland on account of the county members of the Maryland State 
Teachers' Retirement System. Of this amount $229,529.50 is still 
due and to be paid. The law provides that the State shall contribute 
to the City of Baltimore an amount equal to what would be required 
if the teachers of Baltimore City were members of the Maryland 
Teachers' Retirement System instead of belonging to the Retirement 
System available to all employees of the City of Baltimore. This 
amount was $497,303 for 1933. In addition, an appropriation of 
$10,000 was made to meet the expenses of administration of the State 
Retirement System. 

The total State appropriation for the Teachers' Retirement Sys- 
tem for 1934 is $979,388, which includes $420,000 to be obtained from 
an issue of State bonds*. This amount takes care of $496,838 for the 
Retirement System for the county teachers, $10,000 for the adminis- 
tration of the system, and $472,550 as the State's share towards the 
Baltimore City Retirement System. 

This amount differs from the total included in the State Public 
School Budget as originally adopted because of the following ruling of 
the Board of Trustees: 

* See Chapter 597 and Section 6 of Chapter 311 of the laws of 1933. 



Benefits of Retirement System; State Appropriations 279 



THAT, WHEREAS, the Board of Trustees is recurringly faced with 
the question as to the compensation to be considered as earnable in the 
case of a teacher whose salary schedule differs from the salary actually 
retained by the teacher in return for services; now, therefore, 

BE IT RESOLVED, That the Board of Trustees acting in accordance 
with Subdivision (7) of Section 97 of the retirement law, does hereby 
rule that for all purposes of the administration of the retirement law, on 
and after January 1, 1933, annual earnable compensation shall be con- 
strued to mean the salary actually retained by the teacher in return for a 
full year of service, including the amount contributed to the Annuity 
Savings Fund and excluding the amount contributed to any other fund, 
where such contribution, in the opinion of the Board, applies to the teach- 
er in lieu of a salary decrease; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That in distributing the appropriations for the bien- 
nium 1934-1935, the amounts due the Retirement System and the City 
of Baltimore shall be based on the payrolls as tabulated for valuation pur- 
poses using earnable compensation as previously denned. 



Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school law 
requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent the Teach- 
ers' Retirement System from admitting to membership physically 
handicapped teachers, arrangements were made beginning in the fall 
of 1929 to have the physicians at the normal schools give a thorough 
physical examination to all graduates who are planning to take posi- 
tions in the Maryland counties. All entrants into the service who 
have not had such examinations are required to visit the physician 
in each county appointed to examine such teachers. The State De- 
partment of Education bears the expense of such examination. Re- 
ports of these examinations are forwarded to the Medical Board of 
the Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates are issued only to 
those teachers, reports of whose physical examination are approved 
by the Medical Board. The number examined, accepted, and re- 
jected during the four years the regulation has been in force are 
shown in Table 197, page 262. 



STATE APPROPRIATIONS AFFECTING SCHOOLS 

The appropriation bill for 1934 published after the volume con- 
taining the laws of 1933 was prepared differs somewhat from the 
original figures with respect to amounts for part-payment of salaries 
and some of the normal schools. The ruling of the Board of Trustees 
of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System reduced the appro- 
priations to be made to the counties and Baltimore City. A new 
statement of the budget appropriations for 1934 compared with ex- 
penditures for 1933 is therefore included in Table 212. 



280 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 212 

The Revised 1934 State Public School Budget Compared with 1933 
Expenditures 



1933 1934 
Purpose Expenditures Appropriation 
Retirement System: 

County Teachers $519,059a $496,838 

Baltimore City Teachers 497,303 472,550 

Expense Fund 10,000 10,000 

Total Required $l,026,362a $979,388 

From Bond Issue 420,000 

From Budget [ $559,388 

Approved High Schools 521,928 527,583 

Colored Industrial Schools 27,000 28,500 

Part Payment of Salaries.... 181,080 152,625 

Free Books and Materials 250,000 250,000 

State Board of Education 672 800 

Vocational Education 16,196 9,000 

Physical Education 15,000 15,000 

Educational Measurements 10,821 10,000 

Publications and Printing 5,355 6,000 

Medical Examinations 1,458 2,000 

Extension Teaching 298 

State Department of Education 68,627 51,668 

Towson Normal School 237,335* 138,558* 

Frostburg Normal School 70,288* 35,182* 

Salisbury Normal School 72,171* 33,212* 

Bowie Normal School 39,615* 25,674* 

Consultant Architect 1,500 750 

Amount Distributed on basis of Census and 

Attendance...,. 1,800,000 1,800,000 

Equalization Fund 708,789 308,786 

Vocational Rehabilitation 9,005 10,006 

Physically Handicapped Children 10,000 10,000 

Deficit 150,000 

Total from State Public School Budget $5,223,500a* $3,974,726* 

Miscellaneous Appropriations — Item 31 to Reduce 

County Taxation $1,500,000 

Proceeds of Bond Issue 420,000 

Total from Normal School Fees 81,462 121,296f 

Grand Total.. $5,304,962a $6,016,022 



a Includes $229,530 still due and to be paid. 
* Excluding fees. 

t Includes following estimates: Towson $62,000; Frostburg $19,696; Salisbury $26,600; Bowie 
$13,000. 



1933 State Expenditures and 1934 Appropriations 



281 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 



For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1933 



Account 


State 
Appropriation 


Receipts 
from Fees, 
Federal 
Aid and 
by Budget 
Amendment 


Withdrawals 
by Budget 

Amendment 
or Returned 
to 

Treasury 


Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 


Maryland State Normal 

School, Towson 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Salisbury 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Frostburg 
Maryland State Normal 

School, Bowie 

State Department of 

Education 

Bureau of Educational 

Measurements 


$250,806.00 
72,215.00 
72,065.00 
41,680.00 
76,650.00 
12,000.00 


$47,072.88 
12,583.50 
8,742.47 
13,062.92 
252.01 


$13,471.19 
44.51 
♦1,776.72 
2,065.19 
8,023.51 
1,178.92 
2,145.12 


$284,407.69 

84,753.99 

♦79,030.75 

52,677.73 

68,878.50 

10,821.08 

5,354.88 

15,000.00 
24,097.02 

20,359.81 

298.00 
672.30 
1,500.00 

1,458.33 

521,927.70 

181,080.00 

27,000.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 
1,800,000.00 
708,788.58 

10,000.00 

150,000.00 


Bureau of Publications 
and Printing 


7,500.00 

15,000.00 
25,000.00 

10,000.00 

3,000.00 




Physical and Health 
Education 




Vocational Education.... 
Vocational 

Rehabilitation 

Extension Course 

for Teachers 


7,901.17 
11,354.68 


8,804.15 

994.87 

2,702.00 
327.70 


State Board of Ed 

Consultant Architect .... 

Examination and Certi- 
fication of Teachers.... 

State Aid to Approved 
High Schools 


1,000.00 
1,500.00 




3,500.00 
581,512.00 
190,000.00 




2,041.67 
59,584.30 

8,920.00 
3,750.00 


Part Payment of Cer- 
tain Salaries 




State Aid to Colored 

Industrial Schools . . 
Free Textbooks 


30,750.00 
200,000.00 




Materials of Instruction 
Census and Attendance 
Equalization Fund 
State Aid for Handi- 
capped Children 


50,000.00 






1,800,000.00 






979,010.00 
10,000.00 




270,221.42 


Deficit — Census and 
Attendance 


150,000.00 






Totals 

Teachers' Retirement 
System : 

County Teachers 






$4,583,188.00 
519,059.00 


$100,969.63 


$386,051.27 


$4,298,106.36 

**289,529.50 

497,303.00 
10,000.00 


Baltimore City 

Teachers 


497,303.00 
10,000.00 






Expense Fund 






Totals 








$5,609,550.00 


$100,969.63 


$386,051.27 


**5,094,938.86 



* Does not include $1,607.52 in fees held in restricted funds in the Citizen's National Bank. 
** Excludes $229,529.50 still due and to be paid. 



282 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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283 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1933 



Receipts 



Purpose 



Vocational Education 

Physical and Health Education 

Educational Measurements 

Publications and Printing 

Extension Teaching _ 

Consultant Architect 

State Board of Education 

Examination and Certification of Teachers 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

Supervision of Colored Schools 

Julius Rosenwald Fund 



State 
Appropriation 


Other 
Receipts 


Total 
Receipts 


$25,000.00 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 
3,500.00 
10,000.00 
250.00 


a$7,901.17 


$32,901.17 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 
3,500.00 
21,354.68 
4,990.86 
4,750.00 














all,354.68 
£4,740.86 
r4,750.00 





Expenditures 



Purpose 


Salaries 


Traveling 
Expenses 


County 
Subsidies 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amend- 
ment 


Total Dis- 
bursements 


Vocational Education 


$15,600.00 
15,000.00 
6,900.00 


$2,835.55 


$4,956.58 


$704.89 


$8,804.15 


$32,901.17 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 

3,500.00 
21,354.68 

4,990.86 
4,750.00 


Physical and Health Ed 


Educational Measurements.. 
Publication and Printing 






3,921.08 
5,354.88 
298.00 


1,178.92 
2,145.12 
2,702.00 






Extension Teaching.... 








Consultant Architect 


1,500.00 






State Board of Education .. 
Examination and Certifica- 
tion of Teachers 


672.30 






327.70 

2,041.67 
994.87 




1,458.33 
10,511.46 


Vocational Rehabilitation 
Supervision of Colored 
Schools 


8,400.00 
4,000.00 


1,448.35 
990.86 






Julius Rosenwald Fund 




</4,750.00 















a From Federal Government. 
b From General Education Board. 
c From Julius Rosenwald Fund. 
d For buildings and libraries. 



Construction Accounts 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1933 



Receipts 

Towson Frostburg Salisbury Bowie 

Balance, Oct. 1, 1932 $118,863.96 $32,386.72 $94,482.64 $2,603.13 

Receipts from Bond Issue 5,000.00 

Receipts from Interest on Deposits _ 3.04 



Total Receipts $118,863.96 $37,386.72 $94,482.64 $2,606.17 



Disbursements 

Construction $113,898.75 $155.00 $73,225.91 

Equipment 1,457.47 57.37 10,403.13 

Purchase of Ground 1,308.75 

Architects' Fees 3,192.74 ...„ 4,712.50 112750 



Total Disbursements _ $118,548.96 $1,521.12 $88,341.54 $112.50 

Balance, September 30 »1933 $315.00 $35,865.60 $6,141.10 $2,493.67 



284 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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286 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE III 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30. 1933 



County 


WHITE 


colored 


No. 
of 

Schools 


Enrollment 


No. 
of 

Teachers 


Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mercial 
and 
Secondary 


No. 
Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. 
Teachers 



t Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of- 1933 



Allegany 


9 
1 
17 
1 
2 
2 
8 
1 
1 
3 
2 
5 
9 
1 


2,275 
319 
3,119 
20 
207 
294 
527 
74 
98 
290 
126 
808 
1,051 
324 


473 


80 
8 

107 
7 
9 
14 
50 
4 
3 
11 
16 
31 
40 
11 








Anne Arundel 


1 


79 


3 


Baltimore 


162 
12 
61 
81 

299 


Caroline. 








Carroll 








Charles _ 


1 

2 


119 
31 


3 
3 


Frederick. 


Garrett 


Harford 


4 
12 
76 
140 
116 
67 








Howard 


1 


42 


1 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


1 

3 


94 
*286 


2 
14 


St. Mary's 


Washington 


Total Counties 








62 
66 


9,532 
30,614 


1,503 
3,570 


391 
835 


9 
9 


*651 
61,050 


26 
43 


Baltimore City 


Total State 


128 


40,146 


5,073 


1,226 


18 


d,701 


69 




*Non-Catholic Private Schools 


Anne Arundel... 

Baltimore _ 


5 
7 
7 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
3 


62 
372 
397 
14 
16 
20 
173 
22 
9 
25 


185 
548 
299 


24 
120 
55 
1 
11 
2 

34.5 

4 

1 
16 














Cecil... 

Garrett 








Howard 


36 
2 

100 








Kent 








Montgomery 








Prince George's 








Queen Anne's 


1 

122 








St . Mary's 










1 


<ill 


8 


Washington 


2 
1 


25 
48 


65 


13 
4 


Wicomico 








Total Counties 










34 
16 


1,183 
1,595 


1,358 
724 


285.5 
242 


1 
1 


«/ll 

*79 


8 
2 


Baltimore City._ 


Total State 


50 


2,778 


2,082 


527.5 


2 


790 


10 





Schools for Exceptional Children 



Frederick School for the Deaf 20 — 8 

Md . School for the Blind 60 18 28 

Md . Training School for Boys 292 28 6 

Montrose School for Girls..._ 68 14 8 

t Figures furnished by Rev . John I . Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools . 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools . 
a Includes 47 high school pupils . 
b Includes 14 high school pupils . 
c Includes 61 high school pupils . 
d High school pupils only . 
e Includes 6 high school pupils . 
Includes 17 high school pupils . 



Enrollment, Parochial and Frivate Schools 287 
TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1933 



County and 
School 



Enrollment Number of 
Ele- Sec- Teachers 
men- ond- Full Part 
tary ary Time Time 



White Schools 



Anne Arundel 

Severn 

Holladay 

Cochran-Bryan._ 

U.S. Naval Acad ., 

Prep 

The Thomas School 

Total _ 



Baltimore 

McDonogh.... 

Garrison Forest. 

Greenwood 

St . Timothy's.. ... 
Hannah More..... 

Oldfield's 

Robert's Beach... 

Total 



Cecil 

Tome Town 

Tome Iinstitute 

Parish 

West Nottingham.. 
Blythedale Church. 
Seventh Day 

Adventist 

Reynold's 



Total. 



Garrett 

Zion Lutheran. 



Howard 

Donaldson... 

The Howard School .. 

Total 



Kent 

Seventh Day 

Adventist 

Montgomery 
Washington 

Missionary College 
Chevy Chase Country 
Chevy Chase 

Total 



Prince George's 

Avondale Country 



22 



222 


118 


19 




125 


18 


104 




3 


2 


45 


7 


26 


6 


2 


24 


5 


4 


19 




1 


397 


299 


54 


14 




1 


4 


36 


7 


12 




4 


16 


36 


11 


20 


2 


2 


120 


81 


13 


53 




6 




19 


4 


173 


100 


23 





104 


11 




48 




4 






36 


3 


1 




45 


4 




14 




1 




62 


185 


23 


1 


267 


244 


34 




54 


34 


9 


2 


30 


55 


15 


2 




83 


16 


3 


11 


67 


10 


2 




39 


11 


3 


10 


26 


9 


4 


372 


548 


104 


16 



2 

1 .5 



County and 
School 

Queen Anne's 
Seventh Day 
Adventist... 



Enrollment Number of 
Ele- Sec- Teachers 
men- ond- Full Part 
tary ary Time Time 



St . Mary's 

Charlotte Hall 

St . Mary's Seminary 
Mrs . Townshend's .... 

Total 



Washington 

St . James' 

Seventh Day 
Adventist 

Total „ 



Wicomico 

Mrs . Herold's. 



9 


1 




9 
16 


83 
39 


8 
7 
1 


25 


122 


16 


12 


61 


5 


13 


4 


1 


25 


65 


6 


48 




1 



Colored Schools 

Somerset 

Princess Anne 

Academy _ „ 11 



Baltimore City 

Friend's 

Bryn Mawr 

Roland Park Country.... 

Gilman Country 

Calvert 

Park 

Immanuel Lutheran 

Boys' Latin._ 

Girls' Latin 

Mt . Washington 

Country 

Samuel Ready 

St . Paul's for Boys 

Seventh Day Adventist 
Miss Crater's 

Country School 

Little School in Guilford 
Morven 



Total 1,595 

Baltimore City Colored School 
Seventh Day 

Adventist 73 6 2 

Total State 

White Schools 2,778 2,082 441 

Colored Schools 73 17 2 



White 


Schools 




208 


130 


24 


9 


243 


78 


28 


4 


186 


94 


25 


11 


134 


138 


29 




264 




19 


3 


124 


68 


22 


4 


119 




3 




50 


62 


10 


5 


20 


69 


8 


2 


79 




10 


1 


40 


35 


4 


5 


20 


41 


6 




43 


9 


3 




31 




2 


2 


22 




2 




12 




1 




1,595 


724 


196 


46 



86 .5 
8 



288 1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions Fall of 1932 



County and School 



Allegany 

SS. Peter and Paul's, 

Cumberland 

St. Patrick's Cumberland 
St. Mary's, Cumberland.... 
St. Peter's Wester nport 
La Salle Institute, 

Cumberland 

St. Michael's, Frostburg... 
St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage.. 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary com- ers 
mercial 



St. Michael's, Eckhardt. 



Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis. 
St. Mary's (Colored), 
Annapolis 



Baltimore 

St. Mark's Catonsville 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 

St. Michael's, Overlea 

School of the Immaculate, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's Fullerton 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn 

St. Charles, Pikesville 

St. Stephen's, Bradshaw.... 
St. Clement's, Lansdowne 

Ascension, Halethorpe 

St. Clement's, Rosedale.... 
St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 

Little Flower, Woodstock 
Sacred Heart, Glyndon.. 

Total 



511 


87 


15 


430 


62 


13 


350 


51 


11 


234 


71 


11 


92 


178 


10 


263 




6 


179 


24 


6 


135 




5 


81 




3 


2,275 




473 


80 


319 




8 


79 





3 


396 




9 


361 




6 


342 




6 


238 


76 


11 


244 




5 


198 




5 


194 




4 


193 




6 


187 


34 


6 


181 




5 


171 




5 


140 




3 


89 




7 


79 




3 


18 


52 


20 


51 




3 


37 




3 


3,119 


162 


107 



County and School 



Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary com- ers 
mercial 



Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster.. 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown 



Total 207 



Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata 

St. Mary's, Bryantown__.„ 



St. Mary's (Colored), 



Frederick 

St. John's Frederick. 
St. Euphemia's 



St. Joseph's College High, 
Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, 

Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick. 

Mt. St. Mary's Prep., 
Emmitsburg 

St. Peter's, Libertytown 

St. Francis', Brunswick.... 



Total 

St. Peter's (Colored), 

Libertytown 

St. Euphemia's (Colored), 

Emmitsburg 



Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland. 



Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air.. 



20 


12 


T 


173 


61 


7 


34 




2 


207 


61 


9 


186 


45 


7 


108 


36 


T 


294 


81 


14 


119 





a 


164 


54 


T 


170 




4 




126 


13 


112 




4 


35 


43 


9 




74 


9 


23 


2 


2 


23 




2 


527 


299 


50> 


20 




2 


11 




1 


74 




4 


98 


4 


3 



Enrollment in Catholic Schools 



289 



TABLE V— Continued 
Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fall of 1932 



County and School 



Howard 
St. Paul's, Ellicott City ... 
St. Augustine's, Elkridge 
St. Louis', Clarksville 

Total 

St. Augustine s (Colored), 
Ellicott City 

Montgomery 

St. Martin's, Gaithersburg 
Georgetown Prep., 

Garrett Park 



Total. 



Prince George's 

St. James, Mt. Rainier ... 

St. Mildred's, Laurel 

Holy Redeemer, Berwyn 

St. Mary's, Marlboro 

La Salle Hall, 

Amendale 



Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 
Upper Marlboro 



St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 

St. Michael's, Ridge ... 

Little Flower, Great Mills 

Holy Angel's, Abell 

St. John's, Hollywood 136 

St. Joseph's Morganza 

Sacred Heart, Bushwood 
Our Lady, Medley's Neck 
Leonard Hall, 

Leonardtown 36 



Total 1,051 116 



Enrollment Enrollment 

High High 
Elemen- and Teach- County and School Elemen- and Teach- 

tary com- ers tary com- era 

mercial mercial 

St. Mary's — Continued 
St. Peter Clavers, 

(Colored), Ridge 143 5 

St. Joseph's (Colored), 

Morganza 89 2 

Cardinal Gibbons 

Institute (Colored) 7 47 7 

Washington 

St. Mary's, Hagerstown .... 324 67 11 

Total County White 

Catholic Schools 9,532 1,503 391 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 604 47 26 

Baltimore City 

Seton 1,144 39 

Institute of Notre Dame 289 280 33 

Mt. St. Joseph's 44 419 21 

Calvert Hall 15 433 17 

Loyola 412 20 

Notre Dame of Maryland 132 148 24 

Mt. St. Agnes' 77 118 17 

Visitation 4 3 5 

Total 561 2,957 176 

White Parish Schools 29,207 545 621 

Institutions for White 

Children 846 68 38 

Grand Total 30,614 3,570 835 

St. Francis' Academy 

(Colored) 36 14 4 

Colored Parish Schools 711 14 

Institutions for Colored 

Children 289 25 

Grand Total 1,036 14 43 

5 Total State 

— White 40,146 5,073 1,226 

40 Colored 1,640 61 69 



125 




4 


111 




3 


54 


12 


4 


290 


12 


11 


42 




1 


126 




3 




76 


13 


126 


76 


16 


405 




8 


126 


53 


6 


161 




4 


116 


10 


5 




77 


8 


808 


140 


31 


94 




2 


121 


70 


7 


137 


46 


6 


179 




4 


158 




5 


136 




4 


126 




4 


87 




3 


71 




2 



290 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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294 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Teaching Positions; Certification White Elementary Schools 295 
TABLE XI 

White Elementary Teachers . Holding Various Grades of Certificates, October,1933 



COUNTY 



Total 



Allegany.. 
Anne 

Arundel.... 
Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 
Frederick... 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Prince 

George's 
Queen 

Anne's 

St . Mary's 
Somerset.. 

Talbot 

Washington 
Wicomico . 
Worcester... 



WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS HOLDING 
CERTIFICATES OF THE FOLLOWING GRADES 



Total 



2,757 

262 

164 
349 
20 
58 
135 
91 
40 
88 
195 
117 
124 
59 
44 
189 

207 

43 
35 
65 
50 
273 
91 
58 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 
Prin- 
cipal 



221 
19 

20 

31 
2 
5 

16 
5 
1 
5 

21 
5 
4 
2 
3 

«13 
19 



6 
2 

7 
5 



Number 



Ad- 
vanced 
First 



181 
***** 64 

**3 

30 



2 

*****5 



; 10 
7 
2 



First 



2,291 

175 

tl38 
288 
18 
49 
110 
63 
35 
77 
{163 
105 
114 
55 
39 
169 

178 

36 
30 
54 
47 
223 
74 
46 



Sec- 
ond 



45 

3 



Third 



Per Cent 



Ele- 
mentary 
Principal, 
Advanced 
First, and 

First 



97 .7 
>98.5 



**f98 .2 
100 .0 
100.0 
100.0 
95.5 

***93.4 

95 .0 
*96.6 
J99 .0 
100 .0 
*96.0 

96 .6 
100 .0 

'***a98.9 



*99.5 

100.0 
94 .3 
92 .3 
98 .0 

"a95 .6 
96 .7 
91 .4 



Sec- 
ond 



1.6 
1.1 
1.2 



2.4 
3.4 



1 .1 



2.9 
4.6 
2.0 
2.6 
3.3 
6.9 



Third 



1 .5 
2.2 



1 .1 



1 .6 



.5 



2.8 
3.1 



1 .8 



* Each (*) represents a teacher holding a high school certificate. 
a Includes one holding a high school principal's certificate, 
t Includes one holding a first grade provisional certificate. 
X Includes one who cannot hold a certificate. 



I 



296 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Certification in White Cne-and Two-Teacher and High Schools 297 



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298 



1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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299 



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1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Schools 








High 

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Average Number Belonging and Average Salary per Teacher 



301 



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of Maryland State Department of Education 



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303 




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304 



1933 Rrport of Maryland State Department of Education 



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2,467 .80 
2,517.64 
4,924 .87 
7,044 .21 
3,971 .26 
2,806.55 
7,701 .26 
5,682 .12 
14,636.50 
2,424 .81 
4,739 .35 
5,337.71 
3,249.49 
9,362 .06 
4,556.86 

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249,602 .43 




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181 .92 
1,940.36 
3,150.00 
173 .70 
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1,216.83 
70.57 
585.04 
165.47 
267.15 
433 .92 
721 .82 
394 .98 
112 .30 
203 .43 
481 .92 
1,411 .46 
190 .33 
241 .15 
288 .60 
225.48 
738 .59 
400.67 

24,067 .00 
32,621 .65 


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4,745.61 
8,397.07 
1,566.53 
5,950.20 
2,075 .20 
2,235.46 
3,956.32 
4,536 .68 
3,468.73 
2,664 .88 
4,180.77 
3,579.50 
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1,757.90 
4,480.44 
4,955.50 
2,807.43 
8,171 .00 
3,989.48 

109,091 .86 
194,995.12 


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4,405 .08 
7,868 .38 
1,440.00 
5,568 .48 
1 877 .26 
1^987 '.00 
3,499 .97 
4,199.37 
3,245 .00 
2,485.96 
3,639 .00 
3,326 .68 
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1,616.66 
4,159.75 
4,602 .84 
2,494 .66 
7,508 .76 
3,505.25 

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Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Caroline 


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Prince George's..._ 




Baltimore City Senior 

Grand Total and State 
Averages 



322 



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COUNTY 
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East New Market 


Hooper's Island 


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1933 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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INDEX 



A 

Absence: 

Causes of long, 29 

Colored schools, 155-157, 172-173, 291, 322- 
327 

White elementary schools, 21-25, 29, 30-31, 
291 

White high schools, 89-90, 291, 322-327 

Academic course, high schools, 174, 271, 
322-327 

Administration and supervision: 
Administration, 257-260, 309 310 
Attendance officers, 257, 310 
General control costs, 220-223, 225, 226, 
309-310 

Superintendents, 3, 257-260, 310 
Supervision, 220, 223, 225, 227, 311 
Colored schools, 199, 202, 320 
White elementary schools, 85-87, 314 
White high schools, 146, 148 

Agriculture: 

Cost, 135, 140-142,228 

Enrollment, 103-105, 109, 141, 174, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 112-115 
Salaries of teachers, 140-142 
Schools having, 103, 115-116, 142, 174, 

328-333 
Teachers, 115-116, 134-135 

Aid, State, Federal and other, 10-13, 217-220, 
250, 252, 279-280, 281-283, 307-308 
Books and materials, 70, 137, 139, 142, 307 
Census and attendance fund, 280, 281, 307 
Colored schools, 7, 189, 192, 280, 281, 283, 

307, 322-327 
Equalization Fund, 7, 53, 220, 280, 281, 307 
Extension courses, 7, 280, 281, 283, 307 
Federal, 140-142, 214, 227-229, 283, 307, 
322-327 

High school, 7, 141, 142, 280, 281, 307, 322- 
327 

Medical examinations, 7, 280, 281, 283 
Normal schools, 7, 203-204, 273-276, 280, 
281-282 

$1,500,000 distributed on census, 10, 220, 
260, 280 

Part-payment of salaries, 7, 10, 258, 279- 

280, 281, 307 
Physical education, 211, 280, 281, 283 
Retirement system, 7, 278, 280, 281, 307 
Rosenwald Fund, 189, 192, 283, 308 
State, 7, 10-13, 140-142, 217-220, 228-229, 

279 280, 281, 283, 307-308, 322-327 
Vocational education, 7, 140-142, 214, 227- 

229, 280, 281, 283, 307 
Vocational rehabilitation, 7, 216, 280, 281. 

283,307 



A — (Continued) 

Appropriations: 

County, 9-12, 217-220, 244-249, 308 
State, 9-13, 140-142, 217-220, 228-229 279- 
280, 281-283, 307-308, 322-327 
Public school budget, 279-280 

Approved high schools, 126-128, 169, 322-333 

Art, enrollment taking, 103, 105-106, 328-333 

Assessable basis, 7-8, 238-239, 249-251 

Athletics: 

Colored schools, 174, 196-197, 305-306 
Expenditures for, 211-212, 280, 281, 283 
White schools, 205-212, 302-304 

Attendance: 

Aggregate days of, 292 
By months, 23, 90, 155-156 
Cause for failure, 44-46 

Colored schools, 155-157, 172-173, 291-292, 

320, 321, 322-327 

Elementary schools, white, 21-25, 29, 30-31, 

291-292, 314-317 
High schools, white, 89-90, 291-292, 319, 

322-327 
Index of, 30-31 

Junior high schools, 291-292, 318 

Number in, 89, 90, 155-156, 174, 291, 314- 

321, 322-327 
Officers, 257, 310 

Per cent of, 21-23, 30-31, 89-90, 155-156, 
172-173, 291, 322-327 

Summary of, 291-292 

Summer school: 

Colored teachers, 176-177 

White elementary teachers, 54-55 

White high school teachers, 117-118 

Auxiliary agencies, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 220-223, 225, 227, 230-233, 309, 
312 

Colored, 187-190, 320-321 
White elementary, 69, 71-73, 74, 225, 227 
314-317 

White high, 137, 139, 142-146, 225, 227. 
318, 319 

B 

Badge tests, entrants and winners: 
Colored, 196-197, 305 
White, 205-209, 302 

Baltimore City schools: 
Budgets, 217-218 

Capital outlay, 81, 147, 191, 217-218, 222, 
236-238, 309, 313, 314, 318-321 



334 



Index 



335 



B — (Continued) 

Baltimore City schools — (Continued) 

Colored, 50-51, 170-175, 204, 213, 320-321, 
327 

Enrollment, 19, 20, 33, 89, 152-153, 160, 
169-170, 285-288, 327 

Evening, 213-214, 312 

Expenditures, 217-220, 309 314, 318-321 

Graduates, 93, 94, 100, 103, 170 

High schools, 88-94, 97, 100, 120-121, 123, 
127-128, 130-131, 132-133, 138-139, 
147, 170, 172, 173-174, 175, 318, 319, 321, 
327 

Occupations of graduates, 100, 102-103 
Special classes, 50-51 

Teacher turnover, 57-58, 120-121, 179-180, 
299 

Vocational program, 214, 228-229 

Belonging, average number, 290, 300 
By months, 23, 89, 155-156 
Colored schools, 155-156, 170, 172, 290, 
| 320-321, 322-327 

Elementary schools, white, 23, 290, 314-317 
High schools, white, 89, 290, 318, 319, 

322-327 
Per teacher, 300 

Colored, 183-184, 300, 321 

White elementary, 60-62, 300 

White high, 129-131, 300 
Proportion in high school, 90-92, 170, 172 

Board of Educaton, 

Legislation regarding activities of county 

members, 260 
State, 2 

Bonds outstanding, 238-239 

Books and instructional materials, 5, 13, 220- 
223, 307, 311 
Colored, 320, 321 

White elementary, 68-70, 225, 227, 314-317 
White high, 137, 139, 142, 225, 227, 318, 319 

Boys to girls: 

Census, 14-15, 149 

Grade enrollment, 31-32, 109, 111-112, 159, 
161 

Graduates, 35-37, 92-94, 161-163, 173-174, 
322-527 

Non-promotions, 38-43, 112-115, 163-168, 
293 

Overageness, 41-42 

Ratio in high schools, 92, 93 

Budgets: 

County, 9-13, 217-223, 244-249, 308 
Reduction in, 9-13, 217-223, 244-249 
State public school, 280 



B — (Continued) 

Buildings: 

Cost, 235-238 

Colored schools, 190-193, 235-236, 238, 
320-321 

White elementary, 69, 80-81, 235-236, 

238, 314-317 
White high, 139, 146-147, 235-236, 238, 
318, 319 
Number of, 284 
Sanitary inspection of, 79 
Value of, 190, 193, 239-242 

C 

Capital outlay, total and per pupil, 217-218, 
222-223, 235-238, 309, 313 
Colored schools, 190-191, 235-236, 238, 
320-321 

White elementary schools, 69, 80-81, 235- 

236, 238, 314-317 
White high schools, 139, 146-147, 235-236, 

238, 318, 319 

Causes of: 
Absence, 29 

Late entrance, 25-27, 157-158 
Non-promotions, 44-46, 166 
Resignations of teachers, 55-56, 119-120, 
177-178 

Teacher turnover, 55-56, 119-120, 177-178 
Withdrawals, 27-29, 158-159 

Census, 1932: 

Colored, 149-152 
White, 14-18 

Census and Attendance Fund, 280, 281, 307 

Certificates, 260-263, 295-298 
Attendance officer, 261 
Elementary principals, 261 
Medical examinations for, 7, 262, 279, 280 
New regulations re, 262-263 
Number issued, 260-262 
Provisional, 116, 176, 261-262, 295-298 
Substitutes, 295, 298 
Teachers and principals: 

Colored schools, 175-176, 298 

Non-public schools, 261 

White elementary schools, 51-53, 261- 
262, 295-296 

White high schools, 116, 261-262, 297 

Classes: 

Evening school, 213-215 

Size of, 300 

Colored, 183-184, 300, 302, 321 
White elementary, 60-62, 300 
White high, 129-131, 300 

Special for handicapped, 48-51 



336 

C — (Continued) 
Clerks, 116, 310, 319 

Colleges: 

Attended for summer courses, 54-55, 117-118, 
176-177 

Graduates entering Maryland Colleges, 99, 
101 

Per cent of high school graduates entering, 

98-102, 174-175 
Training Maryland teachers, 122-123, 180, 

182 

Colored schools, 149-204, 298, 305-306, 320-321 
Aid, 7, 189,. 190, 192, 280, 281, 283, 307 
Attendance, 155-157, 170, 172-173 
Baltimore City, 50-51, 170-175, 204, 213, 

320-321, 327 
Capital outlay, 190-191, 236, 238, 320-321 
Census, 149-152 
Cost per pupil in, 187-188, 226 
Graduates of, 161-163, 170 
Late entrants, 157-158 
Libraries, 189-190 
Men teachers in, 182, 294 
Neatness- and cleanliness contests in, 197-198 
Non-promotions in, 163-166, 167-168 
Normal school, 173-174, 202-204, 322-327 
Number enrolled, 152-154, 159-161, 169-172, 

285, 322-333 
Number of, 169, 193-195 
Overageness, 166-169 
Parent-Teacher Associations, 198-199 
Physical education, 174, 196-197, 305-306 
Rosenwald Fund, 189, 190, 192, 283, 308 
Session, 153-154, 292 
Size of class, 183-184, 300, 321 
Size of, 193-196 
Supervision, 199, 202, 320 
Survival of pupils, 163, 164 
Teachers, 294, 298, 320-321, 322-327 

Certification, 175-176, 298 

Experience, 181-182 

Resignations,, 177-178 

Salaries,- 170-171, 184-187, 301, 320-321 

Summer school attendance, 176-177 

Training, 175-176, 180, 182 

Turnover, 177-180, 299 
Transportation of pupils, 187-189, 233-234 
Value of school property, 190, 192, 240-242 
Withdrawals, 158-159 

Commercial subjects: 

Enrollment taking, 103-105, 109-110, 328- 

333 

Failures and withdrawals 112-114 
Schools having, 103, 115, 328-333 
Teachers of, 115 



Index 

C— (Continued) 

Conferences, programs of, 
High school principals, 148 
Superintendents, 258-260 
Supervisors, 87, 148, 199 

Consolidation: 

Decrease in number of one-teacher schools, 

82-85, 193-195 
Schools closed, 284 

Transportation of pupils, 71-72 , 142-144 
187-189, 230-235 



Cost per pupil, 223-227 

Capital outlay: 
White elementary, 69, 80 
White high, 139, 146 

! Current expenses, 225-227 

Colored schools, 187-188, 226 

Auxiliary agencies: 

White elementary, 69> 71-73, 74, 225, 

227 ■ <■'.<>■'> '•^•'•"^ 

White high, 137, 139, 142- 144, 146, 225, 
227 

Books and materials of instruction: 
White elementary, 68-70, 225, 227 
White high, 137, 139, 142, 225,-227 . 

Elementary schools, white, 67-73, 74, 
79-80 225-227 
By type, 79-80, 226 

General control, 225-226 

Health activities: 

White elementary, 72, 74 
White high, 143, 146 

High schools, white, 137-144, 146, 225- 
227, 322-327 

Instruction: 

White elementary, 67-70, 225, 227 
White high, 137, 139-142, 225, 227 

Libraries, 72-73 143-144 

Maintenance: 

White elementary, 68-71, 225, 227 
White high, 137, 139, 142, 225, 227 

Normal schools: 
Colored, 203-204 
White, 273-276 

Operation: 

White elementary, 68-70, 225, 227 
White high, 137, 139, 142, 225, 227 



Index 



337 



C — (Continued) 
Ccst per pupil, current expenses — (continued) 
Salaries: 

White elementary, 67-70, 225, 227 
White high, 137, 139-142, 225, 227 
Excluding Federal vocational aid, 
140-142 
Supervision, 69-70 
Transported, 230-233 
Colored, 187-188 
White elementary, 71-72 
White high, 143-144 



Costs (See also expenditures): 217-220, 309-313 
Capital outlay, 69, 80-81, 139, 146-147, 
190-193, 217-218, 235-238, 309, 313, 
314-321 

Colored schools, 184-188, 190-193, 281, 283, 
320-321 

Debt service, 244-245, 248, 249, 309, 313 
Elementary schools, white, 314-317 
Evening schools, 214, 312 
General control, 309-310 
Health, 72, 143, 312 

High schools, white, 137-144, 146, 281, 316 

Instruction, 309, 311, 314-321 

Junior high schools, 318 

Libraries, 72, 143, 312 

Maintenance, 309, 312, 314, 321 

Normal schools, 203-204, 273-276, 280, 

281-282 
Operation, 309, 311, 314-321 
Supervision, 220-223, 211, 314, 320 
Total current expenses, 217-227, 309, 314- 

321 

Transportation, 71-72, 142-144, 187-188, 

230-233, 312 
Vocational education, 140-142, 227-229, 

280, 281, 283 

County: 

Assessments, 7-8, 238-239, 249-251 

Budgets, 9-13, 244-249 

Residents attending adjoining county 

schools, 243-244 
Tax rates, 8-13, 250, 252-253 

Courses: 

Extension, 55, 117, 280, 283 

In high school, 103-112, 174, 322-327 

Current expenses, expenditures and cost per 

pupil, 217-227, 309 
Colored schools, 187-188, 320-321 
White elementary school, 67-73, 74, 79-80- 

225, 227, 314-317 
White high schools, 137-144, 146, 225, 227, 

318, 319 



D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools: 
Colored, 153-154 
White, 20-21 

Days in session, 5, 292 
Colored schools, 153-154 
White schools, 20-21 

Debt service, 11, 12, 244-245, 248-249, 309, 313 

Decrease in school salary budgets, 11-13, 245 
247 

Dental clinics, 78 

Disbursements, 217-218, 281-283, 309-321 

Distribution of expenditures, 220-223, 281-283, 
309-321 
Colored schools, 320-321 
White schools, 314-319 

Division of school dollar, 220-223 
E 

Elementary schools: 
Colored: 

Attendance, 155, 157, 291, 292, 320 
Certification of teachers, 175-176, 298 
Consolidation, 193-195 
Cost per pupil, 187-188, 226 
Enrollment, 152-154, 159-161, 285-289 
Expenditures, 320 
Graduates, 161-163 
Late entrants, 157-158 
Non-promotions, 163-168 
Number belonging, 155, 290, 320 
Number of teachers, 176, 178-180. 181- 

182, 193-195, 294, 320 
Overageness, 166-169 
Salaries, 184-187, 301, 320 
Session in, 153-154, 292 
Size of class, 183-184, 300 
Withdrawals, 158-159 
White: 

Attendance, 21-25, 29, 30-31, 291-292, 
314-317 

Books and materials, 68-70, 225, 227 
Certification of teachers, 51-53, 295-296 
Consolidation, 82-85 

Cost per pupil, 67-73, 74, 79-80, 225, 227 

Enrollment, 19-20, 31-34, 285-289 

Expenditures, 71-72, 314-317 

Failures, 38-46, 293 

Graduates, 35-37 

Health program, 73-74, 75-79 

Late entrants, 25-27, 30-31 

Libraries, 72-74, 225, 227 



338 



Index 



E — (Continued) 
Elementary Schools: 
White — (Continued) 

Men teachers, 66-67, 294 
Non-promotions, 38-46, 293 
Number belonging, 23, 290, 314-3J7 
Number of, 80, 82-85, 284 
Overageness, 38-39, 40, 42-44 
Pupil-teacher ratio, 60-62, 300 
Sessions, length of, 20-21 
Size of, 80, 82-85 
Size of class in, 60-62, 300 
Special classes, 48-51 
Standard tests, 47-48 
Supervision, 69-70, 85-87, 314 
Survival of pupils, 32, 34-35 
Teachers: 

Certification, 51-53, 261-262, 295-296 
Experience, 58-60 
Number of, 80, 82, 85, 294 
Resignations, 55-56 
Salaries, 62 66, 301, 314-317 
Sex of, 66-67, 294 
Summer school attendance, 54-55 
Turnover, 55-58, 299 
Tests, 47-48 

Transportation, 71-72, 225, 227, 230-235 
Withdrawals, 27-29, 30-31 

English: 

Enrollment taking, 103-105, 109, 111-112, 

174, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Schools havings, 103, 115, 328-333 
Teachers, 115 



Enrollment, 285-289 

Colored, 152-154, 159-161, 169-172, 174, 175, 

285-289, 322-333 
Course, 174, 322-327 

Elementary white, 19-20, 31-34, 285-289 
Grade, 31-34, 159-161, 322-327 
High school, white, 31-34, 88-89, 103-112, 
136-137, 285-289 
Courses, 322-327 
Subjects, 103-112, 328-333 
Years, 31-34, 111 112, 322-327 
Non-public schools, 19-20, 88-89, 154, 286- 
289 

Normal schools, 202, 204, 267, 270 

Private and parochial schools, 19 20, 88-89, 

154, 286-289 
Public schools, 285 
Subject, 103-112, 174, 328-333 
Summer schools, teachers, 54-55, 137-118, 

176 177 
Total, 285 



E — (Continned) 

Entrants: 

Athletic events: 

Colored, 196-197, 305-306 

White, 205-210, 302-304 
Colored: 

Late, 157-158 
Normal, school, 173-174, 322-327 
White: 

College and normal school, 96-102 

Late, 25-27, 30-31 

Normal schools, 96-98, 322-327 

Equalization Fund, 5, 7, 9-11, 219-220 , 280 , 
281, 307 

Evening schools and courses, 213-215, 312 

Expenditures, 217-220, 309-313 

Auxiliary agencies, 71-72, 74, 143-144, 146, 

309, 312, 314-321 
Capital outlay, 80-81, 146-147, 190-191, 217- 

218, 235-238, 309, 313-321 
Colored schools, 320-321 
Current expenses, 217-220, 309-312, 314-321 
Debt service, 244-245, 248, 249, 309, 313 
Distribution of, 220-223, 309-321 
Elementary schools, white, 71-72, 74, 80-81 , 

314-317 
Evening schools, 214-215, 312 
Extra-curricular activities, 199, 201, 256-257 
Fixed charges, 309, 312 
General control, 309, 310 
Health, 72, 74, 142, 143, 146, 312 
High schools, white, 319 
Instruction, 309, 311. 314-321 
Junior high schools, 318 
Libraries, 72-73, 142, 143-144, 312 
Maintenance, 309, 312, 314-321 
Normal schools, 203-204, 273, 276, 280, 281- 

282 

Operation, 309, 311, 314-321 
Salaries, 62-66, 131-136, 184, 187, 310, 311, 
314-321 

State Department of Education, 281-283 
Supervision, 311, 314, 318-320 
Transportation, 71-72, 142, 143-144, 187- 

188, 230-233, 312 
Tuition to adjoining counties, 309, 313 
Vocational work, 140-141, 227-229, 281, 283 

Experience of teachers, 58-60, 124-125, 181-182 

Extension courses, 55, 117, 283 

Extra-curricular activities financing, 199, 200- 
201, 254-257 



Index 



339 



F 

Failures: 
Causes, 44-46, 166 
Colored schools, 163-166, 167-168 
Grade, 42-43, 167-168, 293 
High school subjects, 112-115 
White elementary schools, 38-46 

Families, number of children in, 20 

Financial statements: 
County 307-321 
State, 281-283 

Financing extra-curricular activities, 199, 200, 
254, 255, 257 

Fixed charges, 221, 222, 309, 312 

French : 

Enrollment taking, 103 105, 107, 109, 174, 
328-333 

Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 

G 

General control, 221-223, 225-227, 309-310 

General course, high school, 174, 322-327 

Grade or year: 
Number enrolled: 

Colored schools, 159-161, 322-327 

White schools, 31-34, 109, 111-112, 322-327 
Overageness: 

Colored schools, 168-169 

White schools, 42-44 
Promotions: 

Colored schools, 167-168 

White elementary schools, 42-43, 293 
Survival of pupils : 

Colored schools, 163-164 

White schools, 32, 34-35 

Graduates: 
Colored: 

Elementary schools, 161-163 

Entering normal school, 173-174, 322-327 

High school, 173-175, 322 327 

Normal school, 203 

Occupations, 174-175 
White: 

Elementary school, 35-37 

Entering normal school, 96-98, 267-271, 
322-327 

High school, 92-94, 96-103, 322-327 
Normal school, 263-267 
Occupations, 98-103 

Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries, 88-89, 136-137, 170-171 



H 

Handicapped children, 48-51, 280, 281 

Health : 

Colored schools, 197-198 
Cost: 

White elementary schools, 72, 74 
White high schools, 142, 143, 146 
State Department of, 75-79, 197-198 

High schools: 
Approved, 126-128, 169, 281, 322-333 
Colored: 

Attendance, 170, 172-173, 291, 292, 321, 
322-327 

Cost per pupil, 187, 226, 322-327 
Enrollment, 169-170, 171, 174, 285-289, 

322-333 
Expenditures, 171, 321 
Graduates, 170, 173-175, 322 327 
Number belonging, 170, 290, 321, 322-327 
Number of, 126-128, 169, 195, 284, 322-333 
Ratio of high to total enrollment, 170, 172 
Size of class, 184, 300, 321 
State aid, 7, 322-327 

Statistics of individual schools, 322-333 
Subjects taught, 174, 328-333 
Teachers' certification, 176, 298 
Teachers' salaries, 170-171, 185-187, 301, 
321 

Teachers in, 170-171, 176, 179-180, 195, 

294, 299, 322-327 
Junior and junior-senior, 116, 117-118, 119- 

121, 122-123, 124, 318 
State aid to, 7, 140, 142, 280, 281, 307, 322- 

327 
White: 

Attendance, 89-90, 291, 292, 319, 322-327 
Books and materials, 137, 139, 142, 225, 

227, 319 
Capital outlay, 146-147, 319 
Classes, size of, 130-131, 300 
Clerks, 116 

Cost per pupil, 137-144, 146, 225-227, 

322-327 
Courses, 103-112, 322-327 
Distribution of, 126-128 
Enrollment, 31-34, 88-89, 103-112, 118, 

129-130, 136-137, 285-289, 322-333 
Expenditures, 319 
Failures, 112-115 
Graduates, 90-103, 322-327 

Entering normal school, 96-98 
Growth in enrollment, teachers, salaries, 

88-89, 136-137 
Libraries, 142-146 
Location, 126-128 
Men teaching in, 124, 126, 294 



340 



Index 



H— (Continued) 

High Schools: 
White — (Continued) 

Number belonging, 290, 319, 322-327 
Number of each group, 126-128 
Number of, 126-128, 284 
Number offering subjects, 103, 115-116, 
328-333 

Occupations of graduates, 96-103 
Persistence to graduation, 92, 95-96 
Promotions, 112-115 
Proportion of enrollment in, 90-92 
Ratio of boys to girls, 92-93 
Requirements for each group, 126, 128 
Resignation of teachers, 119-120 
Session, length of, 19-20, 292 
Size of classes, 129-131, 300 
Size of enrollment, 129-130 
Size of teaching staff, 128-129 
Special subjects, 103-105, 109, 328-333 
State aid, 7, 140-142, 322-327 
Statistics, individual schools, 322-333 
Subjects available, 103-112, 328-333 
Supervision, 146, 148 
Survival of pupils, 32, 34-35 
Teachers, 115-116, 136-137, 294, 297, 319, 
322-327 

Attending summer school, 117-118 
Certification, 116, 261-262, 297 
Experience, 124-125 
For each subject, 115-116 
Salaries, 131-137, 139-142, 301, 319 
Subjects studied and taught by inex- 
perienced, 123-124 
Turnover, 119-121, 299 
Transportation, 142-144, 230-235 
Vocational work, 103-105, 109, 140-142, 
328-333 

Withdrawals by subject, 112-115 

Holding power of schools, 30-35, 92, 95-96, 159- 
164, 322-327 

Home Economics: 
Cost, 135, 140-142 

Enrollment, 103-105, 109, 142, 174, 328-333 
Schools having, 103, 115-116, 328-333 
Teachers, 115-116 



I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 247-249 

Index of school attendance, 30-31 

Industrial courses, 103-105, 109, 115-116, 142, 
174, 328-333 



I — (Continued) 

Instruction, expenditures and cost per pupil 

220-223, 309, 311 
Colored schools, 320-321 
Normal schools, 203-204, 273-276 
White elementary schools, 62-66, 67-70 225 

227, 314-317 
White high schools, 137, 139-142, 225 227 

319 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools: 
Expenditures, 318 
Growth, 118 
Teachers: 

Certification, 116, 297 

Experience, 124-125 

Resignations, 119-120 

Salaries, 132-134, 318 

Turnover, 119-121, 299 

E 

Kindergarten enrollment, 31, 34, 163 
L 

Languages in high school: 

Enrollment, 103-105, 107, 109, 174, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 

Late entrance, 25-27, 30-31, 157-158 

Latin: 

Enrollment taking, 103-105, 107, 109, 174, 
328-333 

Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 

Length of session, 20-21, 153-154, 292 

Libraries, 312 

Colored schools, 189-190 
White elementary schools, 72-74 
White high schools; 142-146 

Library Advisory Commission, 73-74, 144-146 » 
189-190 

M 

Maintenance, expenditures and cost per pupil, 

220-223, 309, 312 
Colored schools, 320-321 
White elementary schools, 68-71, 225, 227, 

314-317 

White high schools, 137, 139, 142, 225, 227, 
319 

Materials of instruction and books, expendi- 
tures and cost per pupil, 220-223, 311 



Index 



341 



M — (.Continued) 
Materials and Books — (continued) 
Colored, 320-321 

White elementary, 68-70, 225, 227, 314-317 
White high, 137, 139, 142, 225, 227, 319 

Mathematics: 

Enrollment taking, 103-105, 107-108, 174, 
328-333 

Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 

Medical examinations: 
Pupils, 75-78, 211 
Teachers, 7, 262, 279 

Men teachers, 66-67, 124, 126, 182, 294 

Monthly attendance, 23, 90, 155-156 

Music: 

Enrollmertt taking, 103-105, 109, 174, 328- 
333 

Teachers, 115-116 

N 

Neatness and cleanliness contests in colored 
schools, 197-198 

New high schcols, 126-128 

New 1933 legislation, 260 

County boards to advertise for bids, 260 
Minimum levy required for schools, 10-13, 

251-252, 260 
Salaries, 5, 7, 64, 135, 186-187, 257-258, 260 
Summer school, 54, 117, 176, 262-263 
Supervisors, number, 85, 260 
Tuition charges at normal schools, 97, 260, 

267 

New positions, number of, 56-58, 120-121, 178- 
180, 299 

Night schools, 213-215, 312 

Non-promotions : 

By grade, 42-43, 167-168, 293 
Causes, 44-46, 166 
Colored schools, 163-166 167-168 
White elementary schools, 38-46, 293 
White high schools, 112-115 

Normal schools, 202-204, 263-276, 282 
Budget, 280, 281-282 
Colored, 202-204, 282 

Financial statement, 203-204, 273-276, 281- 
282 

White, 263-276 

Costs, 273-276, 282 



N — ( Continued) 
Normal schools, white — (Continued) 
Enrollment, 267-271 
Entrants, 96-98, 268, 271, 322-327 
Faculty, 272 
Graduates, 263-267 
Inventories, 276 
Training centers, 273 
Tuition charges, 97, 260, 267 
Withdrawal of freshmen, 271-272 

Number belonging, 290 

Colored schools, 155-156, 170, 172, 290, 320- 

321, 322, 327 
Elementary schools, white, 23, 290, 314-317 
High schools, white, 290, 319, 322-327 
Per teacher, 60-62, 129-131, 183-184,300, 321 
Proportion in high school, 90-92, 170, 172 

Number of: 

High schools, 126-128, 169, 195, 284 
Schools by size, 80, 82-85, 128-131, 193-196, 

284, 322-327 
Schools having transportation, 234-235 
Supervisors, 85, 86, 146, 148, 199, 202, 294 
Teachers in schools of each type, 294 
Colored, 170-171, 193-196, 294, 298 
White elementary, 80, 82-85, 294, 295-296 
White high, 115-116, 128-131, 136-137, 
294, 297, 322-327 

Nurses, county health, 75-78 

Nursing, occupation of graduates, 98-100, 174- 
175 

O 

Occupations of high school graduates, 96-103, 
174-175 

One-teacher schools: 

Attendance, 22-25, 29, 291, 292, 315 
Cost per pupil, 79-80, 226 
Decrease in, 80, 82-85, 193-195 
Enrollment, 32 
Expenditures, 315 
Graduates, 36 
Late entrants, 25-26 
Non-promotions, 40-43 
Number of, 80, 82-85, 193-195, 284 
Salaries, 65-66, 301, 315 
Size of class in, 61-62, 300 
Teachers, 53, 58-60, 80, 82, 85, 193-195, 296, 
315 

Withdrawals, 28 

Opening dates of schools, 20-21, 153-154 

Operation expenditures and cost per pupil, 220- 
223, 309, 311 



342 



Index 



O — (.Continued) 
Operation Cost — (Continued) 
Colored schools, 320-321 
White elementary, 68-70, 225, 227, 314-317 
White high, 137, 139, 142, 225, 227, 319 

Overageness: 

Colored, 166-169 
White, 38-39, 40, 42-44 

Overage pupils, reduction in, 38-39, 40, 42-44, 
166-169 

P 

Parent-teacher associations 198-199, 253-254 

Parochial and private schools, 19-20, 88-89, 
154, 286-289 

Part-payment of salaries, 7, 10, 258, 280, 281, 
307 

Persistence to high school graduation, 92, 95-96 

Physical Education, 196-197, 205-212, 280, 

281, 320-306 
Activities, 196-197, 205-210, 302-306 
Badge tests, 196-197, 205-209, 302, 305 
Expenditures, 211-212, 280, 281, 283 
High school subject, 103-105, 109, 115-116, 

174, 328-333 
Playground Athletic League, 196-197, 205- 

212, 302-306 
Teachers of, 115-116 

Physical examinations: 

Pupils, 75-78, 211 

Teachers, 7, 262, 280, 281 
Playground Athletic League: 

Activities, 196-197, 205-210, 302-306 

Administration, 211-212 

Appropriation, 211, 280, 281, 283 

Expenditures, 211-212, 283 

Preparation of teachers, 260-263, 295-298 
Colored, 175-176, 180, 182, 298 
White elementary schools, 51-53, 261-262, 
295-296 

White high schools, 116, 122-123, 261-262, 
297 

Principals of normal schools, 2, 272 

Private and parochial schools, 19-20, 88-89, 
154, 286-289 

Programs of conferences, 87, 148, 199, 258-260 

Promotions: 

Colored schools, 163-166, 167-168 
White elementary schools, 38-46, 293 
White high schools, 112-115 



P— (Continued) 

Property: 

Valuation, county, 7-8, 238-239, 249-251 
Valuation, school, 190, 193, 239-242 

Provisional certificates, 116, 176, 261-262, 295- 
298 

Pupils: 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 243- 
244 

Non-public school, 19-20, 88-89, 154, 286-289 
One-teacher schools, 83-85 193-195, 285, 290 
Per teacher, 300 

Colored, 183-184, 321 

White elementary, 60-62 

White high, 129-131 
Public school, 285, 290 
Transported, 230-234 

Colored, 187-189 

White elementary, 71-72 

White high, 142-144 

R 

Ratio of boys to girls in high school, 92, 93 

Ratio of high school to total attendance and 
enrollment, 90-92, 170, 172 

Receipts from: 
All sources, 308 

Extra-curricular activities, 199, 200, 254- 
255, 257 

Federal Government, 140-142, 214, 227-229, 
307 

Rosenwald Fund, 189, 190, 192, 283, 308 
State, 5, 10, 141, 217-220, 228, 260, 278-283, 

307-308,322-327 
State sources, 10, 249, 278-279, 280-283, 

307-308 

Reduction in: 

County budgets, 9-13, 244-249 
School salary budgets, 245-247 

Rehabilitation, vocational, 7, 215-217, 280, 
281, 283 

Required length of session, 20-21, 153-154 

Resignations of teachers, 55-56, 119-120, 117, 
177-178 

Retardation: 

By grade, 42-43, 167-168, 293 
Causes, 44-46, 166 
Colored schools, 163-166, 167-168 
White elementary schools, 38-46, 293 
White high schools, 112-115 



Index 



343 



R — (Continued) 

Retirement System, Teachers', 277-279, 802 
281 

Rosenwald Fund, 189, 190, 192, 283, 308 
Rural schools, decrease in, 82-85, 193-195 
S 

Salaries: 

Legislation re, 7, 64, 135, 186-187, 257-260 

Superintendents, 257-260, 310 

Supervisors, 257, 311 

Teachers, 220-223, 301, 311 
Colored, 184-187, 320-321 
Whte elementary, 62-66, 314-317 
White high, 131-137, 319 

Salary cost per white pupil, 67-70, 137, 139-141, 
214, 216, 225, 227 

Sanitary inspection of buildings, 79 

School: 

Bonds, 238-239 

Budgets, 217-223, 244-249, 279-280. 308 

Tax dollar, 220-223 

Year, length, 20-21, 153-154, 292 

Schools: 

Closed, 82-85, 193-195, 284 

Distribution by number of teachers: 
Colored, 193-196, 284 
White elementary, 80, 82-85, 284 
White high, 128-129, 284, 322-327 
Normal, 202-204, 263-276 

Evening, 213-215, 312 

Number, 284 

Colored, 169, 193-195 
One-teacher, 80, 82-85, 193-195 
White elementary, 80, 82-85 
White high, 126-128 

Offering certain subjects, 103-112, 115-116, 
174, 328-333 

Open less than legal requirement, 20-21, 153- 
154 

Parochial and private, 19-20, 88-89, 154, 
286-289 

Property valuation of, 190, 193, 239-242 
Size of, 80, 82-85, 128-130, 193-196 
Summer, 54-55, 117-118, 176-177 
Legislation re, 54, 117, 176, 263 
Transportation provided to, 234-235 

Science: 

Enrollment taking, 103-105, 107-108, 174, 
328-333 

Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 



S— (Continued) 
Session, length, 20-21, 153-154, 292 

Sex of teachers, 66-67, 124, 126, 182, 294 

Size of: 

Classes, 300 

Colored, 183-184, 321 

White elementary, 60-62 

White high, 129-131 
Families, 20 
Schools: 

Colored, 193-196 

White elementary, 80, 82-85 

White high, 128-130, 322-327 

Social Studies: 

Enrollment taking 103-107, 174, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 

Special- 

Classes for handicapped, 48-51, 280, 281 
High school teachers, 115-116, 322-327 
Subjects in high school, 103-105, 109, 174, 
328-333 
Standardized tests, 47-48 

State, 

Aid, 7, 9-13, 53, 70, 140-142, 217-220, 

228-229, 279-280, 281-283 307-308, 322- 
327 

Board of Education, 2, 281, 283 

Department of: 

Education, 2, 7, 146, 148, 280, 281, 283 
Health, 75-79, 197-198 
Economy Program, 7-13, 146, 148 
Public School Budget, 7, 10-13, 280, 281- 
283 

Statistical tables, 284-333 

Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping: 

Enrollment taking, 103-105, 109-110, 328- 
333 

Failures and withdrawals, 112-114 
Teachers, 115 

Subjects: 

Studied and taught by inexperienced high 

school teachers, 123-124 
Studied in high schools, 103-112, 174, 328-333 

Summer schools: 
Attendance: 

Colored teachers, 176-177 
White elementary teachers, 54-55 
White high school teachers, 117-118 
Attended by teachers, 54-55, 117-118, 176- 
177 



344 



Index 



S — (Continued) 
Summer Schools — (Continued) 

Legislation re attendance for certification, 
54, 117, 176, 262-263 

Superintendents, 3, 257-260, 310 

Supervision: 

Colored, 199, 202, 320 

Cost, 69-70, 220-223, 224, 226, 311, 314, 
319-321 

White elementary, 69-70, 85-87, 314 
White high, 146, 148, 319 
Supervisors, 3, 261, 294 

Activities, 85-87, 146, 148, 199, 202 

Colored, 199, 202, 294 

Conferences, 87, 148, 199 

Elementary schools, white, 2, 3, 69-70, 85- 

87, 261, 294 
High school, 2, 3, 146, 148 
Quota, 85-87, 260, 294 
Salaries, 257, 311, 314, 319-321 

Survival of pupils: 
Colored, 163, 164 
White, 32, 34-35 

T 

Tables of statistics, 281-283, 284-333 

Taxable basis, 7-8, 238-239, 249-251 

Tax rates, 8-9, 12-13, 250, 252-253 
Reduction of, 8-9, 12-13 

Teacher-pupil ratio, 300 
Colored, 183-184, 321 
White elementary, 60-62 
White high, 129-131 

Teacher (s): 

Attending summer school, 54-55, 117-118, 

176-177 
Certification: 

Colored, 175-176, 298 

White elementary, 51-53, 261-262,295-296 
White high, 116, 261-262, 297 
White junior and junior-senior high, 116, 
297 

Changing type of position in county, 58 
Experience, 58-bO, 124-125, 181-182 
Men, proportion of, 66-67, 124, 126, 182, 294 
Number, 294 

For each high school subject, 115-116* 
In schools of each type, 294 

Colored, 170-171, 193-196, 294, 320-321 
White elementary, 80, 82-85, 294-296, 
314-317 

White high, 128, 294, 297, 319, 322-327 
Total, 294 



T— (Continued) 

Teacher (s) — (continued) 

Of certain high school subjects, 115-116 
Pupils per, 300 

Colored, 183-184, 321 

White elementary, 60-62 

White high, 129-131 
Resignation of, 55-56, 119-120, 177-178 
Retirement of, 55-56, 119-120, 177-178, 278 
Salaries 301 

Colored, 184-187, 320-321 

White elementary, 62-66, 314-317 

White high, 131-137, 319 

White junior and junior-senior high 132 
134, 318 
Sex of, 66-67, 124, 126, 182, 294 
Special, 115-116, 322-327 
Teaching load, 300 

Colored, 183-184, 321 

White elementary, 60-62 

White high, 129-131 
Training of, 295-298 

Colored, 175-176, 180, 182, 202-204, 298 

White elementary, 51-53, 260-276, 295-296 

White high, 116, 122-123, 260-263, 297 
Turnover of, 55-58, 119-121, 177-J80, 299 

Teachers' Retirement System, 2, 277-279, 280, 
281 

Tests: 

Athletic badge: 

Colored, 196-197, 305 

White, 205-209, 302 
Elementary school, '47-48 

Trade and industry, courses in, 103-105, 109, 
115-116, 140-142, 174, 328-333 

Training centers for normal schools, 203, 273 

Training of teachers: 

At particular colleges, 122-123, 180, 182 
Colored, 175-176, 180, 182, 202-204, 298 
White elementary, 51-53, 260-276, 295-296 
White high, 116, 122-123, 260-263, 297 

Transfer of teachers from county to county, 
55-57, 119-121, 178-180 

Transportation of pupils, 230-235 
Colored, 187-189, 233-234 
Cost, 71-72, 142-144, 187-188, 230-233, 312 
Per cent transported, 71-72, 143-144, 188- 

189, 233-234 
Type of vehicle used, 234 
White elementary, 71-72 
White high, 142-144 



Index 



345 



(T— Continued) 

Tuition: 

Charge normal schools, 97, 260, 267 
To adjoining counties, 309, 313 

Turnover in teaching staff, 299 
Colored, 177-180 
White elementary, 55-58 
White high school, 119-121 

V 

Value of: 

County assessable property, 7-8, 238-239, 
249-251 

School property, 190, 193, 239-242 

Vocational rehabilitation, 7, 215-217, 280, 281, 
283 

Vocational work, 140-142, 214-216, 227-229, 

280, 281, 283 
Agriculture, 103-105, 109, 140-142, 174, 228, 

229, 328-333 
Baltimore City, 228-229 
Cost of, 134-135, 140-142, 214-215, 216, 227- 

229, 280, 281, 283 



V— (Continued) 
Vocational work — (Continued) 
Evening schools, 214 

Home economics, 103-105, 109, 140-142, 174, 

228, 229, 328-333 
Industrial courses, 103-105, 109, 140-142, 

174, 228, 229, 328-333 
Rehabilitation of handicapped, 7, 215-217, 

280, 281, 283 

Vocations chosen by high school graduates, 
96-103. 174-175 

W 

White Schools — See elementary schools, white 
and see high schools, white 

Withdrawals of pupils: 
Colored, 158-159 

Normal school freshmen, 271-272 
White elementary, 27-29, 30-31 
White high, 112-115 

Y 

Year, length of, 20-21, 153-154, 292 

Years of experience, 58-60, 124-125, 181-182 



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